tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-21582584025275660272014-10-01T21:27:42.348-07:00freshers guideFRESHERhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/03154154368670178574noreply@blogger.comBlogger13125tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-2158258402527566027.post-13138087427916213432007-08-24T23:02:00.000-07:002007-08-24T23:09:49.812-07:00<DIV TYPE="HEADER"> <P align=center> </P></DIV> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <H1 class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: -0.25in"><FONT color=#ff0000>O operating Systems</FONT> </H1> <P class=western align=left><BR></P> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Following are a few basic questions that cover the essentials of OS:</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>Explain the concept of Reentrancy.</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>It is a useful, memory-saving technique for multiprogrammed timesharing systems. A <I>Reentrant Procedure</I> is one in which multiple users can share a single copy of a program during the same period. Reentrancy has 2 key aspects: The program code cannot modify itself, and the local data for each user process must be stored separately. Thus, the permanent part is the code, and the temporary part is the pointer back to the calling program and local variables used by that program. Each execution instance is called <I>activation</I>. It executes the code in the permanent part, but has its own copy of local variables/parameters. The temporary part associated with each activation is the <I>activation record</I>. Generally, the activation record is kept on the stack.</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3><B>Note</B>: A reentrant procedure <I>can</I> be interrupted and called by an interrupting program, and still execute correctly on returning to the procedure.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=2> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>Explain Belady's Anomaly.</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>Also called FIFO anomaly. Usually, on increasing the number of frames allocated to a process' virtual memory, the process execution is faster, because fewer page faults occur. Sometimes, the reverse happens, i.e., the execution time increases even when more frames are allocated to the process. This is Belady's Anomaly. This is true for certain page reference patterns.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=3> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is a binary semaphore? What is its use?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>A binary semaphore is one, which takes only 0 and 1 as values. They are used to implement mutual exclusion and synchronize concurrent processes.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=4> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is thrashing?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>It is a phenomenon in virtual memory schemes when the processor spends most of its time swapping pages, rather than executing instructions. This is due to an inordinate number of page faults.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=5> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>List the Coffman's conditions that lead to a deadlock.</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Mutual Exclusion: Only one process may use a critical resource at a time.</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Hold & Wait: A process may be allocated some resources while waiting for others.</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>No Pre-emption: No resource can be forcible removed from a process holding it.</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Circular Wait: A closed chain of processes exist such that each process holds at least one resource needed by another process in the chain.</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=6> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What are short-, long- and medium-term scheduling?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>Long term scheduler determines which programs are admitted to the system for processing. It controls the <I>degree of multiprogramming</I>. Once admitted, a job becomes a process. </FONT></P> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>Medium term scheduling is part of the swapping function. This relates to processes that are in a blocked or suspended state. They are swapped out of real-memory until they are ready to execute. The swapping-in decision is based on memory-management criteria.</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>Short term scheduler, also know as a <I>dispatcher</I> executes most frequently, and makes the finest-grained decision of which process should execute next. This scheduler is invoked whenever an event occurs. It may lead to interruption of one process by preemption. </FONT></P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=7> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What are turnaround time and response time?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>Turnaround time is the interval between the submission of a job and its completion. Response time is the interval between submission of a request, and the first response to that request.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=8> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What are the typical elements of a process image?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>User data: Modifiable part of user space. May include program data, user stack area, and programs that may be modified. </FONT></P></LI></UL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>User program: The instructions to be executed.</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>System Stack: Each process has one or more LIFO stacks associated with it. Used to store parameters and calling addresses for procedure and system calls.</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Process control Block (PCB): Info needed by the OS to control processes.</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <P class=western style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=9> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is the Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB)?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>In a cached system, the base addresses of the last few referenced pages is maintained in registers called the TLB that aids in faster lookup. TLB contains those page-table entries that have been most recently used. Normally, each virtual memory reference causes 2 physical memory accesses-- one to fetch appropriate page-table entry, and one to fetch the desired data. Using TLB in-between, this is reduced to just one physical memory access in cases of TLB-hit.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=10> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is the resident set and working set of a process?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>Resident set is that portion of the process image that is actually in real-memory at a particular instant. Working set is that subset of resident set that is actually needed for execution. (Relate this to the variable-window size method for swapping techniques.)</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=11> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>When is a system in safe state?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>The set of dispatchable processes is in a safe state if there exists at least one temporal order in which all processes can be run to completion without resulting in a deadlock.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=12> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is cycle stealing?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>We encounter cycle stealing in the context of Direct Memory Access (DMA). Either the DMA controller can use the data bus when the CPU does not need it, or it may force the CPU to temporarily suspend operation. The latter technique is called cycle stealing. Note that cycle stealing can be done only at specific break points in an instruction cycle.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=13> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is meant by arm-stickiness?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>If one or a few processes have a high access rate to data on one track of a storage disk, then they may monopolize the device by repeated requests to that track. This generally happens with most common device scheduling algorithms (LIFO, SSTF, C-SCAN, etc). High-density multisurface disks are more likely to be affected by this than low density ones.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=14> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What are the stipulations of C2 level security?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>C2 level security provides for:</FONT> </P> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Discretionary Access Control</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Identification and Authentication</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Auditing</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Resource reuse</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=15> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is busy waiting?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>The repeated execution of a loop of code while waiting for an event to occur is called busy-waiting. The CPU is not engaged in any real productive activity during this period, and the process does not progress toward completion.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=16> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>Explain the popular multiprocessor thread-scheduling strategies.</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>Load Sharing:</I> Processes are not assigned to a particular processor. A global queue of threads is maintained. Each processor, when idle, selects a thread from this queue. Note that load <I>balancing</I> refers to a scheme where work is allocated to processors on a more permanent basis. </FONT></P></LI></UL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>Gang Scheduling:</I> A set of related threads is scheduled to run on a set of processors at the same time, on a 1-to-1 basis. Closely related threads / processes may be scheduled this way to reduce synchronization blocking, and minimize process switching. Group scheduling predated this strategy.</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>Dedicated processor assignment:</I> Provides implicit scheduling defined by assignment of threads to processors. For the duration of program execution, each program is allocated a set of processors equal in number to the number of threads in the program. Processors are chosen from the available pool.</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>Dynamic scheduling:</I> The number of thread in a program can be altered during the course of execution.</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=17> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>When does the condition 'rendezvous' arise?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>In message passing, it is the condition in which, both, the sender and receiver are blocked until the message is delivered.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=18> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is a trap and trapdoor?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>Trapdoor is a secret undocumented entry point into a program used to grant access without normal methods of access authentication. A trap is a software interrupt, usually the result of an error condition.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=19> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What are local and global page replacements?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>Local replacement means that an incoming page is brought in only to the relevant process' address space. Global replacement policy allows any page frame from any process to be replaced. The latter is applicable to variable partitions model only.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=20> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>Define latency, transfer and seek time with respect to disk I/O.</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>Seek time is the time required to move the disk arm to the required track. Rotational delay or latency is the time it takes for the beginning of the required sector to reach the head. Sum of seek time (if any) and latency is the access time. Time taken to actually transfer a span of data is transfer time. </FONT></P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=21> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>Describe the Buddy system of memory allocation.</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>Free memory is maintained in linked lists, each of equal sized blocks. Any such block is of size 2^k. When some memory is required by a process, the block size of next higher order is chosen, and broken into two. Note that the two such pieces differ in address only in their kth bit. Such pieces are called buddies. When any used block is freed, the OS checks to see if its buddy is also free. If so, it is rejoined, and put into the original free-block linked-list.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=22> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is time-stamping?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>It is a technique proposed by Lamport, used to order events in a distributed system without the use of clocks. This scheme is intended to order events consisting of the transmission of messages. Each system 'i' in the network maintains a counter Ci. Every time a system transmits a message, it increments its counter by 1 and attaches the time-stamp Ti to the message. When a message is received, the receiving system 'j' sets its counter Cj to 1 more than the maximum of its current value and the incoming time-stamp Ti. At each site, the ordering of messages is determined by the following rules: For messages x from site i and y from site j, x precedes y if one of the following conditions holds....(a) if Ti<Tj or (b) if Ti=Tj and i<j.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=23> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>How are the wait/signal operations for monitor different from those for semaphores?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>If a process in a monitor signal and no task is waiting on the condition variable, the signal is lost. So this allows easier program design. Whereas in semaphores, every operation affects the value of the semaphore, so the wait and signal operations should be perfectly balanced in the program.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=24> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>In the context of memory management, what are placement and replacement algorithms?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>Placement algorithms determine where in available real-memory to load a program. Common methods are first-fit, next-fit, best-fit. Replacement algorithms are used when memory is full, and one process (or part of a process) needs to be swapped out to accommodate a new program. The replacement algorithm determines which are the partitions to be swapped out.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=25> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>In loading programs into memory, what is the difference between load-time dynamic linking and run-time dynamic linking?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>For load-time dynamic linking: Load module to be loaded is read into memory. Any reference to a target external module causes that module to be loaded and the references are updated to a relative address from the start base address of the application module. </FONT></P> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>With run-time dynamic loading: Some of the linking is postponed until actual reference during execution. Then the correct module is loaded and linked.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=26> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What are demand- and pre-paging?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>With demand paging, a page is brought into memory only when a location on that page is actually referenced during execution. With pre-paging, pages other than the one demanded by a page fault are brought in. The selection of such pages is done based on common access patterns, especially for secondary memory devices.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=left><BR></P> <OL start=27> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>Paging a memory management function, while multiprogramming a processor management function, are the two interdependent?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>Yes.</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=28> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is page cannibalizing?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>Page swapping or page replacements are called page cannibalizing.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=29> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What has triggered the need for multitasking in PCs?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Increased speed and memory capacity of microprocessors together with the support fir virtual memory and</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Growth of client server computing</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=30> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What are the four layers that Windows NT have in order to achieve independence?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Hardware abstraction layer</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Kernel</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Subsystems</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>System Services.</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <P class=western style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=31> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is SMP?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>To achieve maximum efficiency and reliability a mode of operation known as symmetric multiprocessing is used. In essence, with SMP any process or threads can be assigned to any processor.</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=32> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What are the key object oriented concepts used by Windows NT?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Encapsulation</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Object class and instance</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.54in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=33> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>Is Windows NT a full blown object oriented operating system? Give reasons.</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>No Windows NT is not so, because its not implemented in object oriented language and the data structures reside within one executive component and are not represented as objects and it does not support object oriented capabilities .</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=34> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is a drawback of MVT?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>It does not have the features like </FONT></P> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>ability to support multiple processors</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>virtual storage</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>source level debugging</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <P class=western style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=35> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is process spawning?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>When the OS at the explicit request of another process creates a process, this action is called process spawning.</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=36> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>How many jobs can be run concurrently on MVT?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>15 jobs</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=37> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>List out some reasons for process termination.</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Normal completion</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Time limit exceeded</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Memory unavailable</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Bounds violation</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Protection error</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Arithmetic error</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Time overrun</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>I/O failure</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Invalid instruction</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Privileged instruction</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Data misuse</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Operator or OS intervention</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Parent termination.</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <P class=western style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=38> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What are the reasons for process suspension?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>swapping</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>interactive user request</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>timing</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>parent process request</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <P class=western style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=39> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is process migration?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>It is the transfer of sufficient amount of the state of process from one machine to the target machine</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=40> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is mutant?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>In Windows NT a mutant provides kernel mode or user mode mutual exclusion with the notion of ownership.</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=41> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is an idle thread?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>The special thread a dispatcher will execute when no ready thread is found.</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=42> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is FtDisk?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>It is a fault tolerance disk driver for Windows NT.</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=43> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>What are the possible threads a thread can have?</FONT> </P></LI></OL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Ready</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Standby</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Running </FONT></P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Waiting</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Transition </FONT></P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Terminated.</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=44> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What are rings in Windows NT?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Windows NT uses protection mechanism called rings provides by the process to implement separation between the user mode and kernel mode.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=45> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What is Executive in Windows NT?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><FONT size=3>In Windows NT, executive refers to the operating system code that runs in kernel mode.</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="TEXT-INDENT: 0.5in" align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=46> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What are the sub-components of I/O manager in Windows NT?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <UL> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Network redirector/ Server</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Cache manager.</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>File systems </FONT></P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Network driver</FONT> </P> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>Device driver</FONT> </P></LI></UL> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=47> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What are DDks? Name an operating system that includes this feature.</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>DDks are device driver kits, which are equivalent to SDKs for writing device drivers. Windows NT includes DDks.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <OL start=48> <LI> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3><I>What level of security does Windows NT meets?</I></FONT> </P></LI></OL> <P class=western align=justify><FONT size=3>C2 level security.</FONT> </P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <P class=western align=justify><BR></P> <P class=western style="PAGE-BREAK-BEFORE: always" align=left><BR></P> <DIV TYPE="FOOTER"> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.46in" align=left><SPAN id=Frame1 dir=ltr style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0in; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0in; BACKGROUND: #ffffff; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; WIDTH: 0.31in; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; HEIGHT: 0.15in"></SPAN></P><SPAN id=Frame1 dir=ltr style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0in; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0in; BACKGROUND: #ffffff; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; WIDTH: 0.31in; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; HEIGHT: 0.15in"> <P align=left>1 </P></SPAN><BR> <P> </P></DIV>FRESHERhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/03154154368670178574noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-2158258402527566027.post-54814002082778423142007-08-24T22:56:00.000-07:002007-08-24T23:09:49.819-07:00<DIV TYPE="HEADER"> <P style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in" align=center> </P> <P style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.46in"><BR></P></DIV> <P style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#ff0000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=5>Verbal </FONT></FONT></FONT></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>1. Depreciation: deflation, depression, devaluation, fall, slump</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>2. Deprecate : feel and express disapproval, </FONT></FONT></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>3. Incentive : thing one encourages one to do (stimulus)</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>4. Echelon : level of authority or responsibility</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>5. Innovation : make changes or introduce new things</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>6. Intermittent : externally stopping and then starting</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>7. Detrimental: harmful</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>8. Conciliation : make less angry or more friendly<BR><BR>9. Orthodox: conventional or traditional, superstitious<BR><BR>10. Fallible : liable to error<BR><BR>11. Volatile : ever changing<BR><BR>12. Manifest: clear and obvious<BR><BR>13. Connotation : suggest or implied meaning of expression<BR><BR>14. Reciprocal: reverse or opposite<BR><BR>15. Agrarian : related to agriculture<BR><BR>16. Vacillate : undecided or dilemma<BR><BR>17. Expedient : fitting proper, desirable<BR><BR>18. Simulate : produce artificially resembling an existing one.<BR><BR>19. Access : to approach<BR><BR>20. Compensation: salary<BR><BR>21. Truncate : shorten by cutting<BR><BR>22. Adherence : stick<BR><BR>23. Heterogeneous: non similar things<BR><BR>24. Surplus : excessive<BR><BR>25. Assess : determine the amount or value<BR><BR>26. Cognizance : knowledge<BR><BR>27. Retrospective : review<BR><BR>28. Naive : innocent, rustic<BR><BR>29. Equivocate : tallying on both sides, lie, mislead<BR><BR>30. Postulate : frame a theory<BR><BR>31. Latent : dormant, secret<BR><BR>32. Fluctuation : wavering,<BR><BR>33. Eliminate : to reduce<BR><BR>34. Affinity : strong liking<BR><BR>35. Expedite : hasten<BR><BR>36. Console : to show sympathy<BR><BR>37. Adversary : opposition<BR><BR>38. Affable : lovable or approachable<BR><BR>39. Decomposition : rotten<BR><BR>40. Agregious : apart from the crowd, especially bad<BR><BR>41. Conglomeration: group, collection<BR><BR>42. Aberration: deviation<BR><BR>43. Augury : prediction<BR><BR>44. Creditability : ability to common belief, quality of being credible<BR><BR>45. Coincident: incidentally<BR><BR>46. Constituent : accompanying<BR><BR>47. Differential : having or showing or making use of<BR><BR>48. Litigation : engaging in a law suit<BR><BR>49. Moratorium: legally or officially determined period of delay before<BR>fulfillment of the agreement of paying of debts.<BR><BR>50. Negotiate : discuss or bargain<BR><BR>51. Preparation : act of preparing<BR><BR>52. Preponderant : superiority of power or quality<BR><BR>53. Relevance : quality of being relevant<BR><BR>54. Apparatus : appliances<BR><BR>55. Ignorance : blindness, in experience<BR><BR>56. Obsession: complex enthusiasm<BR><BR>57. precipitate : speed, active</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt" size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif">58. corroborative: refutable</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt" size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif">59. obnoxious : harmless</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt" size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif">60. sanction: hinder</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt" size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif">61. empirical: experimental</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt" size=2>62. aborigine: emigrant</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2>63. corpulent : <FONT color=#800000>emaciated </FONT></FONT></P> <P style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in"><FONT size=2>64. officious: <FONT color=#800000>pragmate</FONT><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"> </FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif">65. Agitator : Firebrand :: <FONT color=#800040>Renegade : Turncoat</FONT><BR><BR>66. Burst : Sound :: <FONT color=#800040>Tinder : Fire</FONT><BR><BR>67. Star : cluster :: <FONT color=#800040>Tree : clump</FONT><BR><BR>68. Piston : Cylinder :: <FONT color=#800040>elevator : shaft</FONT><BR><BR>69. Mitigate : punishment :: <FONT color=#800040>commute : sentence</FONT><BR><BR>70. Erudite : scholar :: <FONT color=#800040>illiterate : ignorant</FONT><BR><BR>71. Fire : Ashes :: <FONT color=#800040>explosion : debris </FONT><BR><BR>72. mason : wall :: <FONT color=#800040>Author : Book </FONT><BR><BR>73. Fire : Ashes :: <FONT color=#800040>Event : memories</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000></FONT><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif">74. (a) cheerleaders : pompoms<BR>(b) audience:seats<BR>(c) team:goalposts<BR>(d) conductor:podium<BR>(e) referee:decision<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR>75. archipelago:islands::<BR><BR>(a) arbor:bower<BR>(b) garden:flower<BR>(c) mountain:valley<BR>(d) sand:dune<BR>(e) constellation:star<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>76. crow:boastful ::<BR><BR>(a) smirk:witty<BR>(b) conceal:s;y<BR>(c) pout:sulky<BR>(d) blush:coarse<BR>(e) bluster:unhappy<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>77. bracket:shelf ::<BR><BR>(a) hammer:anvil<BR>(b) girder:rivet<BR>(c) strut:rafter<BR>(d) valve:pipe<BR>(e) bucket:well<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>78. taxonomy:classification ::<BR><BR>(a) etymology:derivation<BR>(b) autonomy:authorization<BR>(c) economy:rationalization<BR>(d) tautology:justification<BR>(e) ecology:urbanisation<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>79. moderator:debate ::<BR><BR>(a) legislator:election<BR>(b) chef:banquet<BR>(c) auditor:lecture<BR>(d) conspirator:plot<BR>(e) umpire:game<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>80. glossary:words ::<BR><BR>(a) catalogue:dates<BR>(b) atlas:maps<BR>(c) almanac:synonyms<BR>(d) thesaurus:rhymes<BR>(e) lexicon:numbers<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>81. lumber: bear ::<BR><BR>(a) roost:hen<BR>(b) bray:donkey<BR>(c) waddle:goose<BR>(d) swoop:hawk<BR>(e) chirp:sparrow<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>82. celerity:snail ::<BR><BR>(a) indolence:sloth<BR>(b) cunning:weasel<BR>(c) curiosity:cat<BR>(d) humility:peacock<BR>(e) obstinacy:mule<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>83. wood:sand ::<BR><BR>(a) coal:burn<BR>(b) brick:lay<BR>(c) oil:polish<BR>(d) metal:burnish<BR>(e) stone:quarry<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>84. carpenter:saw :: <BR><BR>(a) stenographer:typist<BR>(b) painter:brush<BR>(c) lawyer:brief<BR>(d) runner:sneakers<BR>(e) seamstress:scissors<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>85. horns:bull :: <BR><BR>(a) mane:lion<BR>(b) wattles:turkey<BR>(c) antlers:stag<BR>(d) hooves:horse<BR>(e) wings:eagle<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>86. gullible:duped :: <BR><BR>(a) credible:cheated<BR>(b) careful:cautioned<BR>(c) malleable:moulded<BR>(d) myopic:mislead<BR>(e) articulate:silenced<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>87. marathon:stamina :: <BR><BR>(a) relay:independence<BR>(b) hurdle:perseverance<BR>(c) sprint:celerity<BR>(d) job:weariness<BR>(e) ramble:directness<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>88. Skin:man ::<BR><BR>(a) hide:animal<BR>(b) jump:start<BR>(c) peel:potato<BR>(d) eat:food<BR>(e) wool:cloth<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>89. Bamboo:Shoot :: <BR><BR>(a) Bean:Sprout<BR>(b) Peas:Pod<BR>(c) Potato:Eye<BR>(d) Carrot:Root<BR>(e) Leaf:Stem<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>90. Deflect:Missile :: <BR><BR>(a) Siege:Castle<BR>(b) Distract:Attraction<BR>(c) Protect:Honour<BR>(d) Drop:Catch<BR>(e) Score:Goal<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>91. Editor:magazine :: <BR><BR>(a) captain:ship<BR>(b) actor:movie<BR>(c) director:film<BR>(d) player:team<BR>(e) jockey:horse<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>92. Volcano : Lava :: <BR><BR>(a) Fault:earthquate<BR>(b) crack:wall<BR>(c) tunnel:dig<BR>(d) water:swim<BR>(e) floor:polish<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT color=#800040><BR>93</FONT>. Disregarded<BR>(a) heed<BR>(b) hopeful<BR>(c) evade<BR>(d) dense</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>94. Obviate<BR>(a) becloud<BR>(b) necessitate<BR>(c) rationalize<BR>(d) execute</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (b)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2><BR>95. Superficial<BR>(a) profound<BR>(b) exaggerated<BR>(c) subjective<BR>(d) spirited</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif">96. chief : tribe :: <FONT color=#800000>governer : state</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><BR>97. epaulette : shoulder :: <FONT color=#800000>tiara : head</FONT> </FONT></FONT></P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><BR>98. guttural : throat :: <FONT color=#800000>gastric : stomach</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><BR>99. inept : clever :: <FONT color=#800000>languid : active</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in"><BR></P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT color=#800000>100. </FONT>Erudite : scholar :: <FONT color=#800040>illiterate : ignorant</FONT><BR></FONT></FONT><BR></P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in"><BR></P> <DIV TYPE="FOOTER"> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.46in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in"><SPAN id=Frame1 dir=ltr style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0in; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0in; BACKGROUND: #ffffff; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; WIDTH: 0.31in; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; HEIGHT: 0.15in"></SPAN></P><SPAN id=Frame1 dir=ltr style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0in; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0in; BACKGROUND: #ffffff; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; WIDTH: 0.31in; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; HEIGHT: 0.15in"> <P style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in">1 </P></SPAN><BR> <P></P></DIV>FRESHERhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/03154154368670178574noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-2158258402527566027.post-73375282623056718192007-08-24T22:48:00.000-07:002007-08-24T23:09:49.837-07:00<DIV TYPE="HEADER"> <P style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in" align=center> </P> <P style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.46in"><BR></P></DIV> <P style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#ff0000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=5>Technical Questions</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>1. A 2MB PCM(pulse code modulation) has<BR><BR>a) 32 channels<BR>b) 30 voice channels & 1 signalling channel.<BR>c) 31 voice channels & 1 signalling channel.<BR>d) 32 channels out of which 30 voice channels, 1 signalling channel, & 1 Synchronizatio channel.</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (c)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>2. Time taken for 1 satellite hop in voice communication is<BR><BR>a) 1/2 second<BR>b) 1 seconds<BR>c) 4 seconds<BR>d) 2 seconds</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT color=#800040>Ans: (a</FONT><FONT color=#006600>)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>3. Max number of satellite hops allowed in voice communication is :<BR><BR>a) only one<BR>b) more han one<BR>c) two hops<BR>d) four hops</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT color=#800040>Ans: (c</FONT><FONT color=#006600>)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>4. What is the max. decimal number that can be accomodated in a byte.<BR><BR>a) 128<BR>b) 256<BR>c) 255<BR>d) 512</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (c)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>5. Conditional results after execution of an instruction in a micro processor is stored in<BR><BR>a) register<BR>b) accumulator<BR>c) flag register<BR>d) flag register part of PSW(Program Status Word)</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (d)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>6. Frequency at which VOICE is sampled is<BR><BR>a) 4 Khz<BR>b) 8 Khz<BR>c) 16 Khz<BR>d) 64 Khz</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>7. Line of Sight is<BR><BR>a) Straight Line<BR>b) Parabolic<BR>c) Tx & Rx should be visible to each other<BR>d) none</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (c)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>8. Purpose of PC(Program Counter) in a MicroProcessor is<BR><BR>a) To store address of TOS(Top Of Stack)<BR>b) To store address of next instruction to be executed.<BR>c) count the number of instructions.<BR>d) to store base address of the stack.</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (b)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>9. What action is taken when the processor under execution is interrupted by a non-maskable interrupt?<BR><BR>a) Processor serves the interrupt request after completing the execution of the current instruction.<BR>b) Processor serves the interupt request after completing the current task.<BR>c) Processor serves the interupt request immediately.<BR>d) Processor serving the interrupt request depends upon the priority of the current task under execution.</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>10. The status of the Kernel is<BR><BR>a) task<BR>b) process<BR>c) not defined.<BR>d) none of the above.</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (b)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>11. To send a data packet using datagram , connection will be established<BR><BR>a) before data transmission.<BR>b) connection is not established before data transmission.<BR>c) no connection is required.<BR>d) none of the above.</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (c)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2><BR>12. Word allignment is<BR><BR>a) alligning the address to the next word boundary of the machine.<BR>b) alligning to even boundary.<BR>c) alligning to word boundary.<BR>d) none of the above.</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>13 When a 'C' function call is made, the order in which parameters passed to the function are pushed into the stack is<BR><BR>a) left to right<BR>b) right to left<BR>c) bigger variables are moved first than the smaller variales.<BR>d) smaller variables are moved first than the bigger ones.<BR>e) none of the above.</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (b)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>14 What is the type of signalling used between two exchanges?<BR><BR>a) inband<BR>b) common channel signalling<BR>c) any of the above<BR>d) none of the above.</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>15 Buffering is<BR><BR>a) the process of temporarily storing the data to allow for small variation in device speeds<BR>b) a method to reduce cross talks<BR>c) storage of data within transmitting medium until the receiver is ready to receive.<BR>d) a method to reduce routing overhead.</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2><BR>16. Memory allocation of variables declared in a program is<BR><BR>a) allocated in RAM.<BR>b) allocated in ROM.<BR>c) allocated on stack.<BR>d) assigned to registers.</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (c)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2><BR>17. A software that allows a personal computer to pretend as a computer terminal is<BR><BR>a) terminal adapter<BR>b) bulletin board<BR>c) modem<BR>d) terminal emulation</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (d)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>18. Find the output of the following program</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>int *p,*q;<BR>p=(int *)1000;<BR>q=(int *)2000;<BR>printf("%d",(q-p)); </FONT></FONT></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: 500</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2><BR>19. Which addressing mode is used in the following statements:</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>(a) MVI B,55<BR>(b) MOV B,A<BR>(c) MOV M,A</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (a) Immediate addressing mode.<BR>(b) Register Addressing Mode<BR>(c) Direct addressing mode</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2><BR>20. RS-232C standard is used in _____________.</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. Serial I/O</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2><BR>21. Memory. Management in Operating Systems is done by<BR><BR>a) Memory Management Unit<BR>b) Memory management software of the Operating System<BR>c) Kernel</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (b)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2><BR>22. What is done for a Push opertion?</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: SP is decremented and then the value is stored.</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif">23. Binary equivalent of 52<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. 110100<BR></FONT><BR><BR>24. Hexadecimal equivalent of 3452<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. 72A<BR></FONT><BR><BR>25. Explain Just In Time Concept ?<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. Elimination of waste by purchasing manufacturing exactly when needed<BR></FONT><BR><BR>26. A good way of unit testing s/w program is<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. User test<BR></FONT><BR><BR>27. OOT uses<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. Encapsulated of detect methods<BR></FONT><BR><BR>28.EDI useful in<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. Electronic Transmission<BR></FONT><BR><BR>29. MRPII different from MRP<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. Modular version of man redundant initials<BR></FONT><BR><BR>30. Hard disk time for R/W head to move to correct sector<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. Latency Time<BR></FONT><BR><BR>31. The percentage of times a page number bound in associate register is called<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. Bit ratio<BR></FONT><BR><BR>32. Expand MODEM<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. Modulator and Demodulator</FONT><BR><BR><BR>33. RDBMS file system can be defined as<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. Interrelated<BR></FONT><BR><BR>34. Super Key is<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. Primary key and Attribute<BR></FONT><BR><BR>35. Windows 95 supports<BR><BR>(a) Multiuser <BR>(b) n tasks <BR>(c) Both<BR>(d) None<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. (a)<BR></FONT><BR><BR>36.In the command scanf, h is used for<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. Short int</FONT><FONT color=#000000><BR></FONT><BR><BR>37.A process is defined as<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. Program in execution</FONT><FONT color=#000000><BR></FONT><BR><BR>38.A thread is<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. Detachable unit of executable code)</FONT><BR><BR><BR>39.What is the advantage of Win NT over Win 95<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. Robust and secure</FONT><BR></FONT></FONT><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><BR><BR>40.How is memory management done in Win95<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. Through paging and segmentation</FONT><BR><BR><BR>41.What is meant by polymorphism<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. Redfinition of a base class method in a derived class</FONT><BR><BR><BR>42.What is the essential feature of inheritance<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. All properties of existing class are derived</FONT><BR><BR><BR>43.What does the protocol FTP do<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. Transfer a file b/w stations with user authentification</FONT><BR><BR><BR>44.In the transport layer ,TCP is what type of protocol<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. Connection oriented</FONT><BR><BR><BR>45.Why is a gateway used<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. To connect incompatible networks</FONT><BR><BR><BR>46.How is linked list implemented<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. By referential structures</FONT><BR><BR><BR>47.What method is used in Win95 in multitasking<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. Non preemptive check</FONT><BR><BR><BR>48.What is a semaphore<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. A method synchronization of multiple processes</FONT><BR><BR><BR>49.What is the precedence order from high to low ,of the symbols ( ) ++ /<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans.( ) , ++, /</FONT><BR></FONT></FONT><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><BR><BR>50.Preorder of A*(B+C)/D-G<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans.*+ABC/-DG</FONT><BR><BR>51.What is the efficiency of merge sort<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. O(n log n)</FONT><BR><BR><BR>52.In which layer are routers used<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans.In network layer </FONT><BR><BR><BR>53.Which of the following sorting algorithem has average sorting behavior --<BR> Bubble sort,merge sort,heap sort,exchange sort<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. Heap sort</FONT><BR><BR><BR>54.In binary search tree which traversal is used for getting ascending order values--Inorder ,post order,preorder<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans.Inorder</FONT><BR><BR><BR>55.What are device drivers used for<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans.To provide software for enabling the hardware</FONT><BR><BR><BR>56.What is fork command in unix<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. System call used to create process</FONT><BR><BR><BR>57.What is make command in unix<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. Used forcreation of more than one file</FONT><BR><BR><BR>58.In unix .profile contains<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans. Start up program</FONT><BR><BR><BR>59.In unix 'ls 'stores contents in<BR><BR><FONT color=#800000>Ans.inode block</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2><BR>60. Which of the following involves context switch,</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>(a) system call<BR>(b) priviliged instruction<BR>(c) floating poitnt exception<BR>(d) all the above<BR>(e) none of the above</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2><BR>61. In OST, terminal emulation is done in</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>(a) sessions layer<BR>(b) application layer<BR>(c) presentation layer<BR>(d) transport layer</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans: (b)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>62. For 1 MB memory, the number of address lines required,</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>(a)11<BR>(b)16<BR>(c)22<BR>(d) 24</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (b)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>63. Semaphore is used for</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>(a) synchronization<BR>(b) dead-lock avoidence<BR>(c) box<BR>(d) none</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>64. Which holds true for the following statement</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"> <FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>class c: public A, public B</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>a) 2 member in class A, B should not have same name<BR>b) 2 member in class A, C should not have same name<BR>c) both<BR>d) none</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>65.Preproconia.. does not do which one of the following</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>(a) macro<BR>(b) conditional compliclation<BR>(c) in type checking<BR>(d) including load file</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (c)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2><BR>66. Piggy backing is a technique for</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>a) Flow control<BR>b) Sequence<BR>c) Acknowledgement<BR>d) retransmition</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (c)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2>67. Which is not a memory management scheme?</FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2>a) buddy system<BR>b) swapping<BR>c) monitors<BR>d) paging </FONT></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41><FONT size=2>Ans : c</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2>68. There was a circuit given using three nand gates with two inputs and one output.<BR> Find the output.</FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2>a) OR<BR>b) AND<BR>c) XOR<BR>d) NOT</FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41><FONT size=2>Ans. (a)</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2>69.Iintegrated check value(ICV) are used as:</FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41><FONT size=2>Ans. The client computes the ICV and then compares it with the senders value.</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2>70. When applets are downloaded from web sites , a byte verifier performs _________?</FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41><FONT size=2>Ans. Status check.</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2>71. An IP/IPX packet received by a computer using... having IP/IPX both how the packet is handled.</FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41><FONT size=2>Ans. Read the, field in the packet header with to send IP or IPX protocol.</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>72. The UNIX shell ....</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>a) does not come with the rest of the system<BR>b) forms the interface between the user and the kernal<BR>c) does not give any scope for programming<BR>d) deos not allow calling one program from with in another<BR>e) all of the above</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (b)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>73. In UNIX a files i-node ......?</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. Is a data structure that defines all specifications of a file like the file size,<BR> number of lines to a file, permissions etc.</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>74. The very first process created by the kernal that runs till the kernal process is halts is</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>a) init<BR>b) getty<BR>c) both (a) and (b)<BR>d) none of these</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>75. In the process table entry for the kernel process, the process id value is</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>(a) 0<BR>(b) 1<BR>(c) 2<BR>(d) 255<BR>(e) it does not have a process table entry</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2><BR>76. Which of the following API is used to hide a window</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>a) ShowWindow<BR>b) EnableWindow<BR>c) MoveWindow<BR>d) SetWindowPlacement<BR>e) None of the above</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>77. Which function is the entry point for a DLL in MS Windows 3.1</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>a) Main<BR>b) Winmain<BR>c) Dllmain<BR>d) Libmain<BR>e) None</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (b)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>78. The standard source for standard input, standard output and standard error is</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>a) the terminal<BR>b) /dev/null<BR>c) /usr/you/input, /usr/you/output/, /usr/you/error respectively<BR>d) None</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (a)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>79. The redirection operators > and >></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>a) do the same function<BR>b) differ : > overwrites, while >> appends<BR>c) differ : > is used for input while >> is used for output<BR>d) differ : > write to any file while >> write only to standard output<BR>e) None of these</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (b)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>80. The command grep first second third /usr/you/myfile</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>a) prints lines containing the words first, second or third from the file /usr/you/myfile<BR>b) searches for lines containing the pattern first in the files<BR>second, third, and /usr/you/myfile and prints them<BR>c) searches the files /usr/you/myfiel and third for lines containing the words first or second and prints them<BR>d) replaces the word first with the word second in the files third and /usr/you/myfile<BR>e) None of the above</FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800000><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. (b)</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif">81. You are creating a Index on EMPNO column in the EMPLOYEE table. Which statement will you use?<BR>a) CREATE INdEX emp_empno_idx ON employee, empno;<BR>b) CREATE INdEX emp_empno_idx FOR employee, empno;<BR>c) CREATE INdEX emp_empno_idx ON employee(empno);<BR>d) CREATE emp_empno_idx INdEX ON employee(empno);<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. c</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><BR>82. Which program construct must return a value?<BR>a) Package<BR>b) Function<BR>c) Anonymous block<BR>d) Stored Procedure<BR>e) Application Procedure<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. b</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><BR>83. Which Statement would you use to remove the EMPLOYEE_Id_PK PRIMARY KEY constraint and all depending constraints fromthe EMPLOYEE table?<BR>a) ALTER TABLE employee dROP PRIMARY KEY CASCAdE;<BR>b) ALTER TABLE employee dELETE PRIMARY KEY CASCAdE;<BR>c) MOdIFY TABLE employee dROP CONSTRAINT employee_id_pk CASCAdE;<BR>d) ALTER TABLE employee dROP PRIMARY KEY employee_id_pk CASCAdE;<BR>e) MOdIFY TABLE employee dELETE PRIMARY KEY employee_id_pk CASCAdE;<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans. a</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2><BR>84. Which three commands cause a transaction to end? (Chosse three)<BR>a) ALTER<BR>b) GRANT<BR>c) DELETE<BR>d) INSERT<BR>e) UPdATE<BR>f) ROLLBACK </FONT></FONT></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#800040><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif"><FONT size=2>Ans. a ,b ,f</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif">85. Under which circumstance should you create an index on a table?<BR>a) The table is small.<BR>b) The table is updated frequently.<BR>c) A columns values are static and contain a narrow range of values<BR>d) Two columns are consistently used in the WHERE clause join condition of SELECT<BR> statements.<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans.d</FONT></FONT></FONT> </P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.17in"><FONT size=2><FONT face="Verdana, sans-serif">86. What was the first name given to Java Programming Language.<BR><BR>a) Oak - Java<BR>b) Small Talk<BR>c) Oak<BR>d) None<BR><BR><FONT color=#800040>Ans.a<BR></FONT></FONT></FONT><BR><BR></P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><A name=top></A><FONT color=#000000>87.When a bicycle is in motion,the force of friction exerted by the ground on the two wheels is such that it acts</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in">(a) In the backward direction on the front wheel and in the forward direction on the rear wheel.<BR>(b) In the forward direction on the front wheel and in the backward direction on the rear wheel.<BR>(c) In the backward direction on both the front and rear wheels.<BR>(d) In the backward direction on both the front and rear wheels. </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41>Ans. (d)</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#000000><BR>88. A certain radioactive element A, has a half life = t seconds.<BR> In (t/2) seconds the fraction of the initial quantity of the element so far decayed is nearly</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in">(a) 29%<BR>(b) 15%<BR>(c) 10%<BR>(d) 45% </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41>Ans. (a)</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#000000><BR>89. Which of the following plots would be a straight line ?</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in">(a) Logarithm of decay rate against logarithm of time<BR>(b) Logarithm of decay rate against logarithm of number of decaying nuclei<BR>(c) Decay rate against time<BR>(d) Number of decaying nuclei against time </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41>Ans. (b)</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#000000><BR>90. A radioactive element x has an atomic number of 100.<BR> It decays directly into an element y which decays directly into element z.<BR> In both processes a charged particle is emitted.<BR> Which of the following statements would be true?</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in">(a) y has an atomic number of 102<BR>(b) y has an atomic number of 101<BR>(c) z has an atomic number of 100<BR>(d) z has an atomic number of 101 </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41>Ans. (b)</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#000000><BR>91. If the sum of the roots of the equation ax<SUP>2</SUP> + bx + c=0 is equal to the sum of the squares of their reciprocals<BR> then a/c, b/a, c/b are in </FONT></P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in">(a) AP<BR>(b) GP<BR>(c) HP<BR>(d) None of these </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41>Ans. (c)</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#000000><BR>92. A man speaks the truth 3 out of 4 times.<BR> He throws a die and reports it to be a 6.<BR> What is the probability of it being a 6?</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in">(a) 3/8<BR>(b) 5/8<BR>(c) 3/4<BR>(d) None of the above </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41>Ans. (a)</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#000000><BR>93. If cos<SUP>2</SUP>A + cos<SUP>2</SUP>B + cos<SUP>2</SUP>C = 1 then ABC is a</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in">(a) Right angle triangle<BR>(b) Equilateral triangle<BR>(c) All the angles are acute<BR>(d) None of these </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41>Ans. (a)</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#000000><BR>94. Image of point (3,8) in the line x + 3y = 7 is</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in">(a) (-1,-4)<BR>(b) (-1,4)<BR>(c) (2,-4)<BR>(d) (-2,-4) </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41>Ans. (a)</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#000000><BR>95. The mass number of a nucleus is </FONT></P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in">(a) Always less than its atomic number<BR>(b) Always more than its atomic number<BR>(c) Sometimes more than and sometimes equal to its atomic number<BR>(d) None of the above </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41>Ans. (c)</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#000000><BR>96. The maximum KE of the photoelectron emitted from a surface is dependent on </FONT></P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in">(a) The intensity of incident radiation<BR>(b) The potential of the collector electrode<BR>(c) The frequency of incident radiation<BR>(d) The angle of incidence of radiation of the surface </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41>Ans. (c)</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#000000><BR>97. Which of the following is not an essential condition for interference</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in">(a) The two interfering waves must be propagated in almost the same direction or<BR> the two interfering waves must intersect at a very small angle<BR>(b) The waves must have the same time period and wavelength<BR>(c) Amplitude of the two waves should be the same<BR>(d) The interfering beams of light must originate from the same source </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41>Ans. (c)</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#000000><BR>98. When X-Ray photons collide with electrons </FONT></P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in">(a) They slow down<BR>(b) Their mass increases<BR>(c) Their wave length increases<BR>(d) Their energy decreases </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41>Ans. (c)</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#000000><BR>99. An electron emits energy </FONT></P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in">(a) Because its in orbit<BR>(b) When it jumps from one energy level to another<BR>(c) Electrons are attracted towards the nucleus<BR>(d) The electrostatic force is insufficient to hold the electrons in orbits </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41>Ans. (b)</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#000000><BR>100. How many bonds are present in CO<SUB>2</SUB> molecule?</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in">(a) 1<BR>(b) 2<BR>(c) 0<BR>(d) 4 </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><FONT color=#d83d41>Ans. (d)</FONT> </P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.17in"><BR><BR></P> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.19in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0.19in"><BR><BR></P> <P class=western style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in"><BR></P> <DIV TYPE="FOOTER"> <P style="MARGIN-TOP: 0.46in; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in"><SPAN id=Frame1 dir=ltr style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0in; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0in; BACKGROUND: #ffffff; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; WIDTH: 0.31in; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; HEIGHT: 0.15in"></SPAN></P><SPAN id=Frame1 dir=ltr style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; PADDING-RIGHT: 0in; BORDER-TOP: medium none; PADDING-LEFT: 0in; BACKGROUND: #ffffff; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; WIDTH: 0.31in; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; HEIGHT: 0.15in"> <P style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0in">1 </P></SPAN><BR> <P></P></DIV>FRESHERhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/03154154368670178574noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-2158258402527566027.post-16794448777619149702007-08-19T22:39:00.000-07:002007-08-19T22:40:11.152-07:00OPERATING SYSTEMS1. Explain the concept of Reentrancy.<br /> It is a useful, memory-saving technique for multiprogrammed timesharing systems. A Reentrant Procedure is one in which multiple users can share a single copy of a program during the same period. Reentrancy has 2 key aspects: <br />i.) The program code cannot modify itself, <br />ii.) The local data for each user process must be stored separately. <br /> Thus, the permanent part is the code, and the temporary part is the pointer back to the calling program and local variables used by that program. Each execution instance is called activation. It executes the code in the permanent part, but has its own copy of local variables/parameters. The temporary part associated with each activation is the activation record. Generally, the activation record is kept on the stack.<br /> Note: A reentrant procedure can be interrupted and called by an interrupting program, and still execute correctly on returning to the procedure.<br /><br />2. Explain Belady's Anomaly.<br /> Also called FIFO anomaly. Usually, on increasing the number of frames allocated to a process' virtual memory, the process execution is faster, because fewer page faults occur. Sometimes, the reverse happens, i.e., the execution time increases even when more frames are allocated to the process. This is Belady's Anomaly. This is true for certain page reference patterns.<br /><br />3. What is a binary semaphore? What is its use?<br /> A binary semaphore is one, which takes only 0 and 1 as values. They are used to implement mutual exclusion and synchronize concurrent processes.<br /><br />4. What is thrashing?<br /> It is a phenomenon in virtual memory schemes, when the processor spends most of its time swapping pages, rather than executing instructions. This is due to an inordinate number of page faults.<br /><br />5. List the Coffman's conditions that lead to a deadlock.<br /> a) Mutual Exclusion: Only one process may use a critical resource at a time.<br /> b) Hold & Wait: A process may be allocated some resources while waiting for others.<br /> c) No Pre-emption: No resource can be forcible removed from a process holding it.<br /> d) Circular Wait: A closed chain of processes exist such that each process holds at least one resource needed by another process in the chain. <br /><br />6. What are short-, long- and medium-term scheduling?<br /> Long term scheduler determines which programs are admitted to the system for processing. It controls the degree of multiprogramming. Once admitted, a job becomes a process. <br /> Medium term scheduling is part of the swapping function. This relates to processes that are in a blocked or suspended state. They are swapped out of main-memory until they are ready to execute. The swapping-in decision is based on memory-management criteria.<br /> Short term scheduler, also know as a dispatcher executes most frequently, and makes the finest-grained decision of which process should execute next. This scheduler is invoked whenever an event occurs. It may lead to interruption of one process by preemption. <br /><br />7. What are turnaround time and response time?<br /> Turnaround time is the interval between the submission of a job and its completion. Response time is the interval between submission of a request, and the first response to that request.<br /><br />8. What are the typical elements of a process image?<br /> a)User data: Modifiable part of user space. May include program data, user stack area, and programs that may be modified. <br /> b) User program: The instructions to be executed.<br /> c) System Stack: Each process has one or more LIFO stacks associated with it. Used to store parameters and calling addresses for procedure and system calls.<br /> d) Process Control Block (PCB): Info needed by the OS to control processes.<br /><br />9. What is the Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB)?<br /> In a cached system, the base addresses of the last few referenced pages is maintained in registers called the TLB that aids in faster lookup. TLB contains those page-table entries that have been most recently used. Normally, each virtual memory reference causes 2 physical memory accesses-- one to fetch appropriate page-table entry, and one to fetch the desired data. Using TLB in-between, this is reduced to just one physical memory access in cases of TLB-hit.<br /><br />10. What is the resident set and working set of a process? <br /> Resident set is that portion of the process image that is actually in main-memory at a particular instant. Working set is that subset of resident set that is actually needed for execution. (Relate this to the variable-window size method for swapping techniques.)<br /><br />11. When is a system in safe state?<br /> The set of dispatchable processes is in a safe state if there exist at least one temporal order in which all processes can be run to completion without resulting in a deadlock.<br /><br />12. What is cycle stealing?<br /> We encounter cycle stealing in the context of Direct Memory Access (DMA). Either the DMA controller can use the data bus when the CPU does not need it, or it may force the CPU to temporarily suspend operation. The latter technique is called cycle stealing. Note that cycle stealing can be done only at specific break points in an instruction cycle.<br /><br />13. What is meant by arm-stickiness?<br /> If one or a few processes have a high access rate to data on one track of a storage disk, then they may monopolize the device by repeated requests to that track. This generally happens with most common device scheduling algorithms (LIFO, SSTF, C-SCAN, etc). High-density multi-surface disks are more likely to be affected by this, than the low density ones.<br /><br />14. What are the stipulations of C2 level security?<br /> C2 level security provides for:<br />1. Discretionary Access Control<br />2. Identification and Authentication<br />3. Auditing<br />4. Resource Reuse<br /><br />15. What is busy waiting?<br /> The repeated execution of a loop of code while waiting for an event to occur is called busy-waiting. The CPU is not engaged in any real productive activity during this period, and the process does not progress toward completion.<br /><br />16. Explain the popular multiprocessor thread-scheduling strategies.<br /> Load Sharing: Processes are not assigned to a particular processor. A global queue of threads is maintained. Each processor, when idle, selects a thread from this queue. Note that load balancing refers to a scheme where work is allocated to processors on a more permanent basis. <br /> Gang Scheduling: A set of related threads is scheduled to run on a set of processors at the same time, on a 1-to-1 basis. Closely related threads / processes may be scheduled this way to reduce synchronization blocking, and minimize process switching. Group scheduling predated this strategy.<br /> Dedicated processor assignment: Provides implicit scheduling defined by assignment of threads to processors. For the duration of program execution, each program is allocated a set of processors equal in number to the number of threads in the program. Processors are chosen from the available pool.<br /> Dynamic scheduling: The number of thread in a program can be altered during the course of execution.<br /><br />17. When does the condition 'rendezvous' arise?<br /> In message passing, it is the condition in which, both, the sender and receiver are blocked until the message is delivered.<br /><br />18. What is a trap and trapdoor?<br /> Trapdoor is a secret undocumented entry point into a program, used to grant access without normal methods of access authentication. A trap is a software interrupt, usually the result of an error condition.<br /><br />19. What are local and global page replacements?<br /> Local replacement means that an incoming page is brought in only to the relevant process' address space. Global replacement policy allows any page frame from any process to be replaced. The latter is applicable to variable partitions model only.<br /><br />20. Define latency, transfer and seek time with respect to disk I/O.<br /> Seek time is the time required to move the disk arm to the required track. Rotational delay or latency is the time to move the required sector to the disk head. Sums of seek time (if any) and the latency is the access time, for accessing a particular track in a particular sector. Time taken to actually transfer a span of data is transfer time.<br /><br />21. Describe the Buddy system of memory allocation.<br /> Free memory is maintained in linked lists, each of equal sized blocks. Any such block is of size 2^k. When some memory is required by a process, the block size of next higher order is chosen, and broken into two. Note that the two such pieces differ in address only in their kth bit. Such pieces are called buddies. When any used block is freed, the OS checks to see if its buddy is also free. If so, it is rejoined, and put into the original free-block linked-list.<br /><br />22. What is time stamping?<br />It is a technique proposed by Lamport, used to order events in a distributed system without the use of clocks. This scheme is intended to order events consisting of the transmission of messages. Each system 'i' in the network maintains a counter Ci. Every time a system transmits a message, it increments its counter by 1 and attaches the time-stamp Ti to the message. When a message is received, the receiving system 'j' sets its counter Cj to 1 more than the maximum of its current value and the incoming time-stamp Ti. At each site, the ordering of messages is determined by the following rules: <br /> For messages x from site i and messages y from site j, x precedes y if one of the following conditions holds if Ti < Tj or if Ti = Tj and i < j.<br /><br />23. How are the wait/signal operations for monitor different from those for semaphores?<br /> If a process in the monitor signals and no task is waiting on the condition variable, the signal is lost. So this allows easier program design. Whereas in semaphores, every operation affects the value of the semaphore, so the wait and signal operations should be perfectly balanced in the program.<br /><br />24. In the context of memory management, what are placement and replacement algorithms?<br /> Placement algorithms determine where in the available main-memory to load the incoming process. Common methods are first-fit, next-fit, and best-fit. Replacement algorithms are used when memory is full, and one process (or part of a process) needs to be swapped out to accommodate the new incoming process. The replacement algorithm determines which are the partitions (memory portions occupied by the processes) to be swapped out.<br /><br />25. In loading processes into memory, what is the difference between load-time dynamic linking and run-time dynamic linking?<br /> For load-time dynamic linking: Load module to be loaded is read into memory. Any reference to a target external module causes that module to be loaded and the references are updated to a relative address from the start base address of the application module. <br /> With run-time dynamic loading: Some of the linking is postponed until actual reference during execution. Then the correct module is loaded and linked.<br /><br />26. What are demand- and pre-paging?<br /> With demand paging, a page is brought into the main-memory only when a location on that page is actually referenced during execution. With prepaging, pages other than the one demanded by a page fault are brought in. The selection of such pages is done based on common access patterns, especially for secondary memory devices.<br /><br />27. What is mounting? <br /> Mounting is the mechanism by which two different file systems can be combined together. This is one of the services provided by the operating system, which allows the user to work with two different file systems, and some of the secondary devices. <br /><br />28. What do you mean by dispatch latency?<br /> The time taken by the dispatcher to stop one process and start running another process is known as the dispatch latency.<br /><br />29. What is multi-processing? <br /> The ability of an operating system to use more than one CPU in a single computer system. Symmetrical multiprocessing refers to the OS's ability to assign tasks dynamically to the next available processor, whereas asymmetrical multiprocessing requires that the original program designer choose the processor to use for a given task at the time of writing the program.<br /><br />30. What is multitasking?<br /> Multitasking is a logical extension of multi-programming. This refers to the simultaneous execution of more than one program, by switching between them, in a single computer system.<br /><br />31. Define multithreading?<br /> The concurrent processing of several tasks or threads inside the same program or process. Because several tasks can be processed parallely and no tasks have to wait for the another to finish its execution.<br /><br />32. Define compaction.<br /> Compaction refers to the mechanism of shuffling the memory portions such that all the free portions of the memory can be aligned (or merged) together in a single large block. OS to overcome the problem of fragmentation, either internal or external, performs this mechanism, frequently. Compaction is possible only if relocation is dynamic and done at run-time, and if relocation is static and done at assembly or load-time compaction is not possible. <br /><br />33. What do you mean by FAT (File Allocation Table)?<br /> A table that indicates the physical location on secondary storage of the space allocated to a file. FAT chains the clusters (group of sectors) to define the contents of the file. FAT allocates clusters to files.<br /><br />34. What is a Kernel?<br /> Kernel is the nucleus or core of the operating system. This represents small part of the code, which is thought to be the entire operating system, it is most intensively used. Generally, the kernel is maintained permanently in main memory, and other portions of the OS are moved to and from the secondary storage (mostly hard disk).<br /><br />35. What is memory-mapped I/O?<br /> Memory-mapped I/O, meaning that the communication between the I/O devices and the processor is done through physical memory locations in the address space. Each I/O device will occupy some locations in the I/O address space. I.e., it will respond when those addresses are placed on the bus. The processor can write those locations to send commands and information to the I/O device and read those locations to get information and status from the I/O device. Memory-mapped I/O makes it easy to write device drivers in a high-level language as long as the high-level language can load and store from arbitrary addresses.<br /><br />36. What are the advantages of threads?<br /> Threads provide parallel processing like processes but they have one important advantage over process, they are much more efficient. <br /> Threads are cheaper to create and destroy because they do not require allocation and de-allocation of a new address space or other process resources. <br /> It is faster to switch between threads. It will be faster since the memory-mapping does not have to be setup and the memory and address translation caches do not have to be violated.<br /> Threads are efficient as they share memory. They do not have to use system calls (which are slower because of context switches) to communicate.<br /><br />37. What are kernel threads?<br />The processes that execute in the Kernel-mode that processes are called kernel threads.<br /><br />38. What are the necessary conditions for deadlock to exist?<br /> Process claims exclusive control for the Resources allocated to them. (Mutual exclusion condition). <br /> Resources cannot be de-allocated until the process completes they are used for its complete execution. (No preemption condition).<br /> A process can hold one resource and wait for other resources to be allocated. (Wait for condition)<br /> Circular wait condition.<br /><br />39. What are the strategies for dealing with deadlock?<br /> Prevention- Place restrictions on resource requests so that deadlock cannot occur.<br /> Avoidance- Plan ahead so that you never get in to a situation where deadlock is inevitable.<br /> Recovery- when deadlock is identified in the system, it recovers from it by removing some of the causes of the deadlock.<br /> Detection – detecting whether the deadlock actually exists and identifies the processes and resources that are involved in the deadlock.<br /><br />40. Paging a memory management function, while multiprogramming a processor management function, are the two interdependent?<br />Yes.<br /><br />41. What is page cannibalizing?<br />Page swapping or page replacements are called page cannibalizing.<br /><br />42. What has triggered the need for multitasking in PCs?<br /> Increased speed and memory capacity of microprocessors together with the support fir virtual memory and<br /> Growth of client server computing<br /><br />43. What are the four layers that Windows NT have in order to achieve independence?<br /> Hardware abstraction layer<br /> Kernel<br /> Subsystems<br /> System Services.<br /><br />44. What is SMP?<br />To achieve maximum efficiency and reliability a mode of operation known as symmetric multiprocessing is used. In essence, with SMP any process or threads can be assigned to any processor.<br /><br />45. What are the key object oriented concepts used by Windows NT?<br /> Encapsulation<br /> Object class and instance<br /><br />46. Is Windows NT a full blown object oriented operating system? Give reasons.<br />No Windows NT is not so, because its not implemented in object oriented language and the data structures reside within one executive component and are not represented as objects and it does not support object oriented capabilities .<br /><br />47. What is a drawback of MVT?<br />It does not have the features like <br /> ability to support multiple processors<br /> virtual storage<br /> source level debugging<br /><br />48. What is process spawning?<br />When the OS at the explicit request of another process creates a process, this action is called process spawning.<br /><br />49. How many jobs can be run concurrently on MVT?<br />15 jobs<br /><br />50. List out some reasons for process termination.<br /> Normal completion<br /> Time limit exceeded<br /> Memory unavailable<br /> Bounds violation<br /> Protection error<br /> Arithmetic error<br /> Time overrun<br /> I/O failure<br /> Invalid instruction<br /> Privileged instruction<br /> Data misuse<br /> Operator or OS intervention<br /> Parent termination.<br /><br />51. What are the reasons for process suspension?<br /> swapping<br /> interactive user request<br /> timing<br /> parent process request<br /><br />52. What is process migration?<br />It is the transfer of sufficient amount of the state of process from one machine to the target machine<br /><br />53. What is mutant?<br />In Windows NT a mutant provides kernel mode or user mode mutual exclusion with the notion of ownership.<br /><br />54. What is an idle thread?<br />The special thread a dispatcher will execute when no ready thread is found.<br /><br />55. What is FtDisk?<br />It is a fault tolerance disk driver for Windows NT.<br /><br />56. What are the possible threads a thread can have?<br /> Ready<br /> Standby<br /> Running <br /> Waiting<br /> Transition <br /> Terminated.<br /><br />57. What are rings in Windows NT?<br />Windows NT uses protection mechanism called rings provides by the process to implement separation between the user mode and kernel mode.<br /><br />58. What is Executive in Windows NT?<br />In Windows NT, executive refers to the operating system code that runs in kernel mode.<br /><br />59. What are the sub-components of I/O manager in Windows NT?<br /> Network redirector/ Server<br /> Cache manager.<br /> File systems <br /> Network driver<br /> Device driver<br /><br />60. What are DDks? Name an operating system that includes this feature.<br />DDks are device driver kits, which are equivalent to SDKs for writing device drivers. Windows NT includes DDks.<br /><br />61. What level of security does Windows NT meets?<br />C2 level securityFRESHERhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/03154154368670178574noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-2158258402527566027.post-69608283304207951072007-08-19T22:33:00.000-07:002007-08-19T22:34:52.736-07:00UNIXSection - I - File Management In Unix<br /><br />1. What are the logical blocks of the UNIX file system?<br /> Boot block<br /> Super block<br /> Inode block<br /> Data block<br /><br />2. What is an 'inode'?<br />All UNIX files have its description stored in a structure called 'inode'. The inode contains info about the file-size, its location, time of last access, time of last modification, permission and so on. Directories are also represented as files and have an associated inode. In addition to descriptions about the file, the inode contains pointers to the data blocks of the file. If the file is large, inode has indirect pointer to a block of pointers to additional data blocks (this further aggregates for larger files). A block is typically 8k.<br />Inode consists of the following fields:<br /> File owner identifier<br /> File type<br /> File access permissions<br /> File access times<br /> Number of links<br /> File size<br /> Location of the file data<br /><br />3. How does the inode map to data block of a file?<br />Inode has 13 block addresses. The first 10 are direct block addresses and these addresses point to first 10 data blocks in the file. <br />The 11th address points to a one-level index block. <br />The 12th address points to a two-level (double in-direction) index block. The 13th address points to a three-level (triple in-direction) index block.<br />This mapping scheme provides a very large maximum file size with efficient access to large files, still small files are accessed directly in one disk read.<br /><br />4. Brief about the directory representation in UNIX<br />A UNIX directory is a file containing a correspondence between filenames and inodes. A directory is a special file that the kernel maintains. Only kernel modifies directories, but processes can read directories. The contents of a directory are a list of filename and inode number pairs. When new directories are created, kernel makes two entries named '.' (refers to the directory itself) and '..' (refers to parent directory).<br />The system call for creating a new directory is mkdir (pathname, mode).<br /><br />5. How are devices represented in UNIX?<br />All devices are represented by files that are called as special files. They are are located in ‘/dev’ directory. Thus, device files and other files are named and accessed in the same way. <br />There are two types of such special files: 'block special files' and 'character special files'. A 'block special file' represents a device with characteristics similar to a disk (data transfer in terms of blocks). A 'character special file' represents a device with characteristics similar to a keyboard (data transfer is by stream of bits in sequential order). <br /><br />6. What are the Unix system calls for I/O?<br /> open(pathname,flag,mode) - open file<br /> creat(pathname,mode) - create file<br /> close(filedes) - close an open file<br /> read(filedes,buffer,bytes) - read data from an open file<br /> write(filedes,buffer,bytes) - write data to an open file<br /> lseek(filedes,offset,from) - position an open file<br /> dup(filedes) - duplicate an existing file descriptor<br /> dup2(oldfd,newfd) - duplicate to a desired file descriptor<br /> fcntl(filedes,cmd,arg) - change properties of an open file<br /> ioctl(filedes,request,arg) - change the behaviour of an open file<br />The difference between fcntl anf ioctl is that the former is intended for any open file, while the latter is for device-specific operations.<br /><br />7. How do you change File Access Permissions?<br />Every file has following attributes:<br /> owner's user ID ( 16 bit integer )<br /> owner's group ID ( 16 bit integer )<br /> File access mode word <br />'r w x - r w x - r w x' <br />(user permission - group permission - others permission) <br />r-read, w-write, x-execute.<br /><br />To change the access mode, we use chmod(filename,mode). <br />Example 1: <br />To change mode of myfile to 'rw-rw-r--' (ie. read, write permission for user - read,write permission for group - only read permission for others) we give the args as:<br />chmod(myfile,0664) .<br />Each operation is represented by discrete values <br />'r' is 4 <br />'w' is 2 <br />'x' is 1<br />Therefore, for 'rw' the value is 6(4+2).<br />Example 2: <br />To change mode of myfile to 'rwxr--r--' we give the args as:<br />chmod(myfile,0744).<br /><br />8. What are links and symbolic links in UNIX file system?<br />A link is a second name for a file. Links can be used to assign more than one name to a file, but they cannot be used to assign a directory more than one name or to link filenames on different computers.<br />Symbolic link 'is' a file that only contains the name of another file. Operation on the symbolic link is directed to the file pointed by the it. Both the limitations of links are eliminated in symbolic links. <br />Commands for linking files are:<br />Link ln filename1 filename2 <br />Symbolic link ln -s filename1 filename2 <br /><br />9. What is a FIFO?<br />FIFO are otherwise called as 'named pipes'. FIFO (first-in-first-out) is a special file that is said to be ‘data transient’. Once data is read from named pipe, it cannot be read again. Also, data can be read only in the order written. It is used in interprocess communication where a process writes to one end of the pipe (producer) and the other reads from the other end (consumer).<br /><br />10. How do you create special files like named pipes and device files?<br />The system call mknod creates special files in the following sequence:<br />1. kernel assigns new inode, <br />2. sets the file type to indicate that the file is a pipe, directory or special file,<br />3. If it is a device file, it makes the other entries like major, minor device numbers.<br />For example: If the device is a disk, major device number refers to the disk controller and minor device number refers the disk.<br /> <br />11. Discuss the mount and unmount system calls<br />The privileged mount system call is used to attach a file system to a directory of another file system; the unmount system call detaches a file system. When you mount another file system on to your directory, you are essentially splicing one directory tree onto a branch in another directory tree. The first argument to mount call is the mount point, that is, a directory in the current file naming system. The second argument is the file system to mount to that point. When you insert a cdrom to your Unix system's drive, the file system in the cdrom automatically mounts to /dev/cdrom in your system.<br /><br />12. What are surrogate super blocks and surrogate inode tables?<br />Whenever we use any file or change its permissions, these changes should be made on the disk; but this can be time consuming. Hence a copy of the super block and an inode table is maintained in the RAM that are called as the surrogate super blocks and inode tables respectively. <br />The ‘sync’ command synchronizes the inode table in the memory with the one on the disk by simply overwriting the memory copy on to the disk.<br /><br />13. Assuming the block size to be 1KB calculate the maximum size of a file in the Unix file system.<br />The first 10 data block pointers can point to 10 data blocks each of size 1 KB .<br />The 11 th pointer points to a table of block pointers the table has 256 pointers each pointing to data block of size 1 KB. Similarly the 12 th pointer can address <br />(256 X 256KB) i.e. 64 MB and the 13 th pointer (256 X 64 MB) => 16 GB. Hence the maximum size of the file is 10 KB + 256 KB + 64 MB + 16 GB.<br /><br />14. What are the uses of these disk related commands: df, dfspace, du and ulimit?<br />$ df - reports the free as well as used disk space,<br />$ dfspace - same as df but is more explanatory,<br />$ du - shows the disk space used by a specified file,<br />$ ulimit - avoids the user from creating files of very large size.<br /><br />Section – II <br />Process Management<br /><br />1. Brief about the initial process sequence while the system boots up. <br />While booting, special process called the 'swapper' or 'scheduler' is created with the Process-ID 0. The swapper manages memory allocation for processes and influences CPU allocation. The swapper inturn creates 3 children: <br /> the process dispatcher,<br /> vhand and <br /> dbflush <br />with IDs 1,2 and 3 respectively. <br />This is done by executing the file /etc/init. Process dispatcher gives birth to the shell. Unix keeps track of all the processes in an internal data structure called the Process Table (listing command is ps -el).<br /><br />2. What are various IDs associated with a process?<br />Unix identifies each process with an unique integer called ProcessID (PID). The process that executes the request for creation of a process is called the 'parent process' of the newly created process. <br />Every process is associated with a particular user called the 'owner' who initiates the process and has privileges over the process. The identification for the user is 'UserID'. Process also has 'Effective User ID' that determines the access privileges for accessing resources like files. The system calls used for getting the various IDs are:<br />getpid() - process id<br />getppid() - parent process id<br />getuid() - user id<br />geteuid() - effective user id<br /><br />3. What is the range of values PID can take?<br /> PID can range from 0 to 32767.<br />4. What are the process states in Unix?<br />As a process executes it changes state according to its circumstances. Unix processes have the following states: <br />Running : The process is either running or it is ready to run . <br />Waiting : The process is waiting for an event or for a resource. <br />Stopped : The process has been stopped, usually by receiving a signal. <br />Zombie : The process is dead but have not been removed from the process table.<br /><br />5. What Happens when you execute a program? <br />When you execute a program on your UNIX system, the system creates a special environment for that program. This environment contains everything needed for the system to run the program as if no other program were running on the system. Each process has process context, which is everything that is unique about the state of the program you are currently running. Every time you execute a program the UNIX system does a fork, which performs a series of operations to create a process context and then execute your program in that context. The steps include the following: <br /> Allocate a slot in the process table, a list of currently running programs kept by UNIX. <br /> Assign a unique process identifier (PID) to the process.<br /> iCopy the context of the parent, the process that requested the spawning of the new process. <br /> Return the new PID to the parent process. This enables the parent process to examine or control the process directly. <br />After the fork is complete, UNIX runs your program. <br /><br />6. What Happens when you execute a command? <br />When you enter 'ls' command to look at the contents of your current working directory, UNIX does a series of things to create an environment for ls and the run it: The shell has UNIX perform a fork. This creates a new process that the shell will use to run the ls program. The shell has UNIX perform an exec of the ls program. This replaces the shell program and data with the program and data for ls and then starts running that new program. The ls program is loaded into the new process context, replacing the text and data of the shell. The ls program performs its task, listing the contents of the current directory. <br /><br />7. What is a zombie process?<br />When a program forks and the child finishes before the parent, the kernel still keeps some of its information about the child in case the parent might need it - for example, the parent may need to check the child's exit status. To be able to get this information, the parent calls `wait()'; In the interval between the child terminating and the parent calling `wait()', the child is said to be a `zombie' (If you do `ps', the child will have a `Z' in its status field to indicate this.) <br /> <br />8. What is a daemon process?<br />A daemon is a process that detaches itself from the terminal and runs, disconnected, in the background, waiting for requests and responding to them. It can also be defined as the background process that does not belong to a terminal session. Many system functions are commonly performed by daemons, including the sendmail daemon, which handles mail, and the NNTP daemon, which handles USENET news. Many other daemons may exist. Some of the most common daemons are:<br /> init: Takes over the basic running of the system when the kernel has finished the boot process. <br /> inetd: Responsible for starting network services that do not have their own stand-alone daemons. For example, inetd usually takes care of incoming rlogin, telnet, and ftp connections.<br /> cron: Responsible for running repetitive tasks on a regular schedule. <br />Daemons can be roughly classified as system and user daemons. <br /><br />9. What is an advantage of executing a process in background?<br />The most common reason to put a process in the background is to allow you to do something else interactively without waiting for the process to complete. At the end of the command you add the special background symbol, &. This symbol tells your shell to execute the given command in the background.<br />Example: cp *.* ../backup& (cp is for copy) <br /><br />10. How do you execute one program from within another?<br />The system calls used for low-level process creation are execlp() and execvp(). The execlp call overlays the existing program with the new one , runs that and exits. The original program gets back control only when an error occurs.<br />execlp(path,file_name,arguments..); <br />//last argument must be NULL<br />A variant of execlp called execvp is used when the number of arguments is not known in advance.<br />execvp(path,argument_array); <br />//argument array should be terminated by NULL<br /><br />11. List the system calls used for process management:<br />System calls Description<br />fork() To create a new process<br />exec() To execute a new program in a process<br />wait() To wait until a created process completes its execution<br />exit() To exit from a process execution<br />getpid() To get a process identifier of the current process<br />getppid() To get parent process identifier<br />nice() To bias the existing priority of a process<br />brk() To increase/decrease the data segment size of a process<br /><br />12. Explain fork() system call.<br />The `fork()' used to create a new process from an existing process. The new process is called the child process, and the existing process is called the parent. We can tell which is which by checking the return value from `fork()'. The parent gets the child's pid returned to him, but the child gets 0 returned to him.<br /><br />13. Predict the output of the following program code<br />main(){<br /> fork();<br />printf("Hello World!");<br />}<br />Answer: <br />Hello World!Hello World!<br />Explanation:<br />The fork creates a child that is a duplicate of the parent process. The child begins from the fork().All the statements after the call to fork() will be executed twice.(once by the parent process and other by child). The statement before fork() is executed only by the parent process.<br /><br />14. Predict the output of the following program code<br />main(){<br />fork(); fork(); fork();<br />printf("Hello World!");<br />}<br />Answer: <br />"Hello World" will be printed 8 times.<br />Explanation:<br /> 2^n times where n is the number of calls to fork()<br /><br />15. How can you get/set an environment variable from a program?<br />Getting the value of an environment variable is done by using `getenv()'. Setting the value of an environment variable is done by using `putenv()'.<br /><br />16. How can a parent and child process communicate?<br />A parent and child can communicate through any of the normal inter-process communication schemes (pipes, sockets, message queues, shared memory), but also have some special ways to communicate that take advantage of their relationship as a parent and child. One of the most obvious is that the parent can get the exit status of the child.<br /><br />17. What is IPC? What are the various schemes available? <br />The term IPC (Inter-Process Communication) describes various ways by which different processes running on some operating system communicate between each other. Various schemes available are as follows:<br />Pipes: <br />One-way communication scheme through which different process can communicate. The problem is that the two processes should have a common ancestor (parent-child relationship). However this problem was fixed with the introduction of named-pipes (FIFO).<br />Message Queues :<br />Message queues can be used between related and unrelated processes running on a machine.<br />Shared Memory:<br />This is the fastest of all IPC schemes. The memory to be shared is mapped into the address space of the processes (that are sharing). The speed achieved is attributed to the fact that there is no kernel involvement. But this scheme needs synchronization. <br />Various forms of synchronisation are mutexes, condition-variables, read-write locks, record-locks, and semaphores.<br /><br />18. Explain 'ps' command and its purpose.<br />The ps command prints the process status for some or all of the running processes. The information given are the process identification number (PID), the amount of time that the process has taken to execute so far etc.<br />The options used in this command are<br /> $ ps –a :: Lists the processes running for other users.<br /> $ ps –t :: Lists the processes running in a particular terminal.<br /> $ ps –f :: Lists the processes along with PPID.<br /> $ ps –e :: Lists every process running at that instance.<br /><br />19. How would you kill a process?<br />The kill command takes the PID as one argument; this identifies which process to terminate. The PID of a process can be got using 'ps' command.<br /><br />20. For some reason, the process with PID 6173 could not be terminated with the command ‘$ kill 6173’. What could be the reason and how can you terminate that process?<br />The kill command when invoked sends a termination signal to the process being killed. Since the signal number is not specified unix assumes the default signal number which cannot kill certain high priority processes.<br />In such cases we can use the signal number 9 ‘$ kill –9 6173’.<br /><br />19. What is a shell?<br />A shell is an interactive user interface to services of an operating system, that allows an user to enter commands as character strings or through a graphical user interface. The shell converts them to system calls to the OS or forks off a process to execute the command. Results of the system calls and other information from the OS are presented to the user through an interactive interface. Commonly used shells are sh,csh,ks etc. <br /><br />21. Explain about the process priority values.<br />Each process is assigned a priority value; higher the value lesser is its priority. The priority value for a process can range from 0 to 39. The default priority value for a process is 20. A user is allowed to increase the value but he cannot decrease it.<br /><br />22. What does the command ‘$ nice –15 cat emp.dat’ do?<br />The priority value of the cat emp.dat command is increased form 20 to 35 This will slower the command as higher priority value means lesser priority.<br /><br />23. Write a command such that at exactly 5 pm the message “time is 5 pm” appears on the terminal named tty3c.<br />$ at 17:00<br />echo “time is 5 pm” > /dev/tty3c<br />ctrl d<br />$<br /><br />24. What does the batch command do?<br />The batch command lets the system decide the best time for executing our commands. It may not execute the commands immediately. The batch command will be queued and executed when the system is free.<br /><br />25. How is ‘crontab‘ command different from ‘at’ ?<br />The crontab can carry out a submitted job every day for years together without any prompting form the user. The ‘at’ command is valid only for a day.<br /><br />Section - III <br />Memory Management<br /><br />1. What is the difference between Swapping and Paging?<br />Swapping: <br />Whole process is moved from the swap device to the main memory for execution. Process size must be less than or equal to the available main memory. It is easier to implementation and overhead to the system. Swapping systems does not handle the memory more flexibly as compared to the paging systems.<br /> Paging: <br />Only the required memory pages are moved to main memory from the swap device for execution. Process size does not matter. Gives the concept of the virtual memory.<br />It provides greater flexibility in mapping the virtual address space into the physical memory of the machine. Allows more number of processes to fit in the main memory simultaneously. Allows the greater process size than the available physical memory. Demand paging systems handle the memory more flexibly.<br /><br />2. What is the major difference between the Historic Unix and the new BSD release of Unix System V in terms of Memory Management?<br />Historic Unix uses Swapping – entire process is transferred to the main memory from the swap device, whereas the Unix System V uses Demand Paging – only the part of the process is moved to the main memory. Historic Unix uses one Swap Device and Unix System V allow multiple Swap Devices.<br /><br />3. What is the main goal of the Memory Management?<br /> It decides which process should reside in the main memory,<br /> Manages the parts of the virtual address space of a process which is non-core resident,<br /> Monitors the available main memory and periodically write the processes into the swap device to provide more processes fit in the main memory simultaneously.<br /><br />4. What is a Map?<br />A Map is an Array, which contains the addresses of the free space in the swap device that are allocatable resources, and the number of the resource units available there. <br /><br /><br /><br /><br />This allows First-Fit allocation of contiguous blocks of a resource. Initially the Map contains one entry – address (block offset from the starting of the swap are and the total number of resources.<br />Kernel treats each unit of Map as a group of disk blocks. On the allocation and freeing of the resources Kernel updates the Map for accurate information.<br /><br />5. What is a Region?<br />A Region is a continuous area of a process’s address space (such as text, data and stack). The kernel in a ‘Region Table’ that is local to the process maintains region. Regions are sharable among the process.<br /><br />6. What are the events done by the Kernel after a process is being swapped out from the main memory?<br />When Kernel swaps the process out of the primary memory, it performs the following:<br /> Kernel decrements the Reference Count of each region of the process. If the reference count becomes zero, swaps the region out of the main memory,<br /> Kernel allocates the space for the swapping process in the swap device,<br /> Kernel locks the other swapping process while the current swapping operation is going on,<br /> The Kernel saves the swap address of the region in the region table.<br /><br />7. Is the Process before and after the swap are the same? Give reason.<br />Process before swapping is residing in the primary memory in its original form. The regions (text, data and stack) may not be occupied fully by the process, there may be few empty slots in any of the regions and while swapping Kernel do not bother about the empty slots while swapping the process out.<br />After swapping the process resides in the swap (secondary memory) device. The regions swapped out will be present but only the occupied region slots but not the empty slots that were present before assigning.<br />While swapping the process once again into the main memory, the Kernel referring to the Process Memory Map, it assigns the main memory accordingly taking care of the empty slots in the regions.<br /><br />8. What do you mean by u-area (user area or u-block)?<br />This contains the private data that is manipulated only by the Kernel. This is local to the Process, i.e. each process is allocated a u-area.<br /><br />9. What are the entities that are swapped out of the main memory while swapping the process out of the main memory?<br />All memory space occupied by the process, process’s u-area, and Kernel stack are swapped out, theoretically.<br />Practically, if the process’s u-area contains the Address Translation Tables for the process then Kernel implementations do not swap the u-area.<br /><br />10. What is Fork swap?<br />fork() is a system call to create a child process. When the parent process calls fork() system call, the child process is created and if there is short of memory then the child process is sent to the read-to-run state in the swap device, and return to the user state without swapping the parent process. When the memory will be available the child process will be swapped into the main memory.<br /><br />11. What is Expansion swap?<br />At the time when any process requires more memory than it is currently allocated, the Kernel performs Expansion swap. To do this Kernel reserves enough space in the swap device. Then the address translation mapping is adjusted for the new virtual address space but the physical memory is not allocated. At last Kernel swaps the process into the assigned space in the swap device. Later when the Kernel swaps the process into the main memory this assigns memory according to the new address translation mapping.<br /><br />12. How the Swapper works?<br />The swapper is the only process that swaps the processes. The Swapper operates only in the Kernel mode and it does not uses System calls instead it uses internal Kernel functions for swapping. It is the archetype of all kernel process.<br /><br />13. What are the processes that are not bothered by the swapper? Give Reason.<br /> Zombie process: They do not take up any physical memory.<br /> Processes locked in memories that are updating the region of the process.<br /> Kernel swaps only the sleeping processes rather than the ‘ready-to-run’ processes, as they have the higher probability of being scheduled than the sleeping processes.<br /><br />14. What are the requirements for a swapper to work?<br />The swapper works on the highest scheduling priority. Firstly it will look for any sleeping process, if not found then it will look for the ready-to-run process for swapping. But the major requirement for the swapper to work the ready-to-run process must be core-resident for few seconds before swapping out. And for swapping in the process must have been resided in the swap device for few seconds. If the requirement is not satisfied then the swapper will go into the wait state on that event and it is awaken once in a second by the Kernel.<br /><br />15. What are the criteria for choosing a process for swapping into memory from the swap device? <br />The resident time of the processes in the swap device, the priority of the processes and the amount of time the processes had been swapped out.<br /><br />16. What are the criteria for choosing a process for swapping out of the memory to the swap device?<br /> The process’s memory resident time,<br /> Priority of the process and <br /> The nice value.<br /><br />17. What do you mean by nice value?<br />Nice value is the value that controls {increments or decrements} the priority of the process. This value that is returned by the nice () system call. The equation for using nice value is: <br />Priority = (“recent CPU usage”/constant) + (base- priority) + (nice value)<br />Only the administrator can supply the nice value. The nice () system call works for the running process only. Nice value of one process cannot affect the nice value of the other process.<br /><br />18. What are conditions on which deadlock can occur while swapping the processes?<br /> All processes in the main memory are asleep.<br /> All ‘ready-to-run’ processes are swapped out.<br /> There is no space in the swap device for the new incoming process that are swapped out of the main memory.<br /> There is no space in the main memory for the new incoming process.<br /><br />19. What are conditions for a machine to support Demand Paging?<br /> Memory architecture must based on Pages, <br /> The machine must support the ‘restartable’ instructions.<br /><br />20. What is ‘the principle of locality’?<br />It’s the nature of the processes that they refer only to the small subset of the total data space of the process. i.e. the process frequently calls the same subroutines or executes the loop instructions.<br /><br />21. What is the working set of a process?<br />The set of pages that are referred by the process in the last ‘n’, references, where ‘n’ is called the window of the working set of the process.<br /><br />22. What is the window of the working set of a process?<br />The window of the working set of a process is the total number in which the process had referred the set of pages in the working set of the process.<br /><br />23. What is called a page fault?<br />Page fault is referred to the situation when the process addresses a page in the working set of the process but the process fails to locate the page in the working set. And on a page fault, the kernel updates the working set by reading the page from the secondary device.<br /><br />24. What are data structures that are used for Demand Paging?<br /> Kernel contains 4 data structures for Demand paging. They are,<br /> Page table entries,<br /> Disk block descriptors,<br /> Page frame data table (pfdat),<br /> Swap-use table.<br /> <br />26. What are the bits(UNIX System V) that support the demand paging?<br />Valid, Reference, Modify, Copy on write, Age. These bits are the part of the page table entry, which includes physical address of the page and protection bits.<br /><br />Page address Age Copy on write Modify Reference Valid Protection<br /><br /> <br /><br />27. Difference between the fork() and vfork() system call?<br />During the fork() system call the Kernel makes a copy of the parent process’s address space and attaches it to the child process.<br />But the vfork() system call do not makes any copy of the parent’s address space, so it is faster than the fork() system call. The child process as a result of the vfork() system call executes exec() system call. The child process from vfork() system call executes in the parent’s address space (this can overwrite the parent’s data and stack ) which suspends the parent process until the child process exits.<br /><br />28. What is BSS(Block Started by Symbol)?<br />A data representation at the machine level, that has initial values when a program starts and tells about how much space the kernel allocates for the un-initialized data. Kernel initializes it to zero at run-time.<br /><br />29. What is Page-Stealer process?<br />This is the Kernel process that makes rooms for the incoming pages, by swapping the memory pages that are not the part of the working set of a process. Page-Stealer is created by the Kernel at the system initialization and invokes it throughout the lifetime of the system. Kernel locks a region when a process faults on a page in the region, so that page stealer cannot steal the page, which is being faulted in.<br /><br />30. Name two paging states for a page in memory?<br />The two paging states are:<br /> The page is aging and is not yet eligible for swapping,<br /> The page is eligible for swapping but not yet eligible for reassignment to other virtual address space.<br /><br />31. What are the phases of swapping a page from the memory?<br /> Page stealer finds the page eligible for swapping and places the page number in the list of pages to be swapped.<br /> Kernel copies the page to a swap device when necessary and clears the valid bit in the page table entry, decrements the pfdata reference count, and places the pfdata table entry at the end of the free list if its reference count is 0.<br /><br />33. What is page fault? Its types?<br />Page fault refers to the situation of not having a page in the main memory when any process references it.<br />There are two types of page fault :<br /> Validity fault, <br /> Protection fault.<br /><br />34. What is validity fault?<br />If a process referring a page in the main memory whose valid bit is not set, it results in validity fault.<br /> The valid bit is not set for those pages:<br /> that are outside the virtual address space of a process,<br /> that are the part of the virtual address space of the process but no physical address is assigned to it.<br /><br />35. What do you mean by the protection fault?<br />Protection fault refers to the process accessing the pages, which do not have the access permission. A process also incur the protection fault when it attempts to write a page whose copy on write bit (UNIX System V) was set during the fork() system call.<br /><br />36. In what way the Fault Handlers and the Interrupt handlers are different?<br />Fault handlers are also an interrupt handler with an exception that the interrupt handlers cannot sleep. Fault handlers sleep in the context of the process that caused the memory fault. The fault refers to the running process and no arbitrary processes are put to sleep.<br /><br />37. What does the swapping system do if it identifies the illegal page for swapping?<br />If the disk block descriptor does not contain any record of the faulted page, then this causes the attempted memory reference is invalid and the kernel sends a “Segmentation violation” signal to the offending process. This happens when the swapping system identifies any invalid memory reference.<br /><br />38. What are states that the page can be in, after causing a page fault?<br /> On a swap device and not in memory,<br /> On the free page list in the main memory,<br /> In an executable file,<br /> Marked “demand zero”,<br /> Marked “demand fill”. <br /><br />39. In what way the validity fault handler concludes?<br /> It sets the valid bit of the page by clearing the modify bit.<br /> It recalculates the process priority.<br /><br />40. At what mode the fault handler executes?<br /> At the kernel mode.<br /><br />41. How the Kernel handles the copy on write bit of a page, when the bit is set?<br />In situations like, where the copy on write bit (UNIX System V) of a page is set and that page is shared by more than one process, the Kernel allocates new page and copies the content to the new page and the other processes retain their references to the old page. After copying the Kernel updates the page table entry with the new page number. Then Kernel decrements the reference count of the old pfdata table entry.<br />In cases like, where the copy on write bit is set and no processes are sharing the page, the Kernel allows the physical page to be reused by the processes. By doing so, it clears the copy on write bit and disassociates the page from its disk copy (if one exists), because other process may share the disk copy. Then it removes the pfdata table entry from the page-queue as the new copy of the virtual page is not on the swap device. It decrements the swap-use count for the page and if count drops to 0, frees the swap space.<br /><br />42. For which kind of fault the page is checked first?<br />The page is first checked for the validity fault, as soon as it is found that the page is invalid (valid bit is clear), the validity fault handler returns immediately, and the process incur the validity page fault. Kernel handles the validity fault and the process will incur the protection fault if any one is present.<br /><br />43. In what way the protection fault handler concludes?<br />After finishing the execution of the fault handler, it sets the modify and protection bits and clears the copy on write bit (all bits as in UNIX System V). It recalculates the process-priority and checks for signals.<br /><br />44. How the Kernel handles both the page stealer and the fault handler?<br />The page stealer and the fault handler thrash pages because of the shortage of memory. If the sum of the working sets of all processes is greater that the physical memory then the fault handler will usually sleep because it cannot allocate pages for a process. This results in the reduction of the system throughput because Kernel spends too much time in overhead, rearranging the memory in a fast pace.FRESHERhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/03154154368670178574noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-2158258402527566027.post-88275103643760480862007-08-19T08:22:00.000-07:002007-08-19T08:23:50.564-07:0064 interview quetionsHow to Answer <br />The 64 Toughest <br />Interview <br />Questions<br /> <br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />THIS BOOK IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE ACCURATE INFORMATION ON THE SUBJECTS COVERED. HOWEVER, IT IS DONE WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING OR PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF LEGAL ADVICE OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL ASSSTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT, PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOUID BE SOUGHT. ANY NAMES USED IN THE TEXT ARE FICTITIOUS AND FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY. ANY RESEMBLANCE TO ACTUAL PERSONS OR COMPANIES IS PURELY COINCIDENTAL AND UNINTENTIONAL. <br /> <br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Dedication:<br />This report is dedicated to courage and knowledge,<br />the two qualities most needed <br />to succeed in any human challenge,<br />especially a job search.<br /><br /><br /> <br />Table of Contents<br /><br />General Guidelines in Answering Interview Questions 3<br />Q1 Tell me about yourself. 5<br />Q2 What are your greatest strengths? 6<br />Q3 What are your greatest weaknesses? 6<br />Q4 Tell me about something you did – or failed to do – that you now feel a little ashamed of. 7<br />Q5 Why are you leaving (or did you leave) this position? 8<br />Q6 The “Silent Treatment” 9<br />Q7 Why should I hire you? 9<br />Q8 Aren’t you overqualified for this position? 10<br />Q9 Where do you see yourself five years from now? 11<br />Q10 Describe your ideal company, location and job. 12<br />Q11 Why do you want to work at our company? 12<br />Q12 What are your career options right now? 12<br />Q13 Why have you been out of work so long? 13<br />Q14 Tell me honestly about the strong points and weak points of your boss (company, management team, etc.)… 13<br />Q15 What good books have you read lately? 14<br />Q16 Tell me about a situation when your work was criticized. 14<br />Q17 What are your outside interest? 15<br />Q18 The “Fatal Flaw” question 15<br />Q19 How do you feel about reporting to a younger person (minority, woman, etc)? 16<br />Q20 On confidential matters… 16<br />Q21 Would you lie for the company? 17<br />Q22 Looking back, what would you do differently in your life? 17<br />Q23 Could you have done better in your last job? 18<br />Q24 Can you work under pressure? 18<br />Q25 What makes you angry? 18<br />Q26 Why aren’t you earning more money at this stage of your career? 19<br />Q27 Who has inspired you in your life and why? 19<br />Q28 What was the toughest decision you ever had to make? 20<br />Q29 Tell me about the most boring job you’ve ever had. 20<br />Q30 Have you been absent from work more than a few days in any previous position? 20<br />Q31 What changes would you make if you came on board? 21<br />Q32 I’m concerned that you don’t have as much experience as we’d like in… 21<br />Q33 How do you feel about working nights and weekends? 22<br />Q34 Are you willing to relocate or travel? 23<br />Q35 Do you have the stomach to fire people? Have you had experience firing many people? 23<br />Q36 Why have you had so many jobs? 24<br />Q37 What do you see as the proper role/mission of… …a good (job title you’re seeking); …a good manager; …an executive in serving the community; …a leading company in our industry; etc. 25<br />Q38 What would you say to your boss if he’s crazy about an idea, but you think it stinks? 25<br />Q39 How could you have improved your career progress? 26<br />Q40 What would you do if a fellow executive on your own corporate level wasn’t pulling his/her weight…and this was hurting your department? 26<br />Q41 You’ve been with your firm a long time. Won’t it be hard switching to a new company? 27<br />Q42 May I contact your present employer for a reference? 27<br />Q43 Give me an example of your creativity (analytical skill…managing ability, etc.) 28<br />Q44 Where could you use some improvement? 28<br />Q45 What do you worry about? 28<br />Q46 How many hours a week do you normally work? 28<br />Q47 What’s the most difficult part of being a (job title)? 29<br />Q48 The “Hypothetical Problem” 29<br />Q49 What was the toughest challenge you’ve ever faced? 29<br />Q50 Have you consider starting your own business? 30<br />Q51 What are your goals? 31<br />Q52 What do you for when you hire people? 31<br />Q53 Sell me this stapler…(this pencil…this clock…or some other object on interviewer’s desk). 31<br />Q54 “The Salary Question” – How much money do you want? 33<br />Q55 The Illegal Question 33<br />Q56 The “Secret” Illegal Question 34<br />Q57 What was the toughest part of your last job? 35<br />Q58 How do you define success…and how do you measure up to your own definition?. 35<br />Q59 “The Opinion Question” – What do you think about …Abortion…The President…The Death Penalty…(or any other controversial subject)? 36<br />Q60 If you won $10 million lottery, would you still work? 36<br />Q61 Looking back on your last position, have you done your best work? 37<br />Q62 Why should I hire you from the outside when I could promote someone from within? 37<br />Q63 Tell me something negative you’ve heard about our company… 38<br />Q64 On a scale of one to ten, rate me as an interviewer. 38<br /><br /> <br />General Guidelines<br />in Answering Interview Questions<br />Everyone is nervous on interviews. If you simply allow yourself to feel nervous, you'll do much better. Remember also that it's difficult for the interviewer as well. <br />In general, be upbeat and positive. Never be negative. <br />Rehearse your answers and time them. Never talk for more than 2 minutes straight. <br />Don't try to memorize answers word for word. Use the answers shown here as a guide only, and don't be afraid to include your own thoughts and words. To help you remember key concepts, jot down and review a few key words for each answer. Rehearse your answers frequently, and they will come to you naturally in interviews. <br />As you will read in the accompanying report, the single most important strategy in interviewing, as in all phases of your job search, is what we call: "The Greatest Executive Job Finding Secret." And that is... <br />Find out what people want, than show them how you can help them get it. <br />Find out what an employer wants most in his or her ideal candidate, then show how you meet those qualifications. <br />In other words, you must match your abilities, with the needs of the employer. You must sell what the buyer is buying. To do that, before you know what to emphasize in your answers, you must find out what the buyer is buying... what he is looking for. And the best way to do that is to ask a few questions yourself. <br />You will see how to bring this off skillfully as you read the first two questions of this report. But regardless of how you accomplish it, you must remember this strategy above all: before blurting out your qualifications, you must get some idea of what the employer wants most. Once you know what he wants, you can then present your qualifications as the perfect “key” that fits the “lock” of that position. <br />• Other important interview strategies:<br />• Turn weaknesses into strengths (You'll see how to do this in a few moments.) <br />• Think before you answer. A pause to collect your thoughts is a hallmark of a thoughtful person. <br />As a daily exercise, practice being more optimistic. For example, try putting a positive spin on events and situations you would normally regard as negative. This is not meant to turn you into a Pollyanna, but to sharpen your selling skills. The best salespeople, as well as the best liked interview candidates, come off as being naturally optimistic, "can do" people. You will dramatically raise your level of attractiveness by daily practicing to be more optimistic. <br />Be honest...never lie. <br />Keep an interview diary. Right after each interview note what you did right, what could have gone a little better, and what steps you should take next with this contact. Then take those steps. Don't be like the 95% of humanity who say they will follow up on something, but never do. <br />About the 64 questions...<br />You might feel that the answers to the following questions are “canned”, and that they will seldom match up with the exact way you are asked the questions in actual interviews. The questions and answers are designed to be as specific and realistic as possible. But no preparation can anticipate thousands of possible variations on these questions. What's important is that you thoroughly familiarize yourself with the main strategies behind each answer. And it will be invaluable to you if you commit to memory a few key words that let you instantly call to mind your best answer to the various questions. If you do this, and follow the principles of successful interviewing presented here, you're going to do very well. <br />Good luck...and good job-hunting!<br /> <br />Question 1 Tell me about yourself. <br />TRAPS: Beware, about 80% of all interviews begin with this “innocent” question. Many candidates, unprepared for the question, skewer themselves by rambling, recapping their life story, delving into ancient work history or personal matters.<br />BEST ANSWER: Start with the present and tell why you are well qualified for the position. Remember that the key to all successful interviewing is to match your qualifications to what the interviewer is looking for. In other words you must sell what the buyer is buying. This is the single most important strategy in job hunting. <br />So, before you answer this or any question it's imperative that you try to uncover your interviewer's greatest need, want, problem or goal. <br />To do so, make you take these two steps:<br />1. Do all the homework you can before the interview to uncover this person's wants and needs (not the generalized needs of the industry or company)<br />2. As early as you can in the interview, ask for a more complete description of what the position entails. You might say: “I have a number of accomplishments I'd like to tell you about, but I want to make the best use of our time together and talk directly to your needs. To help me do, that, could you tell me more about the most important priorities of this position? All I know is what I (heard from the recruiter, read in the classified ad, etc.)”<br /> Then, ALWAYS follow-up with a second and possibly, third question, to draw out his needs even more. Surprisingly, it's usually this second or third question that unearths what the interviewer is most looking for. <br />You might ask simply, "And in addition to that?..." or, "Is there anything else you see as essential to success in this position?: <br />This process will not feel easy or natural at first, because it is easier simply to answer questions, but only if you uncover the employer's wants and needs will your answers make the most sense. Practice asking these key questions before giving your answers, the process will feel more natural and you will be light years ahead of the other job candidates you're competing with. <br />After uncovering what the employer is looking for, describe why the needs of this job bear striking parallels to tasks you've succeeded at before. Be sure to illustrate with specific examples of your responsibilities and especially your achievements, all of which are geared to present yourself as a perfect match for the needs he has just described. <br />Question 2 What are your greatest strengths?<br />TRAPS: This question seems like a softball lob, but be prepared. You don't want to come across as egotistical or arrogant. Neither is this a time to be humble. <br />BEST ANSWER: You know that your key strategy is to first uncover your interviewer's greatest wants and needs before you answer questions. And from Question 1, you know how to do this. <br />Prior to any interview, you should have a list mentally prepared of your greatest strengths. You should also have, a specific example or two, which illustrates each strength, an example chosen from your most recent and most impressive achievements.<br />You should, have this list of your greatest strengths and corresponding examples from your achievements so well committed to memory that you can recite them cold after being shaken awake at 2:30AM. <br />Then, once you uncover your interviewer's greatest wants and needs, you can choose those achievements from your list that best match up. <br />As a general guideline, the 10 most desirable traits that all employers love to see in their employees are:<br />1. A proven track record as an achiever...especially if your achievements match up with the employer's greatest wants and needs.<br />2. Intelligence...management "savvy". <br />3. Honesty...integrity...a decent human being. <br />4. Good fit with corporate culture...someone to feel comfortable with...a team player who meshes well with interviewer's team.<br />5. Likeability...positive attitude...sense of humor.<br />6. Good communication skills.<br />7. Dedication...willingness to walk the extra mile to achieve excellence.<br />8. Definiteness of purpose...clear goals.<br />9. Enthusiasm...high level of motivation.<br />10. Confident...healthy...a leader. <br />Question 3 What are your greatest weaknesses? <br />TRAPS: Beware - this is an eliminator question, designed to shorten the candidate list. Any admission of a weakness or fault will earn you an “A” for honesty, but an “F” for the interview. <br />PASSABLE ANSWER: Disguise a strength as a weakness. <br />Example: “I sometimes push my people too hard. I like to work with a sense of urgency and everyone is not always on the same wavelength.”<br />Drawback: This strategy is better than admitting a flaw, but it's so widely used, it is transparent to any experienced interviewer. <br />BEST ANSWER: (and another reason it's so important to get a thorough description of your interviewer's needs before you answer questions): Assure the interviewer that you can think of nothing that would stand in the way of your performing in this position with excellence. Then, quickly review you strongest qualifications. <br />Example: “Nobody's perfect, but based on what you've told me about this position, I believe I' d make an outstanding match. I know that when I hire people, I look for two things most of all. Do they have the qualifications to do the job well, and the motivation to do it well? Everything in my background shows I have both the qualifications and a strong desire to achieve excellence in whatever I take on. So I can say in all honesty that I see nothing that would cause you even a small concern about my ability or my strong desire to perform this job with excellence.”<br />Alternate strategy (if you don't yet know enough about the position to talk about such a perfect fit): <br />Instead of confessing a weakness, describe what you like most and like least, making sure that what you like most matches up with the most important qualification for success in the position, and what you like least is not essential. <br />Example: Let's say you're applying for a teaching position. “If given a choice, I like to spend as much time as possible in front of my prospects selling, as opposed to shuffling paperwork back at the office. Of course, I long ago learned the importance of filing paperwork properly, and I do it conscientiously. But what I really love to do is sell (if your interviewer were a sales manager, this should be music to his ears.)<br />Question 4 Tell me about something you did – or failed to do – that you now feel a little ashamed of.<br />TRAPS: There are some questions your interviewer has no business asking, and this is one. But while you may feel like answering, “none of your business,” naturally you can’t. Some interviewers ask this question on the chance you admit to something, but if not, at least they’ll see how you think on your feet.<br />Some unprepared candidates, flustered by this question, unburden themselves of guilt from their personal life or career, perhaps expressing regrets regarding a parent, spouse, child, etc. All such answers can be disastrous.<br />BEST ANSWER: As with faults and weaknesses, never confess a regret. But don’t seem as if you’re stonewalling either.<br />Best strategy: Say you harbor no regrets, then add a principle or habit you practice regularly for healthy human relations.<br />Example: Pause for reflection, as if the question never occurred to you. Then say, “You know, I really can’t think of anything.” (Pause again, then add): “I would add that as a general management principle, I’ve found that the best way to avoid regrets is to avoid causing them in the first place. I practice one habit that helps me a great deal in this regard. At the end of each day, I mentally review the day’s events and conversations to take a second look at the people and developments I’m involved with and do a doublecheck of what they’re likely to be feeling. Sometimes I’ll see things that do need more follow-up, whether a pat on the back, or maybe a five minute chat in someone’s office to make sure we’re clear on things…whatever.”<br />“I also like to make each person feel like a member of an elite team, like the Boston Celtics or LA Lakers in their prime. I’ve found that if you let each team member know you expect excellence in their performance…if you work hard to set an example yourself…and if you let people know you appreciate and respect their feelings, you wind up with a highly motivated group, a team that’s having fun at work because they’re striving for excellence rather than brooding over slights or regrets.”<br />Question 5 Why are you leaving (or did you leave) this position?<br />TRAPS: Never badmouth your previous industry, company, board, boss, staff, employees or customers. This rule is inviolable: never be negative. Any mud you hurl will only soil your suit.<br />Especially avoid words like “personality clash”, “didn’t get along”, or others which cast a shadow on your competence, integrity, or temperament.<br />BEST ANSWER:<br />(If you have a job presently)<br />If you’re not yet 100% committed to leaving your present post, don’t be afraid to say so. Since you have a job, you are in a stronger position than someone who does not. But don’t be coy either. State honestly what you’d be hoping to find in a new spot. Of course, as stated often before, you answer will all the stronger if you have already uncovered what this position is all about and you match your desires to it.<br />(If you do not presently have a job.)<br />Never lie about having been fired. It’s unethical – and too easily checked. But do try to deflect the reason from you personally. If your firing was the result of a takeover, merger, division wide layoff, etc., so much the better.<br />But you should also do something totally unnatural that will demonstrate consummate professionalism. Even if it hurts , describe your own firing – candidly, succinctly and without a trace of bitterness – from the company’s point-of-view, indicating that you could understand why it happened and you might have made the same decision yourself.<br />Your stature will rise immensely and, most important of all, you will show you are healed from the wounds inflicted by the firing. You will enhance your image as first-class management material and stand head and shoulders above the legions of firing victims who, at the slightest provocation, zip open their shirts to expose their battle scars and decry the unfairness of it all.<br />For all prior positions:<br />Make sure you’ve prepared a brief reason for leaving. Best reasons: more money, opportunity, responsibility or growth.<br />Question 6 The “Silent Treatment”<br />TRAPS: Beware – if you are unprepared for this question, you will probably not handle it right and possibly blow the interview. Thank goodness most interviewers don’t employ it. It’s normally used by those determined to see how you respond under stress. Here’s how it works:<br />You answer an interviewer’s question and then, instead of asking another, he just stares at you in a deafening silence.<br />You wait, growing a bit uneasy, and there he sits, silent as Mt. Rushmore, as if he doesn’t believe what you’ve just said, or perhaps making you feel that you’ve unwittingly violated some cardinal rule of interview etiquette.<br />When you get this silent treatment after answering a particularly difficult question , such as “tell me about your weaknesses”, its intimidating effect can be most disquieting, even to polished job hunters.<br />Most unprepared candidates rush in to fill the void of silence, viewing prolonged, uncomfortable silences as an invitation to clear up the previous answer which has obviously caused some problem. And that’s what they do – ramble on, sputtering more and more information, sometimes irrelevant and often damaging, because they are suddenly playing the role of someone who’s goofed and is now trying to recoup. But since the candidate doesn’t know where or how he goofed, he just keeps talking, showing how flustered and confused he is by the interviewer’s unmovable silence.<br />BEST ANSWER: Like a primitive tribal mask, the Silent Treatment loses all it power to frighten you once you refuse to be intimidated. If your interviewer pulls it, keep quiet yourself for a while and then ask, with sincere politeness and not a trace of sarcasm, “Is there anything else I can fill in on that point?” That’s all there is to it.<br />Whatever you do, don’t let the Silent Treatment intimidate you into talking a blue streak, because you could easily talk yourself out of the position.<br />Question 7 Why should I hire you?<br />TRAPS: Believe it or not, this is a killer question because so many candidates are unprepared for it. If you stammer or adlib you’ve blown it.<br />BEST ANSWER: By now you can see how critical it is to apply the overall strategy of uncovering the employer’s needs before you answer questions. If you know the employer’s greatest needs and desires, this question will give you a big leg up over other candidates because you will give him better reasons for hiring you than anyone else is likely to…reasons tied directly to his needs.<br />Whether your interviewer asks you this question explicitly or not, this is the most important question of your interview because he must answer this question favorably in is own mind before you will be hired. So help him out! Walk through each of the position’s requirements as you understand them, and follow each with a reason why you meet that requirement so well.<br />Example: “As I understand your needs, you are first and foremost looking for someone who can manage the sales and marketing of your book publishing division. As you’ve said you need someone with a strong background in trade book sales. This is where I’ve spent almost all of my career, so I’ve chalked up 18 years of experience exactly in this area. I believe that I know the right contacts, methods, principles, and successful management techniques as well as any person can in our industry.”<br />“You also need someone who can expand your book distribution channels. In my prior post, my innovative promotional ideas doubled, then tripled, the number of outlets selling our books. I’m confident I can do the same for you.”<br />“You need someone to give a new shot in the arm to your mail order sales, someone who knows how to sell in space and direct mail media. Here, too, I believe I have exactly the experience you need. In the last five years, I’ve increased our mail order book sales from $600,000 to $2,800,000, and now we’re the country’s second leading marketer of scientific and medical books by mail.” Etc., etc., etc.,<br />Every one of these selling “couplets” (his need matched by your qualifications) is a touchdown that runs up your score. IT is your best opportunity to outsell your competition.<br />Question 8 Aren’t you overqualified for this position?<br />TRAPS: The employer may be concerned that you’ll grow dissatisfied and leave.<br />BEST ANSWER: As with any objection, don’t view this as a sign of imminent defeat. It’s an invitation to teach the interviewer a new way to think about this situation, seeing advantages instead of drawbacks.<br />Example: “I recognize the job market for what it is – a marketplace. Like any marketplace, it’s subject to the laws of supply and demand. So ‘overqualified’ can be a relative term, depending on how tight the job market is. And right now, it’s very tight. I understand and accept that.”<br />“I also believe that there could be very positive benefits for both of us in this match.”<br />“Because of my unusually strong experience in ________________ , I could start to contribute right away, perhaps much faster than someone who’d have to be brought along more slowly.”<br />“There’s also the value of all the training and years of experience that other companies have invested tens of thousands of dollars to give me. You’d be getting all the value of that without having to pay an extra dime for it. With someone who has yet to acquire that experience, he’d have to gain it on your nickel.”<br />“I could also help you in many things they don’t teach at the Harvard Business School. For example…(how to hire, train, motivate, etc.) When it comes to knowing how to work well with people and getting the most out of them, there’s just no substitute for what you learn over many years of front-line experience. You company would gain all this, too.”<br />“From my side, there are strong benefits, as well. Right now, I am unemployed. I want to work, very much, and the position you have here is exactly what I love to do and am best at. I’ll be happy doing this work and that’s what matters most to me, a lot more that money or title.”<br />“Most important, I’m looking to make a long term commitment in my career now. I’ve had enough of job-hunting and want a permanent spot at this point in my career. I also know that if I perform this job with excellence, other opportunities cannot help but open up for me right here. In time, I’ll find many other ways to help this company and in so doing, help myself. I really am looking to make a long-term commitment.”<br />NOTE: The main concern behind the “overqualified” question is that you will leave your new employer as soon as something better comes your way. Anything you can say to demonstrate the sincerity of your commitment to the employer and reassure him that you’re looking to stay for the long-term will help you overcome this objection.<br />Question 9 Where do you see yourself five years from now?<br />TRAPS: One reason interviewers ask this question is to see if you’re settling for this position, using it merely as a stopover until something better comes along. Or they could be trying to gauge your level of ambition.<br />If you’re too specific, i.e., naming the promotions you someday hope to win, you’ll sound presumptuous. If you’re too vague, you’ll seem rudderless.<br />BEST ANSWER: Reassure your interviewer that you’re looking to make a long-term commitment…that this position entails exactly what you’re looking to do and what you do extremely well. As for your future, you believe that if you perform each job at hand with excellence, future opportunities will take care of themselves.<br />Example: “I am definitely interested in making a long-term commitment to my next position. Judging by what you’ve told me about this position, it’s exactly what I’m looking for and what I am very well qualified to do. In terms of my future career path, I’m confident that if I do my work with excellence, opportunities will inevitable open up for me. It’s always been that way in my career, and I’m confident I’ll have similar opportunities here.”<br />Question 10 Describe your ideal company, location and job.<br />TRAPS: This is often asked by an experienced interviewer who thinks you may be overqualified, but knows better than to show his hand by posing his objection directly. So he’ll use this question instead, which often gets a candidate to reveal that, indeed, he or she is looking for something other than the position at hand.<br />BEST ANSWER: The only right answer is to describe what this company is offering, being sure to make your answer believable with specific reasons, stated with sincerity, why each quality represented by this opportunity is attractive to you.<br />Remember that if you’re coming from a company that’s the leader in its field or from a glamorous or much admired company, industry, city or position, your interviewer and his company may well have an “Avis” complex. That is, they may feel a bit defensive about being “second best” to the place you’re coming from, worried that you may consider them bush league.<br />This anxiety could well be there even though you’ve done nothing to inspire it. You must go out of your way to assuage such anxiety, even if it’s not expressed, by putting their virtues high on the list of exactly what you’re looking for, providing credible reason for wanting these qualities.<br />If you do not express genuine enthusiasm for the firm, its culture, location, industry, etc., you may fail to answer this “Avis” complex objection and, as a result, leave the interviewer suspecting that a hot shot like you, coming from a Fortune 500 company in New York, just wouldn’t be happy at an unknown manufacturer based in Topeka, Kansas.<br />Question 11 Why do you want to work at our company?<br />TRAPS: This question tests whether you’ve done any homework about the firm. If you haven’t, you lose. If you have, you win big.<br />BEST ANSWER: This question is your opportunity to hit the ball out of the park, thanks to the in-depth research you should do before any interview.<br />Best sources for researching your target company: annual reports, the corporate newsletter, contacts you know at the company or its suppliers, advertisements, articles about the company in the trade press.<br />Question 12 What are your career options right now?<br />TRAPS: The interviewer is trying to find out, “How desperate are you?”<br />BEST ANSWER: Prepare for this question by thinking of how you can position yourself as a desired commodity. If you are still working, describe the possibilities at your present firm and why, though you’re greatly appreciated there, you’re looking for something more (challenge, money, responsibility, etc.). Also mention that you’re seriously exploring opportunities with one or two other firms.<br />If you’re not working, you can talk about other employment possibilities you’re actually exploring. But do this with a light touch, speaking only in general terms. You don’t want to seem manipulative or coy.<br />Question 13 Why have you been out of work so long?<br />TRAPS: A tough question if you’ve been on the beach a long time. You don’t want to seem like damaged goods.<br />BEST ANSWER: You want to emphasize factors which have prolonged your job search by your own choice.<br />Example: “After my job was terminated, I made a conscious decision not to jump on the first opportunities to come along. In my life, I’ve found out that you can always turn a negative into a positive IF you try hard enough. This is what I determined to do. I decided to take whatever time I needed to think through what I do best, what I most want to do, where I’d like to do it…and then identify those companies that could offer such an opportunity.”<br />“Also, in all honesty, you have to factor in the recession (consolidation, stabilization, etc.) in the (banking, financial services, manufacturing, advertising, etc.) industry.”<br />“So between my being selective and the companies in our industry downsizing, the process has taken time. But in the end, I’m convinced that when I do find the right match, all that careful evaluation from both sides of the desk will have been well worthwhile for both the company that hires me and myself.<br />Question 14 Tell me honestly about the strong points and weak points of your boss (company, management team, etc.)…<br />TRAPS: Skillfull interviewers sometimes make it almost irresistible to open up and air a little dirty laundry from your previous position. DON’T <br />BEST ANSWER: Remember the rule: Never be negative. Stress only the good points, no matter how charmingly you’re invited to be critical.<br />Your interviewer doesn’t care a whit about your previous boss. He wants to find out how loyal and positive you are, and whether you’ll criticize him behind his back if pressed to do so by someone in this own company. This question is your opportunity to demonstrate your loyalty to those you work with.<br />Question 15 What good books have you read lately?<br />TRAPS: As in all matters of your interview, never fake familiarity you don’t have. Yet you don’t want to seem like a dullard who hasn’t read a book since Tom Sawyer.<br />BEST ANSWER: Unless you’re up for a position in academia or as book critic for The New York Times, you’re not expected to be a literary lion. But it wouldn’t hurt to have read a handful of the most recent and influential books in your profession and on management.<br />Consider it part of the work of your job search to read up on a few of these leading books. But make sure they are quality books that reflect favorably upon you, nothing that could even remotely be considered superficial. Finally, add a recently published bestselling work of fiction by a world-class author and you’ll pass this question with flying colors.<br />Question 16 Tell me about a situation when your work was criticized.<br />TRAPS: This is a tough question because it’s a more clever and subtle way to get you to admit to a weakness. You can’t dodge it by pretending you’ve never been criticized. Everybody has been. Yet it can be quite damaging to start admitting potential faults and failures that you’d just as soon leave buried.<br />This question is also intended to probe how well you accept criticism and direction.<br />BEST ANSWERS: Begin by emphasizing the extremely positive feedback you’ve gotten throughout your career and (if it’s true) that your performance reviews have been uniformly excellent.<br />Of course, no one is perfect and you always welcome suggestions on how to improve your performance. Then, give an example of a not-too-damaging learning experience from early in your career and relate the ways this lesson has since helped you. This demonstrates that you learned from the experience and the lesson is now one of the strongest breastplates in your suit of armor.<br />If you are pressed for a criticism from a recent position, choose something fairly trivial that in no way is essential to your successful performance. Add that you’ve learned from this, too, and over the past several years/months, it’s no longer an area of concern because you now make it a regular practice to…etc.<br />Another way to answer this question would be to describe your intention to broaden your master of an area of growing importance in your field. For example, this might be a computer program you’ve been meaning to sit down and learn… a new management technique you’ve read about…or perhaps attending a seminar on some cutting-edge branch of your profession.<br />Again, the key is to focus on something not essential to your brilliant performance but which adds yet another dimension to your already impressive knowledge base.<br />Question 17 What are your outside interests?<br />TRAPS: You want to be a well-rounded, not a drone. But your potential employer would be even more turned off if he suspects that your heavy extracurricular load will interfere with your commitment to your work duties.<br />BEST ANSWERS: Try to gauge how this company’s culture would look upon your favorite outside activities and be guided accordingly.<br />You can also use this question to shatter any stereotypes that could limit your chances. If you’re over 50, for example, describe your activities that demonstrate physical stamina. If you’re young, mention an activity that connotes wisdom and institutional trust, such as serving on the board of a popular charity.<br />But above all, remember that your employer is hiring your for what you can do for him, not your family, yourself or outside organizations, no matter how admirable those activities may be.<br />Question 18 The “Fatal Flaw” question<br />TRAPS: If an interviewer has read your resume carefully, he may try to zero in on a “fatal flaw” of your candidacy, perhaps that you don’t have a college degree…you’ve been out of the job market for some time…you never earned your CPA, etc.<br />A fatal flaw question can be deadly, but usually only if you respond by being overly defensive.<br />BEST ANSWERS: As every master salesperson knows, you will encounter objections (whether stated or merely thought) in every sale. They’re part and parcel of the buyer’s anxiety. The key is not to exacerbate the buyer’s anxiety but diminish it. Here’s how…<br />Whenever you come up against a fatal flaw question: <br />1. Be completely honest, open and straightforward about admitting the shortcoming. (Showing you have nothing to hide diminishes the buyer’s anxiety.)<br />2. Do not apologize or try to explain it away. You know that this supposed flaw is nothing to be concerned about, and this is the attitude you want your interviewer to adopt as well.<br />3. Add that as desirable as such a qualification might be, its lack has made you work all the harder throughout your career and has not prevented you from compiling an outstanding tack record of achievements. You might even give examples of how, through a relentless commitment to excellence, you have consistently outperformed those who do have this qualification. <br />Of course, the ultimate way to handle “fatal flaw” questions is to prevent them from arising in the first place. You will do that by following the master strategy described in Question 1, i.e., uncovering the employers needs and them matching your qualifications to those needs.<br />Once you’ve gotten the employer to start talking about his most urgently-felt wants and goals for the position, and then help him see in step-by-step fashion how perfectly your background and achievements match up with those needs, you’re going to have one very enthusiastic interviewer on your hands, one who is no longer looking for “fatal flaws”.<br />Question 19 How do you feel about reporting to a younger person (minority, woman, etc)?<br />TRAPS: It’s a shame that some interviewers feel the need to ask this question, but many understand the reality that prejudices still exist among some job candidates, and it’s better to try to flush them out beforehand.<br />The trap here is that in today’s politically sensitized environment, even a well-intentioned answer can result in planting your foot neatly in your mouth. Avoid anything which smacks of a patronizing or an insensitive attitude, such as “I think they make terrific bosses” or “Hey, some of my best friends are…”<br />Of course, since almost anyone with an IQ above room temperature will at least try to steadfastly affirm the right answer here, your interviewer will be judging your sincerity most of all. “Do you really feel that way?” is what he or she will be wondering.<br />So you must make your answer believable and not just automatic. If the firm is wise enough to have promoted peopled on the basis of ability alone, they’re likely quite proud of it, and prefer to hire others who will wholeheartedly share their strong sense of fair play. <br />BEST ANSWER: You greatly admire a company that hires and promotes on merit alone and you couldn’t agree more with that philosophy. The age (gender, race, etc.) of the person you report to would certainly make no difference to you.<br />Whoever has that position has obviously earned it and knows their job well. Both the person and the position are fully deserving of respect. You believe that all people in a company, from the receptionist to the Chairman, work best when their abilities, efforts and feelings are respected and rewarded fairly, and that includes you. That’s the best type of work environment you can hope to find.<br />Question 20 On confidential matters…<br />TRAPS: When an interviewer presses you to reveal confidential information about a present or former employer, you may feel it’s a no-win situation. If you cooperate, you could be judged untrustworthy. If you don’t, you may irritate the interviewer and seem obstinate, uncooperative or overly suspicious.<br />BEST ANSWER: Your interviewer may press you for this information for two reasons.<br />First, many companies use interviews to research the competition. It’s a perfect set-up. Here in their own lair, is an insider from the enemy camp who can reveal prized information on the competition’s plans, research, financial condition, etc.<br />Second, the company may be testing your integrity to see if you can be cajoled or bullied into revealing confidential data.<br />What to do? The answer here is easy. Never reveal anything truly confidential about a present or former employer. By all means, explain your reticence diplomatically. For example, “I certainly want to be as open as I can about that. But I also wish to respect the rights of those who have trusted me with their most sensitive information, just as you would hope to be able to trust any of your key people when talking with a competitor…”<br />And certainly you can allude to your finest achievements in specific ways that don’t reveal the combination to the company safe.<br />But be guided by the golden rule. If you were the owner of your present company, would you feel it ethically wrong for the information to be given to your competitors? If so, steadfastly refuse to reveal it.<br />Remember that this question pits your desire to be cooperative against your integrity. Faced with any such choice, always choose integrity. It is a far more valuable commodity than whatever information the company may pry from you. Moreover, once you surrender the information, your stock goes down. They will surely lose respect for you.<br />One President we know always presses candidates unmercifully for confidential information. If he doesn’t get it, he grows visibly annoyed, relentlessly inquisitive, It’s all an act. He couldn’t care less about the information. This is his way of testing the candidate’s moral fiber. Only those who hold fast are hired.<br />Question 21 Would you lie for the company?<br />TRAPS: This another question that pits two values against one another, in this case loyalty against integrity.<br />BEST ANSWER: Try to avoid choosing between two values, giving a positive statement which covers all bases instead.<br />Example: “I would never do anything to hurt the company..”<br />If aggressively pressed to choose between two competing values, always choose personal integrity. It is the most prized of all values.<br />Question 22 Looking back, what would you do differently in your life?<br />TRAPS: This question is usually asked to uncover any life-influencing mistakes, regrets, disappointments or problems that may continue to affect your personality and performance.<br />You do not want to give the interviewer anything negative to remember you by, such as some great personal or career disappointment, even long ago, that you wish could have been avoided.<br />Nor do you wish to give any answer which may hint that your whole heart and soul will not be in your work.<br />BEST ANSWER: Indicate that you are a happy, fulfilled, optimistic person and that, in general, you wouldn’t change a thing.<br />Example: “It’s been a good life, rich in learning and experience, and the best it yet to come. Every experience in life is a lesson it its own way. I wouldn’t change a thing.”<br />Question 23 Could you have done better in your last job?<br />TRAPS: This is no time for true confessions of major or even minor problems.<br />BEST ANSWER: Again never be negative.<br />Example: “I suppose with the benefit of hindsight you can always find things to do better, of course, but off the top of my head, I can’t think of anything of major consequence.”<br />(If more explanation seems necessary) <br />Describer a situation that didn’t suffer because of you but from external conditions beyond your control.<br />For example, describe the disappointment you felt with a test campaign, new product launch, merger, etc., which looked promising at first, but led to underwhelming results. “I wish we could have known at the start what we later found out (about the economy turning, the marketplace changing, etc.), but since we couldn’t, we just had to go for it. And we did learn from it…”<br />Question 24 Can you work under pressure?<br />TRAPS: An easy question, but you want to make your answer believable.<br />BEST ANSWER: Absolutely…(then prove it with a vivid example or two of a goal or project accomplished under severe pressure.)<br />Question 25 What makes you angry?<br />TRAPS: You don’t want to come across either as a hothead or a wimp.<br />BEST ANSWER: Give an answer that’s suited to both your personality and the management style of the firm. Here, the homework you’ve done about the company and its style can help in your choice of words.<br />Examples: If you are a reserved person and/or the corporate culture is coolly professional:<br />“I’m an even-tempered and positive person by nature, and I believe this helps me a great deal in keeping my department running smoothly, harmoniously and with a genuine esprit de corps. I believe in communicating clearly what’s expected, getting people’s commitment to those goals, and then following up continuously to check progress.”<br />“If anyone or anything is going off track, I want to know about it early. If, after that kind of open communication and follow up, someone isn’t getting the job done, I’ll want to know why. If there’s no good reason, then I’ll get impatient and angry…and take appropriate steps from there. But if you hire good people, motivate them to strive for excellence and then follow up constantly, it almost never gets to that state.”<br />If you are feisty by nature and/or the position calls for a tough straw boss.<br />“You know what makes me angry? People who (the fill in the blanks with the most objectionable traits for this type of position)…people who don’t pull their own weight, who are negative, people who lie…etc.”<br />Question 26 Why aren’t you earning more money at this stage of your career?<br />TRAPS: You don’t want to give the impression that money is not important to you, yet you want to explain why your salary may be a little below industry standards.<br />BEST ANSWER: You like to make money, but other factors are even more important.<br />Example: “Making money is very important to me, and one reason I’m here is because I’m looking to make more. Throughout my career, what’s been even more important to me is doing work I really like to do at the kind of company I like and respect.<br />(Then be prepared to be specific about what your ideal position and company would be like, matching them as closely as possible to the opportunity at hand.<br />Question 27 Who has inspired you in your life and why?<br />TRAPS: The two traps here are unpreparedness and irrelevance. If you grope for an answer, it seems you’ve never been inspired. If you ramble about your high school basketball coach, you’ve wasted an opportunity to present qualities of great value to the company.<br />BEST ANSWER: Have a few heroes in mind, from your mental “Board of Directors” – Leaders in your industry, from history or anyone else who has been your mentor.<br />Be prepared to give examples of how their words, actions or teachings have helped inspire your achievements. As always, prepare an answer which highlights qualities that would be highly valuable in the position you are seeking.<br />Question 28 What was the toughest decision you ever had to make?<br />TRAPS: Giving an unprepared or irrelevant answer.<br />BEST ANSWER: Be prepared with a good example, explaining why the decision was difficult…the process you followed in reaching it…the courageous or effective way you carried it out…and the beneficial results.<br />Question 29 Tell me about the most boring job you’ve ever had.<br />TRAPS: You give a very memorable description of a very boring job. Result? You become associated with this boring job in the interviewer’s mind.<br />BEST ANSWER: You have never allowed yourself to grow bored with a job and you can’t understand it when others let themselves fall into that rut.<br />Example: “Perhaps I’ve been fortunate, but that I’ve never found myself bored with any job I have ever held. I’ve always enjoyed hard work. As with actors who feel there are no small parts, I also believe that in every company or department there are exciting challenges and intriguing problems crying out for energetic and enthusiastic solutions. If you’re bored, it’s probably because you’re not challenging yourself to tackle those problems right under your nose.”<br />Question 30 Have you been absent from work more than a few days in any previous position?<br />TRAPS: If you’ve had a problem, you can’t lie. You could easily be found out. Yet admitting an attendance problem could raise many flags.<br />BEST ANSWER: If you have had no problem, emphasize your excellent and consistent attendance record throughout your career.<br />Also describe how important you believe such consistent attendance is for a key executive…why it’s up to you to set an example of dedication…and why there’s just no substitute for being there with your people to keep the operation running smoothly, answer questions and handle problems and crises as they arise.<br />If you do have a past attendance problem, you want to minimize it, making it clear that it was an exceptional circumstance and that it’s cause has been corrected.<br />To do this, give the same answer as above but preface it with something like, “Other that being out last year (or whenever) because of (your reason, which is now in the past), I have never had a problem and have enjoyed an excellent attendance record throughout my career. Furthermore, I believe, consistent attendance is important because…” (Pick up the rest of the answer as outlined above.).<br />Question 31 What changes would you make if you came on board?<br />TRAPS: Watch out! This question can derail your candidacy faster than a bomb on the tracks – and just as you are about to be hired.<br />Reason: No matter how bright you are, you cannot know the right actions to take in a position before you settle in and get to know the operation’s strengths, weaknesses key people, financial condition, methods of operation, etc. If you lunge at this temptingly baited question, you will probably be seen as someone who shoots from the hip.<br />Moreover, no matter how comfortable you may feel with your interviewer, you are still an outsider. No one, including your interviewer, likes to think that a know-it-all outsider is going to come in, turn the place upside down and with sweeping, grand gestures, promptly demonstrate what jerks everybody’s been for years.<br />BEST ANSWER: You, of course, will want to take a good hard look at everything the company is doing before making any recommendations.<br />Example: “Well, I wouldn’t be a very good doctor if I gave my diagnosis before the examination. Should you hire me, as I hope you will, I’d want to take a good hard look at everything you’re doing and understand why it’s being done that way. I’d like to have in-depth meetings with you and the other key people to get a deeper grasp of what you feel you’re doing right and what could be improved.<br />“From what you’ve told me so far, the areas of greatest concern to you are…” (name them. Then do two things. First, ask if these are in fact his major concerns. If so then reaffirm how your experience in meeting similar needs elsewhere might prove very helpful).<br />Question 32 I’m concerned that you don’t have as much experience as we’d like in…<br />TRAPS: This could be a make-or-break question. The interviewer mostly likes what he sees, but has doubts over one key area. If you can assure him on this point, the job may be yours.<br />BEST ANSWER: This question is related to “The Fatal Flaw” (Question 18), but here the concern is not that you are totally missing some qualifications, such as CPA certification, but rather that your experience is light in one area.<br />Before going into any interview, try to identify the weakest aspects of your candidacy from this company’s point of view. Then prepare the best answer you possible can to shore up your defenses.<br />To get past this question with flying colors, you are going to rely on your master strategy of uncovering the employer’s greatest wants and needs and then matching them with your strengths. Since you already know how to do this from Question 1, you are in a much stronger position. <br />More specifically, when the interviewer poses as objection like this, you should…<br />1. Agree on the importance of this qualification.<br />2. Explain that your strength may be indeed be greater than your resume indicates because…<br />3. When this strength is added to your other strengths, it’s really your combination of qualifications that’s most important.<br />Then review the areas of your greatest strengths that match up most favorably with the company’s most urgently-felt wants and needs.<br />This is powerful way to handle this question for two reasons. First, you’re giving your interviewer more ammunition in the area of his concern. But more importantly, you’re shifting his focus away from this one, isolated area and putting it on the unique combination of strengths you offer, strengths which tie in perfectly with his greatest wants.<br />Question 33 How do you feel about working nights and weekends?<br />TRAPS: Blurt out “no way, Jose” and you can kiss the job offer goodbye. But what if you have a family and want to work a reasonably normal schedule? Is there a way to get both the job and the schedule you want?<br />BEST ANSWER: First, if you’re a confirmed workaholic, this question is a softball lob. Whack it out of the park on the first swing by saying this kind of schedule is just your style. Add that your family understands it. Indeed, they’re happy for you, as they know you get your greatest satisfaction from your work.<br />If however, you prefer a more balanced lifestyle, answer this question with another: “What’s the norm for your best people here?”<br />If the hours still sound unrealistic for you, ask, “Do you have any top people who perform exceptionally for you, but who also have families and like to get home in time to see them at night?” Chances are this company does, and this associates you with this other “top-performers-who-leave-not-later-than-six” group.<br />Depending on the answer, be honest about how you would fit into the picture. If all those extra hours make you uncomfortable, say so, but phrase your response positively.<br />Example: “I love my work and do it exceptionally well. I think the results speak for themselves, especially in …(mention your two or three qualifications of greater interest to the employer. Remember, this is what he wants most, not a workaholic with weak credentials). Not only would I bring these qualities, but I’ve built my whole career on working not just hard, but smart. I think you’ll find me one of the most productive people here.<br />I do have a family who likes to see me after work and on weekends. They add balance and richness to my life, which in turn helps me be happy and productive at work. If I could handle some of the extra work at home in the evenings or on weekends, that would be ideal. You’d be getting a person of exceptional productivity who meets your needs with strong credentials. And I’d be able to handle some of the heavy workload at home where I can be under the same roof as my family. Everybody would win.”<br />Question 34 Are you willing to relocate or travel?<br />TRAPS: Answer with a flat “no” and you may slam the door shut on this opportunity. But what if you’d really prefer not to relocate or travel, yet wouldn’t want to lose the job offer over it?<br />BEST ANSWER: First find out where you may have to relocate and how much travel may be involved. Then respond to the question.<br />If there’s no problem, say so enthusiastically.<br />If you do have a reservation, there are two schools of thought on how to handle it.<br />One advises you to keep your options open and your reservations to yourself in the early going, by saying, “no problem”. You strategy here is to get the best offer you can, then make a judgment whether it’s worth it to you to relocate or travel.<br />Also, by the time the offer comes through, you may have other offers and can make a more informed decision. Why kill of this opportunity before it has chance to blossom into something really special? And if you’re a little more desperate three months from now, you might wish you hadn’t slammed the door on relocating or traveling.<br />The second way to handle this question is to voice a reservation, but assert that you’d be open to relocating (or traveling) for the right opportunity.<br />The answering strategy you choose depends on how eager you are for the job. If you want to take no chances, choose the first approach.<br />If you want to play a little harder-to-get in hopes of generating a more enticing offer, choose the second.<br />Question 35 Do you have the stomach to fire people? Have you had experience firing many people?<br />TRAPS: This “innocent” question could be a trap door which sends you down a chute and lands you in a heap of dust outside the front door. Why? Because its real intent is not just to see if you’ve got the stomach to fire, but also to uncover poor judgment in hiring which has caused you to fire so many. Also, if you fire so often, you could be a tyrant.<br />So don’t rise to the bait by boasting how many you’ve fired, unless you’ve prepared to explain why it was beyond your control, and not the result of your poor hiring procedures or foul temperament.<br />BEST ANSWER: Describe the rational and sensible management process you follow in both hiring and firing.<br />Example: “My whole management approach is to hire the best people I can find, train them thoroughly and well, get them excited and proud to be part of our team, and then work with them to achieve our goals together. If you do all of that right, especially hiring the right people, I’ve found you don’t have to fire very often.<br />“So with me, firing is a last resort. But when it’s got to be done, it’s got to be done, and the faster and cleaner, the better. A poor employee can wreak terrible damage in undermining the morale of an entire team of good people. When there’s no other way, I’ve found it’s better for all concerned to act decisively in getting rid of offenders who won’t change their ways.”<br />Question 36 Why have you had so many jobs?<br />TRAPS: Your interviewer fears you may leave this position quickly, as you have others. He’s concerned you may be unstable, or a “problem person” who can’t get along with others.<br />BEST ANSWER: First, before you even get to the interview stage, you should try to minimize your image as job hopper. If there are several entries on your resume of less than one year, consider eliminating the less important ones. Perhaps you can specify the time you spent at previous positions in rounded years not in months and years. <br />Example: Instead of showing three positions this way:<br />6/1982 – 3/1983, Position A;<br />4/1983 – 12/1983, Position B;<br />1/1984 – 8/1987, Position C; <br />…it would be better to show simply:<br />1982 – 1983, Position A;<br />1984 – 1987 Position C.<br />In other words, you would drop Position B altogether. Notice what a difference this makes in reducing your image as a job hopper.<br />Once in front of the interviewer and this question comes up, you must try to reassure him. Describe each position as part of an overall pattern of growth and career destination.<br />Be careful not to blame other people for your frequent changes. But you can and should attribute certain changes to conditions beyond your control. <br />Example: Thanks to an upcoming merger, you wanted to avoid an ensuing bloodbath, so you made a good, upward career move before your department came under the axe of the new owners.<br />If possible, also show that your job changes were more frequent in your younger days, while you were establishing yourself, rounding out your skills and looking for the right career path. At this stage in your career, you’re certainly much more interested in the best long-term opportunity.<br />You might also cite the job(s) where you stayed the longest and describe that this type of situation is what you’re looking for now.<br />Question 37 What do you see as the proper role/mission of…<br />…a good (job title you’re seeking);<br />…a good manager;<br />…an executive in serving the community;<br />…a leading company in our industry; etc.<br />TRAPS: These and other “proper role” questions are designed to test your understanding of your place in the bigger picture of your department, company, community and profession….as well as the proper role each of these entities should play in its bigger picture.<br />The question is most frequently asked by the most thoughtful individuals and companies…or by those concerned that you’re coming from a place with a radically different corporate culture (such as from a big government bureaucracy to an aggressive small company).<br />The most frequent mistake executives make in answering is simply not being prepared (seeming as if they’ve never giving any of this a though.)…or in phrasing an answer best suited to their prior organization’s culture instead of the hiring company’s.<br />BEST ANSWER: Think of the most essential ingredients of success for each category above – your job title, your role as manager, your firm’s role, etc.<br />Identify at least three but no more than six qualities you feel are most important to success in each role. Then commit your response to memory.<br />Here, again, the more information you’ve already drawn out about the greatest wants and needs of the interviewer, and the more homework you’ve done to identify the culture of the firm, the more on-target your answer will be.<br />Question 38 What would you say to your boss if he’s crazy about an idea, but you think it stinks?<br />TRAPS: This is another question that pits two values, in this case loyalty and honesty, against one another.<br />BEST ANSWER: Remember the rule stated earlier: In any conflict between values, always choose integrity.<br />Example: I believe that when evaluating anything, it’s important to emphasize the positive. What do I like about this idea?”<br />“Then, if you have reservations, I certainly want to point them out, as specifically, objectively and factually as I can.”<br />“After all, the most important thing I owe my boss is honesty. If he can’t count on me for that, then everything else I may do or say could be questionable in his eyes.”<br />“But I also want to express my thoughts in a constructive way. So my goal in this case would be to see if my boss and I could make his idea even stronger and more appealing, so that it effectively overcomes any initial reservation I or others may have about it.”<br />“Of course, if he overrules me and says, ‘no, let’s do it my way,’ then I owe him my full and enthusiastic support to make it work as best it can.”<br />Question 39 How could you have improved your career progress?<br />TRAPS: This is another variation on the question, “If you could, how would you live your life over?” Remember, you’re not going to fall for any such invitations to rewrite person history. You can’t win if you do.<br />BEST ANSWER: You’re generally quite happy with your career progress. Maybe, if you had known something earlier in life (impossible to know at the time, such as the booming growth in a branch in your industry…or the corporate downsizing that would phase out your last job), you might have moved in a certain direction sooner.<br />But all things considered, you take responsibility for where you are, how you’ve gotten there, where you are going…and you harbor no regrets.<br />Question 40 What would you do if a fellow executive on your own corporate level wasn’t pulling his/her weight…and this was hurting your department?<br />TRAPS: This question and other hypothetical ones test your sense of human relations and how you might handle office politics.<br />BEST ANSWER: Try to gauge the political style of the firm and be guided accordingly. In general, fall back on universal principles of effective human relations – which in the end, embody the way you would like to be treated in a similar circumstance.<br />Example: “Good human relations would call for me to go directly to the person and explain the situation, to try to enlist his help in a constructive, positive solution. If I sensed resistance, I would be as persuasive as I know how to explain the benefits we can all gain from working together, and the problems we, the company and our customers will experience if we don’t.”<br />POSSIBLE FOLLOW-UP QUESTION: And what would you do if he still did not change his ways?<br />ANSWER: “One thing I wouldn’t do is let the problem slide, because it would only get worse and overlooking it would set a bad precedent. I would try again and again and again, in whatever way I could, to solve the problem, involving wider and wider circles of people, both above and below the offending executive and including my own boss if necessary, so that everyone involved can see the rewards for teamwork and the drawbacks of non-cooperation.”<br />“I might add that I’ve never yet come across a situation that couldn’t be resolved by harnessing others in a determined, constructive effort.”<br />Question 41 You’ve been with your firm a long time. Won’t it be hard switching to a new company?<br />TRAPS: Your interviewer is worried that this old dog will find it hard to learn new tricks.<br />BEST ANSWER: To overcome this objection, you must point to the many ways you have grown and adapted to changing conditions at your present firm. It has not been a static situation. Highlight the different responsibilities you’ve held, the wide array of new situations you’ve faced and conquered.<br />As a result, you’ve learned to adapt quickly to whatever is thrown at you, and you thrive on the stimulation of new challenges.<br />To further assure the interviewer, describe the similarities between the new position and your prior one. Explain that you should be quite comfortable working there, since their needs and your skills make a perfect match.<br />Question 42 May I contact your present employer for a reference?<br />TRAPS: If you’re trying to keep your job search private, this is the last thing you want. But if you don’t cooperate, won’t you seem as if you’re trying to hide something?<br />BEST ANSWER: Express your concern that you’d like to keep your job search private, but that in time, it will be perfectly okay.<br />Example: “My present employer is not aware of my job search and, for obvious reasons; I’d prefer to keep it that way. I’d be most appreciative if we kept our discussion confidential right now. Of course, when we both agree the time is right, then by all means you should contact them. I’m very proud of my record there.<br />Question 43 Give me an example of your creativity (analytical skill…managing ability, etc.)<br />TRAPS: The worst offense here is simply being unprepared. Your hesitation may seem as if you’re having a hard time remembering the last time you were creative, analytical, etc.<br />BEST ANSWER: Remember from Question 2 that you should commit to memory a list of your greatest and most recent achievements, ever ready on the tip of your tongue.<br />If you have such a list, it’s easy to present any of your achievements in light of the quality the interviewer is asking about. For example, the smashing success you orchestrated at last year’s trade show could be used as an example of creativity, or analytical ability, or your ability to manage.<br />Question 44 Where could you use some improvement?<br />TRAPS: Another tricky way to get you to admit weaknesses. Don’t fall for it.<br />BEST ANSWER: Keep this answer, like all your answers, positive. A good way to answer this question is to identify a cutting-edge branch of your profession (one that’s not essential to your employer’s needs) as an area you’re very excited about and want to explore more fully over the next six months.<br />Question 45 What do you worry about?<br />TRAPS: Admit to worrying and you could sound like a loser. Saying you never worry doesn’t sound credible.<br />BEST ANSWER: Redefine the word ‘worry’ so that it does not reflect negatively on you.<br />Example: “I wouldn’t call it worry, but I am a strongly goal-oriented person. So I keep turning over in my mind anything that seems to be keeping me from achieving those goals, until I find a solution. That’s part of my tenacity, I suppose.”<br />Question 46 How many hours a week do you normally work?<br />TRAPS: You don’t want to give a specific number. Make it to low, and you may not measure up. Too high, and you’ll forever feel guilty about sneaking out the door at 5:15.<br />BEST ANSWER: If you are in fact a workaholic and you sense this company would like that: Say you are a confirmed workaholic, that you often work nights and weekends. Your family accepts this because it makes you fulfilled.<br />If you are not a workaholic: Say you have always worked hard and put in long hours. It goes with the territory. It one sense, it’s hard to keep track of the hours because your work is a labor of love, you enjoy nothing more than solving problems. So you’re almost always thinking about your work, including times when you’re home, while shaving in the morning, while commuting, etc.<br />Question 47 What’s the most difficult part of being a (job title)?<br />TRAPS: Unless you phrase your answer properly, your interviewer may conclude that whatever you identify as “difficult” is where you are weak.<br />BEST ANSWER: First, redefine “difficult” to be “challenging” which is more positive. Then, identify an area everyone in your profession considers challenging and in which you excel. Describe the process you follow that enables you to get splendid results…and be specific about those results.<br />Example: “I think every sales manager finds it challenging to motivate the troops in a recession. But that’s probably the strongest test of a top sales manager. I feel this is one area where I excel.” <br />“When I see the first sign that sales may slip or that sales force motivation is flagging because of a downturn in the economy, here’s the plan I put into action immediately…” (followed by a description of each step in the process…and most importantly, the exceptional results you’ve achieved.).<br />Question 48 The “Hypothetical Problem”<br />TRAPS: Sometimes an interviewer will describe a difficult situation and ask, “How would you handle this?” Since it is virtually impossible to have all the facts in front of you from such a short presentation, don’t fall into the trap of trying to solve this problem and giving your verdict on the spot. It will make your decision-making process seem woefully inadequate.<br />BEST ANSWER: Instead, describe the rational, methodical process you would follow in analyzing this problem, who you would consult with, generating possible solutions, choosing the best course of action, and monitoring the results.<br />Remember, in all such, “What would you do?” questions, always describe your process or working methods, and you’ll never go wrong.<br />Question 49 What was the toughest challenge you’ve ever faced?<br />TRAPS: Being unprepared or citing an example from so early in your life that it doesn’t score many points for you at this stage of your career.<br />BEST ANSWER: This is an easy question if you’re prepared. Have a recent example ready that demonstrates either:<br />1. A quality most important to the job at hand; or<br />2. A quality that is always in demand, such as leadership, initiative, managerial skill, persuasiveness, courage, persistence, intelligence, etc.<br />Question 50 Have you consider starting your own business?<br />TRAPS: If you say “yes” and elaborate enthusiastically, you could be perceived as a loose cannon in a larger company, too entrepreneurial to make a good team player…or someone who had to settle for the corporate life because you couldn’t make a go of your own business.<br />Also too much enthusiasm in answering “yes” could rouse the paranoia of a small company indicating that you may plan to go out on your own soon, perhaps taking some key accounts or trade secrets with you.<br />On the other hand, if you answer “no, never” you could be perceived as a security-minded drone who never dreamed a big dream.<br />BEST ANSWER: Again it’s best to:<br />1. Gauge this company’s corporate culture before answering and…<br />2. Be honest (which doesn’t mean you have to vividly share your fantasy of the franchise or bed-and-breakfast you someday plan to open).<br />In general, if the corporate culture is that of a large, formal, military-style structure, minimize any indication that you’d love to have your own business. You might say, “Oh, I may have given it a thought once or twice, but my whole career has been in larger organizations. That’s where I have excelled and where I want to be.”<br />If the corporate culture is closer to the free-wheeling, everybody’s-a-deal-maker variety, then emphasize that in a firm like this, you can virtually get the best of all worlds, the excitement of seeing your own ideas and plans take shape…combined with the resources and stability of a well-established organization. Sounds like the perfect environment to you.<br />In any case, no matter what the corporate culture, be sure to indicate that any desires about running your own show are part of your past, not your present or future.<br />The last thing you want to project is an image of either a dreamer who failed and is now settling for the corporate cocoon…or the restless maverick who will fly out the door with key accounts, contacts and trade secrets under his arms just as soon as his bankroll has gotten rebuilt.<br />Always remember: Match what you want with what the position offers. The more information you’ve uncovered about the position, the more believable you can make your case.<br />Question 51 What are your goals?<br />TRAPS: Not having any…or having only vague generalities, not highly specific goals.<br />BEST ANSWER: Many executives in a position to hire you are strong believers in goal-setting. (It’s one of the reason they’ve achieved so much). They like to hire in kind.<br />If you’re vague about your career and personal goals, it could be a big turnoff to may people you will encounter in your job search.<br />Be ready to discuss your goals for each major area of your life: career, personal development and learning, family, physical (health), community service and (if your interviewer is clearly a religious person) you could briefly and generally allude to your spiritual goals (showing you are a well-rounded individual with your values in the right order).<br />Be prepared to describe each goal in terms of specific milestones you wish to accomplish along the way, time periods you’re allotting for accomplishment, why the goal is important to you, and the specific steps you’re taking to bring it about. But do this concisely, as you never want to talk more than two minutes straight before letting your interviewer back into the conversation.<br />Question 52 What do you for when you hire people?<br />TRAPS: Being unprepared for the question.<br />BEST ANSWER: Speak your own thoughts here, but for the best answer weave them around the three most important qualifications for any position.<br />1. Can the person do the work (qualifications)?<br />2. Will the person do the work (motivation)?<br />3. Will the person fit in (“our kind of team player”)?<br />Question 53 Sell me this stapler…(this pencil…this clock…or some other object on interviewer’s desk).<br />TRAPS: Some interviewers, especially business owners and hard-changing executives in marketing-driven companies, feel that good salesmanship is essential for any key position and ask for an instant demonstration of your skill. Be ready.<br />BEST ANSWER: Of course, you already know the most important secret of all great salesmanship – “find out what people want, then show them how to get it.”<br />If your interviewer picks up his stapler and asks, “sell this to me,” you are going to demonstrate this proven master principle. Here’s how: <br />“Well, a good salesman must know both his product and his prospect before he sells anything. If I were selling this, I’d first get to know everything I could about it, all its features and benefits.”<br />“Then, if my goal were to sell it you, I would do some research on how you might use a fine stapler like this. The best way to do that is by asking some questions. May I ask you a few questions?”<br />Then ask a few questions such as, “Just out of curiosity, if you didn’t already have a stapler like this, why would you want one? And in addition to that? Any other reason? Anything else?”<br />“And would you want such a stapler to be reliable?...Hold a good supply of staples?” (Ask more questions that point to the features this stapler has.)<br />Once you’ve asked these questions, make your presentation citing all the features and benefits of this stapler and why it’s exactly what the interviewer just told you he’s looking for.<br />Then close with, “Just out of curiosity, what would you consider a reasonable price for a quality stapler like this…a stapler you could have right now and would (then repeat all the problems the stapler would solve for him)? Whatever he says, (unless it’s zero), say, “Okay, we’ve got a deal.”<br />NOTE: If your interviewer tests you by fighting every step of the way, denying that he even wants such an item, don’t fight him. Take the product away from him by saying, “Mr. Prospect, I’m delighted you’ve told me right upfront that there’s no way you’d ever want this stapler. As you well know, the first rule of the most productive salespeople in any field is to meet the needs of people who really need and want our products, and it just wastes everyone’s time if we try to force it on those who don’t. And I certainly wouldn’t want to waste your time. But we sell many items. Is there any product on this desk you would very much like to own…just one item?” When he points something out, repeat the process above. If he knows anything about selling, he may give you a standing ovation.<br />Question 54 “The Salary Question” – How much money do you want?<br />TRAPS: May also be phrases as, “What salary are you worth?”…or, “How much are you making now?” This is your most important negotiation. Handle it wrong and you can blow the job offer or go to work at far less than you might have gotten.<br />BEST ANSWER: For maximum salary negotiating power, remember these five guidelines:<br />1. Never bring up salary. Let the interviewer do it first. Good salespeople sell their products thoroughly before talking price. So should you. Make the interviewer want you first, and your bargaining position will be much stronger.<br />2. If your interviewer raises the salary question too early, before you’ve had a chance to create desire for your qualifications, postpone the question, saying something like, “Money is important to me, but is not my main concern. Opportunity and growth are far more important. What I’d rather do, if you don’t mind, is explore if I’m right for the position, and then talk about money. Would that be okay?”<br />3. The #1 rule of any negotiation is: the side with more information wins. After you’ve done a thorough job of selling the interviewer and it’s time to talk salary, the secret is to get the employer talking about what he’s willing to pay before you reveal what you’re willing to accept. So, when asked about salary, respond by asking, “I’m sure the company has already established a salary range for this position. Could you tell me what that is?” Or, “I want an income commensurate with my ability and qualifications. I trust you’ll be fair with me. What does the position pay?” Or, more simply, “What does this position pay?”<br />4. Know beforehand what you’d accept. To know what’s reasonable, research the job market and this position for any relevant salary information. Remember that most executives look for a 20-25%$ pay boost when they switch jobs. If you’re grossly underpaid, you may want more.<br />5. Never lie about what you currently make, but feel free to include the estimated cost of all your fringes, which could well tack on 25-50% more to your present “cash-only” salary.<br />Question 55 The Illegal Question<br />TRAPS: Illegal questions include any regarding your age…number and ages of your children or other dependents…marital status…maiden name…religion…political affiliation…ancestry…national origin…birthplace…naturalization of your parents, spouse or children…diseases…disabilities…clubs…or spouse’s occupation…unless any of the above are directly related to your performance of the job. You can’t even be asked about arrests, though you can be asked about convictions.<br />BEST ANSWER: Under the ever-present threat of lawsuits, most interviewers are well aware of these taboos. Yet you may encounter, usually on a second or third interview, a senior executive who doesn’t interview much and forgets he can’t ask such questions.<br />You can handle an illegal question in several ways. First, you can assert your legal right not to answer. But this will frighten or embarrass your interviewer and destroy any rapport you had.<br />Second, you could swallow your concerns over privacy and answer the question straight forwardly if you feel the answer could help you. For example, your interviewer, a devout Baptist, recognizes you from church and mentions it. Here, you could gain by talking about your church.<br />Third, if you don’t want your privacy invaded, you can diplomatically answer the concern behind the question without answering the question itself.<br />Example: If you are over 50 and are asked, “How old are you?” you can answer with a friendly, smiling question of your own on whether there’s a concern that your age my affect your performance. Follow this up by reassuring the interviewer that there’s nothing in this job you can’t do and, in fact, your age and experience are the most important advantages you offer the employer for the following reasons…<br />Another example: If asked, “Do you plan to have children?” you could answer, “I am wholeheartedly dedicated to my career“, perhaps adding, “I have no plans regarding children.” (You needn’t fear you’ve pledged eternal childlessness. You have every right to change your plans later. Get the job first and then enjoy all your options.)<br />Most importantly, remember that illegal questions arise from fear that you won’t perform well. The best answer of all is to get the job and perform brilliantly. All concerns and fears will then varnish, replaced by respect and appreciation for your work.<br />Question 56 The “Secret” Illegal Question<br />TRAPS: Much more frequent than the Illegal question (see Question 55) is the secret illegal question. It’s secret because it’s asked only in the interviewer’s mind. Since it’s not even expressed to you, you have no way to respond to it, and it can there be most damaging.<br />Example: You’re physically challenged, or a single mother returning to your professional career, or over 50, or a member of an ethnic minority, or fit any of a dozen other categories that do not strictly conform to the majority in a given company.<br />Your interviewer wonders, “Is this person really able to handle the job?”…”Is he or she a ‘good fit’ at a place like ours?”…”Will the chemistry ever be right with someone like this?” But the interviewer never raises such questions because they’re illegal. So what can you do?<br />BEST ANSWER: Remember that just because the interviewer doesn’t ask an illegal question doesn’t mean he doesn’t have it. More than likely, he is going to come up with his own answer. So you might as well help him out.<br />How? Well, you obviously can’t respond to an illegal question if he hasn’t even asked. This may well offend him. And there’s always the chance he wasn’t even concerned about the issue until you brought it up, and only then begins to wonder.<br />So you can’t address “secret” illegal questions head-on. But what you can do is make sure there’s enough counterbalancing information to more than reassure him that there’s no problem in the area he may be doubtful about.<br />For example, let’s say you’re a sales rep who had polio as a child and you need a cane to walk. You know your condition has never impeded your performance, yet you’re concerned that your interviewer may secretly be wondering about your stamina or ability to travel. Well, make sure that you hit these abilities very hard, leaving no doubt about your capacity to handle them well.<br />So, too, if you’re in any different from what passes for “normal”. Make sure, without in any way seeming defensive about yourself that you mention strengths, accomplishments, preferences and affiliations that strongly counterbalance any unspoken concern your interviewer may have.<br />Question 57 What was the toughest part of your last job?<br />TRAPS: This is slightly different from the question raised earlier, “What’s the most difficult part of being a (job title…)” because this asks what you personally have found most difficult in your last position. This question is more difficult to redefine into something positive. Your interviewer will assume that whatever you found toughest may give you a problem in your new position.<br />BEST ANSWER: State that there was nothing in your prior position that you found overly difficult, and let your answer go at that. If pressed to expand your answer, you could describe the aspects of the position you enjoyed more than others, making sure that you express maximum enjoyment for those tasks most important to the open position, and you enjoyed least those tasks that are unimportant to the position at hand.<br />Question 58 How do you define success…and how do you measure up to your own definition?<br />TRAPS: Seems like an obvious enough question. Yet many executives, unprepared for it, fumble the ball.<br />BEST ANSWER: Give a well-accepted definition of success that leads right into your own stellar collection of achievements.<br />Example: “The best definition I’ve come across is that success is the progressive realization of a worthy goal.”<br />“As to how I would measure up to that definition, I would consider myself both successful and fortunate…”(Then summarize your career goals and how your achievements have indeed represented a progressive path toward realization of your goals.)<br />Question 59 “The Opinion Question” – What do you think about …Abortion…The President…The Death Penalty…(or any other controversial subject)?<br />TRAPS: Obviously, these and other “opinion” questions should never be asked. Sometimes they come up over a combination dinner/interview when the interviewer has had a drink or two, is feeling relaxed, and is spouting off about something that bugged him in today’s news. If you give your opinion and it’s the opposite of his, you won’t change his opinions, but you could easily lose the job offer.<br />BEST ANSWER: In all of these instances, just remember the tale about student and the wise old rabbi. The scene is a seminary, where an overly serious student is pressing the rabbi to answer the ultimate questions of suffering, life and death. But no matter how hard he presses, the wise old rabbi will only answer each difficult question with a question of his own.<br />In exasperation, the seminary student demands, “Why, rabbi, do you always answer a question with another question?” To which the rabbi responds, “And why not?”<br />If you are ever uncomfortable with any question, asking a question in return is the greatest escape hatch ever invented. It throws the onus back on the other person, sidetracks the discussion from going into an area of risk to you, and gives you time to think of your answer or, even better, your next question!<br />In response to any of the “opinion” questions cited above, merely responding, “Why do you ask?” will usually be enough to dissipate any pressure to give your opinion. But if your interviewer again presses you for an opinion, you can ask another question.<br />Or you could assert a generality that almost everyone would agree with. For example, if your interviewer is complaining about politicians then suddenly turns to you and asks if you’re a Republican or Democrat, you could respond by saying, “Actually, I’m finding it hard to find any politicians I like these days.”<br />(Of course, your best question of all may be whether you want to work for someone opinionated.)<br />Question 60 If you won $10 million lottery, would you still work?<br />TRAPS: Your totally honest response might be, “Hell, no, are you serious?” That might be so, but any answer which shows you as fleeing work if given the chance could make you seem lazy. On the other hand, if you answer, “Oh, I’d want to keep doing exactly what I am doing, only doing it for your firm,” you could easily inspire your interviewer to silently mutter to himself, “Yeah, sure. Gimme a break.”<br />BEST ANSWER: This type of question is aimed at getting at your bedrock attitude about work and how you feel about what you do. Your best answer will focus on your positive feelings.<br />Example: “After I floated down from cloud nine, I think I would still hold my basic belief that achievement and purposeful work are essential to a happy, productive life. After all, if money alone bought happiness, then all rich people would be all happy, and that’s not true.<br />“I love the work I do, and I think I’d always want to be involved in my career in some fashion. Winning the lottery would make it more fun because it would mean having more flexibility, more options...who knows?”<br />“Of course, since I can’t count on winning, I’d just as soon create my own destiny by sticking with what’s worked for me, meaning good old reliable hard work and a desire to achieve. I think those qualities have built many more fortunes that all the lotteries put together.”<br />Question 61 Looking back on your last position, have you done your best work?<br />TRAPS: Tricky question. Answer “absolutely” and it can seem like your best work is behind you. Answer, “no, my best work is ahead of me,” and it can seem as if you didn’t give it your all.<br />BEST ANSWER: To cover both possible paths this question can take, your answer should state that you always try to do your best, and the best of your career is right now. Like an athlete at the top of his game, you are just hitting your career stride thanks to several factors. Then, recap those factors, highlighting your strongest qualifications.<br />Question 62 Why should I hire you from the outside when I could promote someone from within?<br />TRAPS: This question isn’t as aggressive as it sounds. It represents the interviewer’s own dilemma over this common problem. He’s probably leaning toward you already and for reassurance, wants to hear what you have to say on the matter.<br />BEST ANSWER: Help him see the qualifications that only you can offer.<br />Example: “In general, I think it’s a good policy to hire from within – to look outside probably means you’re not completely comfortable choosing someone from inside.<br />“Naturally, you want this department to be as strong as it possibly can be, so you want the strongest candidate. I feel that I can fill that bill because…(then recap your strongest qualifications that match up with his greatest needs).”<br />Question 63 Tell me something negative you’ve heard about our company…<br />TRAPS: This is a common fishing expedition to see what the industry grapevine may be saying about the company. But it’s also a trap because as an outsider, you never want to be the bearer of unflattering news or gossip about the firm. It can only hurt your chances and sidetrack the interviewer from getting sold on you.<br />BEST ANSWER: Just remember the rule – never be negative – and you’ll handle this one just fine.<br />Question 64 On a scale of one to ten, rate me as an interviewer.<br />TRAPS: Give a perfect “10,” and you’ll seem too easy to please. Give anything less than a perfect 10, and he could press you as to where you’re being critical, and that road leads downhill for you.<br />BEST ANSWER: Once again, never be negative. The interviewer will only resent criticism coming from you. This is the time to show your positivism.<br />However, don’t give a numerical rating. Simply praise whatever interview style he’s been using.<br />If he’s been tough, say “You have been thorough and tough-minded, the very qualities needed to conduct a good interview.”<br />If he’s been methodical, say, “You have been very methodical and analytical, and I’m sure that approach results in excellent hires for your firm.”<br />In other words, pay him a sincere compliment that he can believe because it’s anchored in the behavior you’ve just seen.<br /><br />Good luck in your job search!<br /><br />The EditorsFRESHERhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/03154154368670178574noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-2158258402527566027.post-58950048847298488032007-08-19T08:20:00.000-07:002007-08-19T08:21:17.303-07:00technical quetionsTechnical Questions<br />1. A 2MB PCM(pulse code modulation) has<br /><br />a) 32 channels<br />b) 30 voice channels & 1 signalling channel.<br />c) 31 voice channels & 1 signalling channel.<br />d) 32 channels out of which 30 voice channels, 1 signalling channel, & 1 Synchronizatio channel.<br />Ans: (c)<br />2. Time taken for 1 satellite hop in voice communication is<br /><br />a) 1/2 second<br />b) 1 seconds<br />c) 4 seconds<br />d) 2 seconds<br />Ans: (a)<br />3. Max number of satellite hops allowed in voice communication is :<br /><br />a) only one<br />b) more han one<br />c) two hops<br />d) four hops<br />Ans: (c)<br />4. What is the max. decimal number that can be accomodated in a byte.<br /><br />a) 128<br />b) 256<br />c) 255<br />d) 512<br />Ans: (c)<br />5. Conditional results after execution of an instruction in a micro processor is stored in<br /><br />a) register<br />b) accumulator<br />c) flag register<br />d) flag register part of PSW(Program Status Word)<br />Ans: (d)<br /><br /><br />6. Frequency at which VOICE is sampled is<br /><br />a) 4 Khz<br />b) 8 Khz<br />c) 16 Khz<br />d) 64 Khz<br />Ans: (a)<br />7. Line of Sight is <br /><br />a) Straight Line<br />b) Parabolic <br />c) Tx & Rx should be visible to each other<br />d) none<br />Ans: (c)<br />8. Purpose of PC(Program Counter) in a MicroProcessor is<br /><br />a) To store address of TOS(Top Of Stack)<br />b) To store address of next instruction to be executed.<br />c) count the number of instructions.<br />d) to store base address of the stack.<br />Ans: (b)<br />9. What action is taken when the processor under execution is interrupted by a non-maskable interrupt?<br /><br />a) Processor serves the interrupt request after completing the execution of the current instruction.<br />b) Processor serves the interupt request after completing the current task.<br />c) Processor serves the interupt request immediately.<br />d) Processor serving the interrupt request depends upon the priority of the current task under execution.<br />Ans: (a)<br />10. The status of the Kernel is<br /><br />a) task<br />b) process<br />c) not defined.<br />d) none of the above.<br />Ans: (b)<br /><br />11. To send a data packet using datagram , connection will be established<br /><br />a) before data transmission.<br />b) connection is not established before data transmission.<br />c) no connection is required.<br />d) none of the above.<br />Ans: (c)<br /><br />12. Word allignment is<br /><br />a) alligning the address to the next word boundary of the machine.<br />b) alligning to even boundary.<br />c) alligning to word boundary.<br />d) none of the above.<br />Ans: (a)<br />13 When a 'C' function call is made, the order in which parameters passed to the function are pushed into the stack is<br /><br />a) left to right<br />b) right to left<br />c) bigger variables are moved first than the smaller variales.<br />d) smaller variables are moved first than the bigger ones.<br />e) none of the above.<br />Ans: (b)<br />14 What is the type of signalling used between two exchanges?<br /><br />a) inband<br />b) common channel signalling<br />c) any of the above<br />d) none of the above.<br />Ans: (a)<br />15 Buffering is <br /><br />a) the process of temporarily storing the data to allow for small variation in device speeds<br />b) a method to reduce cross talks<br />c) storage of data within transmitting medium until the receiver is ready to receive.<br />d) a method to reduce routing overhead.<br />Ans: (a)<br /><br />16. Memory allocation of variables declared in a program is<br /><br />a) allocated in RAM.<br />b) allocated in ROM.<br />c) allocated on stack.<br />d) assigned to registers.<br />Ans: (c)<br /><br />17. A software that allows a personal computer to pretend as a computer terminal is <br /><br />a) terminal adapter<br />b) bulletin board<br />c) modem<br />d) terminal emulation<br />Ans: (d)<br />18. Find the output of the following program<br />int *p,*q;<br />p=(int *)1000;<br />q=(int *)2000;<br />printf("%d",(q-p)); <br />Ans: 500<br /><br />19. Which addressing mode is used in the following statements:<br />(a) MVI B,55 <br />(b) MOV B,A <br />(c) MOV M,A<br />Ans. (a) Immediate addressing mode.<br />(b) Register Addressing Mode<br />(c) Direct addressing mode<br /><br />20. RS-232C standard is used in _____________.<br />Ans. Serial I/O<br /><br /><br /><br />21. Memory. Management in Operating Systems is done by<br /><br />a) Memory Management Unit<br />b) Memory management software of the Operating System<br />c) Kernel<br />Ans: (b)<br /><br />22. What is done for a Push opertion?<br />Ans: SP is decremented and then the value is stored.<br />23. Binary equivalent of 52<br /><br />Ans. 110100<br /><br /><br />24. Hexadecimal equivalent of 3452<br /><br />Ans. 72A<br /><br /><br />25. Explain Just In Time Concept ?<br /><br />Ans. Elimination of waste by purchasing manufacturing exactly when needed<br /><br /><br />26. A good way of unit testing s/w program is<br /><br />Ans. User test<br /><br /><br />27. OOT uses<br /><br />Ans. Encapsulated of detect methods<br /><br /><br />28.EDI useful in<br /><br />Ans. Electronic Transmission<br /><br /><br />29. MRPII different from MRP<br /><br />Ans. Modular version of man redundant initials<br /><br /><br />30. Hard disk time for R/W head to move to correct sector<br /><br />Ans. Latency Time<br /><br /><br />31. The percentage of times a page number bound in associate register is called<br /><br />Ans. Bit ratio<br /><br /><br />32. Expand MODEM<br /><br />Ans. Modulator and Demodulator<br /><br /><br />33. RDBMS file system can be defined as<br /><br />Ans. Interrelated<br /><br /><br />34. Super Key is<br /><br />Ans. Primary key and Attribute<br /><br /><br />35. Windows 95 supports<br /><br />(a) Multiuser <br />(b) n tasks <br />(c) Both<br />(d) None<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />36.In the command scanf, h is used for <br /><br />Ans. Short int<br /><br /><br />37.A process is defined as<br /><br />Ans. Program in execution<br /><br /><br />38.A thread is<br /><br />Ans. Detachable unit of executable code)<br /><br /><br />39.What is the advantage of Win NT over Win 95 <br /><br />Ans. Robust and secure<br /><br /><br /><br />40.How is memory management done in Win95 <br /><br />Ans. Through paging and segmentation<br /><br /><br />41.What is meant by polymorphism<br /><br />Ans. Redfinition of a base class method in a derived class<br /><br /><br />42.What is the essential feature of inheritance <br /><br />Ans. All properties of existing class are derived<br /><br /><br />43.What does the protocol FTP do<br /><br />Ans. Transfer a file b/w stations with user authentification<br /><br /><br />44.In the transport layer ,TCP is what type of protocol<br /><br />Ans. Connection oriented<br /><br /><br />45.Why is a gateway used <br /><br />Ans. To connect incompatible networks<br /><br /><br />46.How is linked list implemented<br /><br />Ans. By referential structures<br /><br /><br />47.What method is used in Win95 in multitasking<br /><br />Ans. Non preemptive check<br /><br /><br />48.What is a semaphore <br /><br />Ans. A method synchronization of multiple processes<br /><br /><br />49.What is the precedence order from high to low ,of the symbols ( ) ++ / <br /><br />Ans.( ) , ++, /<br /><br /><br /><br />50.Preorder of A*(B+C)/D-G<br /><br />Ans.*+ABC/-DG<br /><br />51.What is the efficiency of merge sort <br /><br />Ans. O(n log n)<br /><br /><br />52.In which layer are routers used <br /><br />Ans.In network layer <br /><br /><br />53.Which of the following sorting algorithem has average sorting behavior --<br /> Bubble sort,merge sort,heap sort,exchange sort<br /><br />Ans. Heap sort<br /><br /><br />54.In binary search tree which traversal is used for getting ascending order values--Inorder ,post order,preorder<br /><br />Ans.Inorder<br /><br /><br />55.What are device drivers used for <br /><br />Ans.To provide software for enabling the hardware<br /><br /><br />56.What is fork command in unix <br /><br />Ans. System call used to create process<br /><br /><br />57.What is make command in unix<br /><br />Ans. Used forcreation of more than one file<br /><br /><br />58.In unix .profile contains <br /><br />Ans. Start up program<br /><br /><br />59.In unix 'ls 'stores contents in<br /><br />Ans.inode block<br /><br />60. Which of the following involves context switch,<br />(a) system call <br />(b) priviliged instruction<br />(c) floating poitnt exception<br />(d) all the above<br />(e) none of the above<br />Ans: (a)<br /><br />61. In OST, terminal emulation is done in<br />(a) sessions layer <br />(b) application layer <br />(c) presentation layer <br />(d) transport layer<br />Ans: (b)<br />62. For 1 MB memory, the number of address lines required,<br />(a)11 <br />(b)16 <br />(c)22 <br />(d) 24<br />Ans. (b)<br />63. Semaphore is used for<br />(a) synchronization <br />(b) dead-lock avoidence<br />(c) box <br />(d) none<br />Ans. (a)<br />64. Which holds true for the following statement<br /> class c: public A, public B<br />a) 2 member in class A, B should not have same name<br />b) 2 member in class A, C should not have same name<br />c) both <br />d) none<br />Ans. (a)<br />65.Preproconia.. does not do which one of the following<br />(a) macro<br />(b) conditional compliclation<br />(c) in type checking <br />(d) including load file<br />Ans. (c)<br /><br />66. Piggy backing is a technique for<br />a) Flow control <br />b) Sequence <br />c) Acknowledgement <br />d) retransmition<br />Ans. (c)<br /><br />67. Which is not a memory management scheme?<br />a) buddy system<br />b) swapping<br />c) monitors<br />d) paging <br />Ans : c<br />68. There was a circuit given using three nand gates with two inputs and one output.<br /> Find the output.<br />a) OR<br />b) AND<br />c) XOR<br />d) NOT<br />Ans. (a)<br /><br />69.Iintegrated check value(ICV) are used as:<br />Ans. The client computes the ICV and then compares it with the senders value.<br />70. When applets are downloaded from web sites , a byte verifier performs _________?<br />Ans. Status check.<br /><br />71. An IP/IPX packet received by a computer using... having IP/IPX both how the packet is handled.<br />Ans. Read the, field in the packet header with to send IP or IPX protocol.<br />72. The UNIX shell ....<br />a) does not come with the rest of the system<br />b) forms the interface between the user and the kernal<br />c) does not give any scope for programming<br />d) deos not allow calling one program from with in another<br />e) all of the above<br />Ans. (b)<br />73. In UNIX a files i-node ......?<br />Ans. Is a data structure that defines all specifications of a file like the file size, <br /> number of lines to a file, permissions etc.<br />74. The very first process created by the kernal that runs till the kernal process is halts is<br />a) init<br />b) getty<br />c) both (a) and (b)<br />d) none of these<br />Ans. (a)<br />75. In the process table entry for the kernel process, the process id value is<br />(a) 0 <br />(b) 1 <br />(c) 2 <br />(d) 255 <br />(e) it does not have a process table entry<br />Ans. (a)<br /><br />76. Which of the following API is used to hide a window<br />a) ShowWindow<br />b) EnableWindow<br />c) MoveWindow<br />d) SetWindowPlacement<br />e) None of the above<br />Ans. (a)<br />77. Which function is the entry point for a DLL in MS Windows 3.1<br />a) Main<br />b) Winmain<br />c) Dllmain<br />d) Libmain<br />e) None<br />Ans. (b)<br />78. The standard source for standard input, standard output and standard error is<br />a) the terminal<br />b) /dev/null<br />c) /usr/you/input, /usr/you/output/, /usr/you/error respectively<br />d) None<br />Ans. (a)<br />79. The redirection operators > and >><br />a) do the same function<br />b) differ : > overwrites, while >> appends<br />c) differ : > is used for input while >> is used for output<br />d) differ : > write to any file while >> write only to standard output<br />e) None of these<br />Ans. (b)<br />80. The command grep first second third /usr/you/myfile<br />a) prints lines containing the words first, second or third from the file /usr/you/myfile<br />b) searches for lines containing the pattern first in the files<br />second, third, and /usr/you/myfile and prints them<br />c) searches the files /usr/you/myfiel and third for lines containing the words first or second and prints them<br />d) replaces the word first with the word second in the files third and /usr/you/myfile<br />e) None of the above<br />Ans. (b)<br />81. You are creating a Index on EMPNO column in the EMPLOYEE table. Which statement will you use?<br />a) CREATE INdEX emp_empno_idx ON employee, empno;<br />b) CREATE INdEX emp_empno_idx FOR employee, empno;<br />c) CREATE INdEX emp_empno_idx ON employee(empno); <br />d) CREATE emp_empno_idx INdEX ON employee(empno);<br /><br />Ans. c<br /><br />82. Which program construct must return a value?<br />a) Package<br />b) Function <br />c) Anonymous block<br />d) Stored Procedure<br />e) Application Procedure<br /><br />Ans. b<br /><br />83. Which Statement would you use to remove the EMPLOYEE_Id_PK PRIMARY KEY constraint and all depending constraints fromthe EMPLOYEE table?<br />a) ALTER TABLE employee dROP PRIMARY KEY CASCAdE; <br />b) ALTER TABLE employee dELETE PRIMARY KEY CASCAdE;<br />c) MOdIFY TABLE employee dROP CONSTRAINT employee_id_pk CASCAdE;<br />d) ALTER TABLE employee dROP PRIMARY KEY employee_id_pk CASCAdE;<br />e) MOdIFY TABLE employee dELETE PRIMARY KEY employee_id_pk CASCAdE;<br /><br />Ans. a<br /><br />84. Which three commands cause a transaction to end? (Chosse three)<br />a) ALTER<br />b) GRANT <br />c) DELETE<br />d) INSERT<br />e) UPdATE<br />f) ROLLBACK <br />Ans. a ,b ,f<br />85. Under which circumstance should you create an index on a table?<br />a) The table is small.<br />b) The table is updated frequently.<br />c) A columns values are static and contain a narrow range of values<br />d) Two columns are consistently used in the WHERE clause join condition of SELECT <br /> statements.<br /><br />Ans.d<br />86. What was the first name given to Java Programming Language. <br /><br />a) Oak - Java<br />b) Small Talk<br />c) Oak<br />d) None<br /><br />Ans.a<br /><br />87.When a bicycle is in motion,the force of friction exerted by the ground on the two wheels is such that it acts<br />(a) In the backward direction on the front wheel and in the forward direction on the rear wheel.<br />(b) In the forward direction on the front wheel and in the backward direction on the rear wheel.<br />(c) In the backward direction on both the front and rear wheels.<br />(d) In the backward direction on both the front and rear wheels.<br />Ans. (d)<br /><br />88. A certain radioactive element A, has a half life = t seconds.<br /> In (t/2) seconds the fraction of the initial quantity of the element so far decayed is nearly<br />(a) 29%<br />(b) 15%<br />(c) 10%<br />(d) 45%<br />Ans. (a)<br /><br />89. Which of the following plots would be a straight line ?<br />(a) Logarithm of decay rate against logarithm of time<br />(b) Logarithm of decay rate against logarithm of number of decaying nuclei<br />(c) Decay rate against time<br />(d) Number of decaying nuclei against time<br />Ans. (b)<br /><br />90. A radioactive element x has an atomic number of 100.<br /> It decays directly into an element y which decays directly into element z.<br /> In both processes a charged particle is emitted.<br /> Which of the following statements would be true?<br />(a) y has an atomic number of 102<br />(b) y has an atomic number of 101<br />(c) z has an atomic number of 100<br />(d) z has an atomic number of 101<br />Ans. (b)<br /><br />91. If the sum of the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c=0 is equal to the sum of the squares of their reciprocals <br /> then a/c, b/a, c/b are in <br />(a) AP<br />(b) GP<br />(c) HP<br />(d) None of these<br />Ans. (c)<br /><br />92. A man speaks the truth 3 out of 4 times.<br /> He throws a die and reports it to be a 6.<br /> What is the probability of it being a 6?<br />(a) 3/8<br />(b) 5/8<br />(c) 3/4<br />(d) None of the above<br />Ans. (a)<br /><br />93. If cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = 1 then ABC is a<br />(a) Right angle triangle<br />(b) Equilateral triangle<br />(c) All the angles are acute<br />(d) None of these<br />Ans. (a)<br /><br />94. Image of point (3,8) in the line x + 3y = 7 is<br />(a) (-1,-4)<br />(b) (-1,4)<br />(c) (2,-4)<br />(d) (-2,-4)<br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />95. The mass number of a nucleus is <br />(a) Always less than its atomic number<br />(b) Always more than its atomic number<br />(c) Sometimes more than and sometimes equal to its atomic number<br />(d) None of the above<br />Ans. (c)<br /><br />96. The maximum KE of the photoelectron emitted from a surface is dependent on <br />(a) The intensity of incident radiation<br />(b) The potential of the collector electrode<br />(c) The frequency of incident radiation<br />(d) The angle of incidence of radiation of the surface<br />Ans. (c)<br /><br />97. Which of the following is not an essential condition for interference<br />(a) The two interfering waves must be propagated in almost the same direction or <br /> the two interfering waves must intersect at a very small angle<br />(b) The waves must have the same time period and wavelength<br />(c) Amplitude of the two waves should be the same<br />(d) The interfering beams of light must originate from the same source<br />Ans. (c)<br /><br />98. When X-Ray photons collide with electrons <br />(a) They slow down<br />(b) Their mass increases<br />(c) Their wave length increases<br />(d) Their energy decreases<br />Ans. (c)<br /><br /><br /><br />99. An electron emits energy <br />(a) Because its in orbit<br />(b) When it jumps from one energy level to another<br />(c) Electrons are attracted towards the nucleus<br />(d) The electrostatic force is insufficient to hold the electrons in orbits<br />Ans. (b)<br /><br />100. How many bonds are present in CO2 molecule?<br />(a) 1<br />(b) 2<br />(c) 0<br />(d) 4<br />Ans. (d)FRESHERhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/03154154368670178574noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-2158258402527566027.post-29183973155633701262007-08-19T08:18:00.000-07:002007-08-19T08:20:57.774-07:00400 puzzlesThree friends divided some bullets equally. After all of them shot 4 bullets the total number of bullets remaining is equal to the bullets each had after division. Find the original number divided. <br />Answer<br /><br />18 <br /><br />Assume that initial there were 3*X bullets. <br /><br />So they got X bullets each after division. <br /><br />All of them shot 4 bullets. So now they have (X - 4) bullets each. <br /><br />But it is given that,after they shot 4 bullets each, total number of bullets remaining is equal to the bullets each had after division i.e. X <br /><br />Therefore, the equation is <br />3 * (X - 4) = X <br />3 * X - 12 = X <br />2 * X = 12 <br />X = 6 <br /><br />Therefore the total bullets before division is = 3 * X = 18<br /><br /><br />Find sum of digits of D. <br /><br />Let <br />A= 19991999 <br />B = sum of digits of A <br />C = sum of digits of B <br />D = sum of digits of C <br /><br />(HINT : A = B = C = D (mod 9)) <br />Answer<br /><br />The sum of the digits od D is 1. <br /><br />Let E = sum of digits of D. <br /><br />It follows from the hint that A = E (mod 9)<br />Consider,<br /><br /> A = 19991999<br /><br /> < 20002000<br /><br /> = 22000 * 10002000<br /><br /> = 1024200 * 106000<br /><br /> < 10800 * 106000<br /><br /> = 106800<br /><br /> <br /><br /> i.e. A < 106800<br /><br /> i.e. B < 6800 * 9 = 61200<br /><br /> i.e. C < 5 * 9 = 45<br /><br /> i.e. D < 2 * 9 = 18<br /><br /> i.e. E <= 9<br /><br /> i.e. E is a single digit number.<br /><br /><br /><br /> Also,<br /><br /> 1999 = 1 (mod 9)<br /><br /> so 19991999 = 1 (mod 9)<br /><br /><br />Therefore we conclude that E=1.<br />There is a 50m long army platoon marching ahead. The last person in the platoon wants to give a letter to the first person leading the platoon. So while the platoon is marching he runs ahead, reaches the first person and hands over the letter to him and without stopping he runs and comes back to his original position. <br /><br />In the mean time the whole platoon has moved ahead by 50m. <br /><br />The question is how much distance did the last person cover in that time. Assuming that he ran the whole distance with uniform speed.<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />The last person covered 120.71 meters. <br /><br />It is given that the platoon and the last person moved with uniform speed. Also, they both moved for the identical amount of time. Hence, the ratio of the distance they covered - while person moving forward and backword - are equal. <br /><br />Let's assume that when the last person reached the first person, the platoon moved X meters forward. <br /><br />Thus, while moving forward the last person moved (50+X) meters whereas the platoon moved X meters. <br /><br />Similarly, while moving back the last person moved [50-(50-X)] X meters whereas the platoon moved (50-X) meters. <br /><br />Now, as the ratios are equal, <br />(50+X)/X = X/(50-X) <br />(50+X)*(50-X) = X*X <br /><br />Solving, X=35.355 meters <br /><br />Thus, total distance covered by the last person <br />= (50+X) + X <br />= 2*X + 50 <br />= 2*(35.355) + 50 <br />= 120.71 meters <br /><br /><br />Note that at first glance, one might think that the total distance covered by the last person is 100 meters, as he ran the total lenght of the platoon (50 meters) twice. TRUE, but that's the relative distance covered by the last person i.e. assuming that the platoon is stationary.<br /><br />If you take a marker & start from a corner on a cube, what is the maximum number of edges you can trace across if you never trace across the same edge twice, never remove the marker from the cube, & never trace anywhere on the cube, except for the corners & edges? <br />Answer<br /><br />9 <br /><br />To verify this, you can make a drawing of a cube, & number each of its 12 edges. Then, always starting from 1 corner & 1 edge, you can determine all of the possible combinations for tracing along the edges of a cube. <br /><br />There is no need to start from other corners or edges of the cube, as you will only be repeating the same combinations. The process is a little more involved than this, but is useful for solving many types of spatial puzzles.<br />One of Mr. Bajaj, his wife, their son and Mr. Bajaj's mother is an Engineer and another is a Doctor. <br />• If the Doctor is a male, then the Engineer is a male. <br />• If the Engineer is younger than the Doctor, then the Engineer and the Doctor are not blood relatives. <br />• If the Engineer is a female, then she and the Doctor are blood relatives. <br />Can you tell who is the Doctor and the Engineer?<br />Answer<br /><br />Mr. Bajaj is the Engineer and either his wife or his son is the Doctor. <br /><br />Mr. Bajaj's wife and mother are not blood relatives. So from 3, if the Engineer is a female, the Doctor is a male. But from 1, if the Doctor is a male, then the Engineer is a male. Thus, there is a contradiction, if the Engineer is a female. Hence, either Mr. Bajaj or his son is the Engineer. <br /><br />Mr. Bajaj's son is the youngest of all four and is blood relative of each of them. So from 2, Mr. Bajaj's son is not the Engineer. Hence, Mr. Bajaj is the Engineer. <br /><br />Now from 2, Mr. Bajaj's mother can not be the Doctor. So the Doctor is either his wife or his son . It is not possible to determine anything further.<br /><br />Three men - Sam, Cam and Laurie - are married to Carrie, Billy and Tina, but not necessarily in the same order. <br /><br />Sam's wife and Billy's Husband play Carrie and Tina's husband at bridge. No wife partners her husband and Cam does not play bridge. <br /><br />Who is married to Cam? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Carrie is married to Cam. <br /><br />"Sam's wife and Billy's Husband play Carrie and Tina's husband at bridge." <br /><br />It means that Sam is not married to either Billy or Carrie. Thus, Sam is married to Tina. <br /><br />As Cam does not play bridge, Billy's husband must be Laurie. <br /><br />Hence, Carrie is married to Cam.<br /><br />There are 3 persons X, Y and Z. On some day, X lent tractors to Y and Z as many as they had. After a month Y gave as many tractors to X and Z as many as they have. After a month Z did the same thing. At the end of this transaction each one of them had 24. <br /><br />Find the tractors each originally had? <br />Answer<br /><br />One way to solve it is by making 3 equations and solve them simultaneously. But there is rather easier way to solve it using Backtracing. <br /><br />It's given that at the end, each had 24 tractors (24, 24, 24) i.e. after Z gave tractors to X & Y as many as they had. It means that after getting tractors from Z their tractors got doubled. So before Z gave them tractors, they had 12 tractors each and Z had 48 tractors. (12, 12, 48) <br /><br />Similarly, before Y gave tractors to X & Z, they had 6 & 24 tractors respectively and Y had 42 tractors i.e. (6, 42, 24) <br /><br />Again, before X gave tractors to Y & Z, they had 21 & 12 tractors respectively and X had 39 tractors i.e. (39, 21, 12) <br /><br />Hence, initially X had 39 tractors, Y had 21 tractors and Z had 12 tractors.<br />A certain street has 1000 buildings. A sign-maker is contracted to number the houses from 1 to 1000. How many zeroes will he need? <br />Answer<br /><br />The sign-maker will need 192 zeroes. <br /><br />Divide 1000 building numbers into groups of 100 each as follow: <br />(1..100), (101..200), (201..300), ....... (901..1000) <br /><br />For the first group, sign-maker will need 11 zeroes. <br />For group numbers 2 to 9, he will require 20 zeroes each. <br />And for group number 10, he will require 21 zeroes. <br /><br />The total numbers of zeroes required are <br />= 11 + 8*20 + 21 <br />= 11 + 160 + 21 <br />= 192<br /><br />There are 9 coins. Out of which one is odd one i.e weight is less or more. How many iterations of weighing are required to find odd coin? <br />Answer<br /><br />It is always possible to find odd coin in 3 weighings and to tell whether the odd coin is heavier or lighter. <br />1. Take 8 coins and weigh 4 against 4. <br />o If both are not equal, goto step 2 <br />o If both are equal, goto step 3 <br /><br />2. One of these 8 coins is the odd one. Name the coins on heavier side of the scale as H1, H2, H3 and H4. Similarly, name the coins on the lighter side of the scale as L1, L2, L3 and L4. Either one of H's is heavier or one of L's is lighter. Weigh (H1, H2, L1) against (H3, H4, X) where X is one coin remaining in intial weighing. <br />o If both are equal, one of L2, L3, L4 is lighter. Weigh L2 against L3. <br /> If both are equal, L4 is the odd coin and is lighter. <br /> If L2 is light, L2 is the odd coin and is lighter. <br /> If L3 is light, L3 is the odd coin and is lighter. <br /><br />o If (H1, H2, L1) is heavier side on the scale, either H1 or H2 is heavier. Weight H1 against H2 <br /> If both are equal, there is some error. <br /> If H1 is heavy, H1 is the odd coin and is heavier. <br /> If H2 is heavy, H2 is the odd coin and is heavier. <br /><br />o If (H3, H4, X) is heavier side on the scale, either H3 or H4 is heavier or L1 is lighter. Weight H3 against H4 <br /> If both are equal, L1 is the odd coin and is lighter. <br /> If H3 is heavy, H3 is the odd coin and is heavier. <br /> If H4 is heavy, H4 is the odd coin and is heavier. <br /><br />3. The remaining coin X is the odd one. Weigh X against the anyone coin used in initial weighing. <br />o If both are equal, there is some error. <br />o If X is heavy, X is the odd coin and is heavier. <br />o If X is light, X is the odd coin and is lighter. <br />In a sports contest there were m medals awarded on n successive days (n > 1). <br />1. On the first day 1 medal and 1/7 of the remaining m - 1 medals were awarded. <br />2. On the second day 2 medals and 1/7 of the now remaining medals was awarded; and so on. <br />3. On the nth and last day, the remaining n medals were awarded.<br />How many days did the contest last, and how many medals were awarded altogether?<br />Answer<br /><br />Total 36 medals were awarded and the contest was for 6 days. <br /><br />On day 1: Medals awarded = (1 + 35/7) = 6 : Remaining 30 medals <br />On day 2: Medals awarded = (2 + 28/7) = 6 : Remaining 24 medals <br />On day 3: Medals awarded = (3 + 21/7) = 6 : Remaining 18 medals <br />On day 4: Medals awarded = (4 + 14/7) = 6 : Remaining 12 medals <br />On day 5: Medals awarded = (5 +7/7) = 6 : Remaining 6 medals <br />On day 6: Medals awarded 6 <br /><br />I got this answer by writing small program. If anyone know any other simpler method, do submit it.<br />A number of 9 digits has the following properties: <br />• The number comprising the leftmost two digits is divisible by 2, that comprising the leftmost three digits is divisible by 3, the leftmost four by 4, the leftmost five by 5, and so on for the nine digits of the number i.e. the number formed from the first n digits is divisible by n, 2<=n<=9. <br />• Each digit in the number is different i.e. no digits are repeated. <br />• The digit 0 does not occur in the number i.e. it is comprised only of the digits 1-9 in some order.<br />Find the number.<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />The answer is 381654729 <br /><br />One way to solve it is Trial-&-Error. You can make it bit easier as odd positions will always occupy ODD numbers and even positions will always occupy EVEN numbers. Further 5th position will contain 5 as 0 does not occur. <br /><br />The other way to solve this problem is by writing a computer program that systematically tries all possibilities<br /><br />1/3 rd of the contents of a container evaporated on the 1st day. 3/4th of the remaining contents of the container evaporated on the second day. <br /><br />What part of the contents of the container is left at the end of the second day? <br /><br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Assume that contents of the container is X <br /><br />On the first day 1/3rd is evaporated. <br />(1 - 1/3) of X is remaining i.e. (2/3)X <br /><br />On the Second day 3/4th is evaporated. Hence, <br />(1- 3/4) of (2/3)X is remaining <br />i.e. (1/4)(2/3)X = (1/6) X <br /><br />Hence 1/6th of the contents of the container is remaining<br /><br />Vipul was studying for his examinations and the lights went off. It was around 1:00 AM. He lighted two uniform candles of equal length but one thicker than the other. The thick candle is supposed to last six hours and the thin one two hours less. When he finally went to sleep, the thick candle was twice as long as the thin one. <br /><br />For how long did Vipul study in candle light? <br />Answer<br /><br />Vipul studied for 3 hours in candle light. <br /><br />Assume that the initial lenght of both the candle was L and Vipul studied for X hours. <br /><br />In X hours, total thick candle burnt = XL/6 <br />In X hours, total thin candle burnt = XL/4 <br /><br />After X hours, total thick candle remaining = L - XL/6 <br />After X hours, total thin candle remaining = L - XL/4 <br /><br />Also, it is given that the thick candle was twice as long as the thin one when he finally went to sleep. <br />(L - XL/6) = 2(L - XL/4) <br />(6 - X)/6 = (4 - X)/2 <br />(6 - X) = 3*(4 - X) <br />6 - X = 12 - 3X <br />2X = 6 <br />X = 3 <br /><br />Hence, Vipul studied for 3 hours i.e. 180 minutes in candle light.<br /><br />If you started a business in which you earned Rs.1 on the first day, Rs.3 on the second day, Rs.5 on the third day, Rs.7 on the fourth day, & so on. <br /><br />How much would you have earned with this business after 50 years (assuming there are exactly 365 days in every year)? <br />Answer<br /><br />Rs.333,062,500 <br /><br />To begin with, you want to know the total number of days: 365 x 50 = 18250. <br /><br />By experimentation, the following formula can be discovered, & used to determine the amount earned for any particular day: 1 + 2(x-1), with x being the number of the day. Take half of the 18250 days, & pair them up with the other half in the following way: day 1 with day 18250, day 2 with day 18249, & so on, & you will see that if you add these pairs together, they always equal Rs.36500. <br /><br />Multiply this number by the total number of pairs (9125), & you have the amount you would have earned in 50 years. <br /><br />Math gurus may use series formula to solve it.(series: 1,3,5,7,9,11.....upto 18250 terms)<br />A worker earns a 5% raise. A year later, the worker receives a 2.5% cut in pay, & now his salary is Rs. 22702.68 <br /><br />What was his salary to begin with?<br />Answer<br /><br />Rs.22176 <br /><br />Assume his salary was Rs. X <br /><br />He earns 5% raise. So his salary is (105*X)/100 <br /><br />A year later he receives 2.5% cut. So his salary is ((105*X)/100)*(97.5/100) which is Rs. 22702.68 <br /><br />Hence, solving equation ((105*X)/100)*(97.5/100) = 22702.68 <br />X = 22176<br />At 6'o a clock ticks 6 times. The time between first and last ticks is 30 seconds. How long does it tick at 12'o. <br /><br /><br />Answer<br /><br />66 seconds <br /><br />It is given that the time between first and last ticks at 6'o is 30 seconds. <br />Total time gaps between first and last ticks at 6'o = 5 <br />(i.e. between 1 & 2, 2 & 3, 3 & 4, 4 & 5 and 5 & 6) <br /><br />So time gap between two ticks = 30/5 = 6 seconds. <br /><br /><br />Now, total time gaps between first and last ticks at 12'o = 11 <br />Therefore time taken for 12 ticks = 11 * 6 = 66 seconds (and not 60 seconds)<br /><br /><br />500 men are arranged in an array of 10 rows and 50 columns according to their heights. <br /><br />Tallest among each row of all are asked to come out. And the shortest among them is A. <br /><br />Similarly after resuming them to their original positions, the shortest among each column are asked to come out. And the tallest among them is B. <br /><br />Now who is taller A or B ?<br />Answer<br /> <br /><br />No one is taller, both are same as A and B are the same person. <br /><br />As it is mentioned that 500 men are arranged in an array of 10 rows and 50 columns according to their heights. Let's assume that position numbers represent their heights. Hence, the shortest among the 50, 100, 150, ... 450, 500 is person with height 50 i.e. A. Similarly the tallest among 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ..... 48, 48, 50 is person with height 50 i.e. B <br /><br />Now, both A and B are the person with height 50. Hence both are same.<br /><br />In Mr. Mehta's family, there are one grandfather, one grandmother, two fathers, two mothers, one father-in-law, one mother-in-law, four children, three grandchildren, one brother, two sisters, two sons, two daughters and one daughter-in-law. <br /><br />How many members are there in Mr. Mehta's family? Give minimal possible answer.<br />Answer<br /><br />There are 7 members in Mr. Mehta's family. Mother & Father of Mr. Mehta, Mr. & Mrs. Mehta, his son and two daughters. <br /><br />Mother & Father of Mr. Mehta <br />| <br />| <br />Mr. & Mrs. Mehta <br />| <br />| <br />One Son & Two Daughters<br />When Alexander the Great attacked the forces of Porus, an Indian soldier was captured by the Greeks. He had displayed such bravery in battle, however, that the enemy offered to let him choose how he wanted to be killed. They told him, "If you tell a lie, you will put to the sword, and if you tell the truth you will be hanged." <br /><br />The soldier could make only one statement. He made that statement and went free. What did he say?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />The soldier said, "You will put me to the sword." <br /><br />The soldier has to say a Paradox to save himself. If his statement is true, he will be hanged, which is not the sword and hence false. If his statement is false, he will be put to the sword, which will make it true. A Paradox !!!<br /><br />A person wanted to withdraw X rupees and Y paise from the bank. But cashier made a mistake and gave him Y rupees and X paise. Neither the person nor the cashier noticed that. <br /><br />After spending 20 paise, the person counts the money. And to his surprise, he has double the amount he wanted to withdraw. <br /><br />Find X and Y. (1 Rupee = 100 Paise)<br />Answer<br /><br />As given, the person wanted to withdraw 100X + Y paise. <br /><br />But he got 100Y + X paise. <br /><br />After spending 20 paise, he has double the amount he wanted to withdraw. Hence, the equation is<br /><br /> 2 * (100X + Y) = 100Y + X - 20<br /><br /> 200X + 2Y = 100Y +X - 20<br /><br /> 199X - 98Y = -20<br /><br /> 98Y - 199X = 20<br /><br /><br />Now, we got one equation; but there are 2 variables. We have to apply little bit of logic over here. We know that if we interchange X & Y, amount gets double. So Y should be twice of X or one more than twice of X i.e. Y = 2X or Y = 2X+1 <br /><br />Case I : Y=2X <br />Solving two equations simultaneously <br />98Y - 199X = 20 <br />Y - 2X = 0 <br />We get X = - 20/3 & Y = - 40/2 <br /><br />Case II : Y=2X+1 <br />Solving two equations simultaneously <br />98Y - 199X = 20 <br />Y - 2X = 1 <br />We get X = 26 & Y = 53 <br /><br />Now, its obvious that he wanted to withdraw Rs. 26.53<br /><br />Submit<br />Answer<br /> <br />Users<br />Answer (2)<br /> <br />BrainVista<br />Answer<br /> <br /><br /><br />The game of Tic-Tac-Toe is being played between two players. Only the last mark to be placed in the game as shown. <br /><br />Who will win the game, O or X? Can you tell which was the sixth mark and at which position? Do explain your answer. <br />At the Party: <br />1. There were 9 men and children. <br />2. There were 2 more women than children. <br />3. The number of different man-woman couples possible was 24. Note that if there were 7 men and 5 women, then there would have been 35 man-woman couples possible. <br /><br />Also, of the three groups - men, women and children - at the party: <br />4. There were 4 of one group. <br />5. There were 6 of one group. <br />6. There were 8 of one group.<br />Exactly one of the above 6 statements is false. <br /><br />Can you tell which one is false? Also, how many men, women and children are there at the party<br /><br /><br /><br />Assume that both the players are intelligent enough.<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Answer<br /><br />O will win the game. The sixth mark was X in square 9. <br /><br />The 7th mark must be placed in square 5 which is the win situation for both X and O. Hence, the 6th mark must be placed in a line already containing two of the opponents marks. There are two such possibilities - the 6th mark would have been either O in square 7 or X in square 9. <br /><br />As we know both the players are intelligent enough, the 6th mark could not be O in square 7. Instead, he would have placed O in square 5 and would have won. <br /><br />Hence, the sixth mark must be X placed in square 9. And the seventh mark will be O. Thus O will win the game.<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Statement (4) is false. There are 3 men, 8 women and 6 children. <br /><br />Assume that Statements (4), (5) and (6) are all true. Then, Statement (1) is false. But then Statement (2) and (3) both can not be true. Thus, contradictory to the fact that exactly one statement is false. <br /><br />So Statement (4) or Statement (5) or Statement (6) is false. Also, Statements (1), (2) and (3) all are true. <br /><br />From (1) and (2), there are 11 men and women. Then from (3), there are 2 possible cases - either there are 8 men and 3 women or there are 3 men and 8 women. <br /><br />If there are 8 men and 3 women, then there is 1 child. Then Statements (4) and (5) both are false, which is not possible. <br /><br />Hence, there are 3 men, 8 women and 6 children. Statement (4) is false.<br /><br />There is a shortage of tubelights, bulbs and fans in a village - Kharghar. It is found that <br />• All houses do not have either tubelight or bulb or fan. <br />• exactly 19% of houses do not have just one of these. <br />• atleast 67% of houses do not have tubelights. <br />• atleast 83% of houses do not have bulbs. <br />• atleast 73% of houses do not have fans.<br />What percentage of houses do not have tubelight, bulb and fan?<br />Answer<br /><br />42% houses do not have tubelight, bulb and fan. <br /><br />Let's assume that there are 100 houses. Hence, there should be total 300 items i.e. 100 tubelights, 100 bulbs and 100 fans. <br /><br />From the given data, we know that there is shortage of atleast (67+83+73) 223 items in every 100 houses. <br /><br />Also, exactly 19 houses do not have just one item. It means that remaining 81 houses should account for the shortage of remaining (223-19) 204 items. If those remaining 81 houses do not have 2 items each, there would be a shortage of 162 items. But total of 204 items are short. Hence, atleast (204-162) 42 houses do not have all 3 items - tubelight, bulb and fan. <br /><br />Thus, 42% houses do not have tubelight, bulb and fan.<br />Mr. Subramaniam rents a private car for Andheri-Colaba-Andheri trip. It costs him Rs. 300 everyday. <br /><br />One day the car driver informed Mr. Subramaniam that there were two students from Bandra who wished to go from Bandra to Colaba and back to Bandra. Bandra is halfway between Andheri and Colaba. Mr. Subramaniam asked the driver to let the students travel with him. <br /><br />On the first day when they came, Mr. Subramaniam said, "If you tell me the mathematically correct price you should pay individually for your portion of the trip, I will let you travel for free." <br /><br />How much should the individual student pay for their journey?<br />Answer<br /><br />The individual student should pay Rs. 50 for their journey. <br /><br />Note that 3 persons are travelling between Bandra and Colaba. <br /><br />The entire trip costs Rs. 300 to Mr. Subramanian. Hence, half of the trip costs Rs. 150. <br /><br />For Andheri-Bandra-Andheri, only one person i.e. Mr. Subramaniam is travelling. Hence, he would pay Rs. 150. <br /><br />For Bandra-Colaba-Bandra, three persons i.e Mr. Subramaniam and two students, are travelling. Hence, each student would pay Rs. 50.<br /><br />Substitute digits for the letters to make the following Division true<br /> O U T<br /><br /> -------------<br /><br /> S T E M | D E M I S E<br /><br /> | D M O C<br /><br /> -------------<br /><br /> T U I S<br /><br /> S T E M<br /><br /> ----------<br /><br /> Z Z Z E<br /><br /> Z U M M<br /><br /> --------<br /><br /> I S T<br />Note that the leftmost letter can't be zero in any word. Also, there must be a one-to-one mapping between digits and letters. e.g. if you substitute 3 for the letter M, no other letter can be 3 and all other M in the puzzle must be<br />Answer<br /><br />C=0, U=1, S=2, T=3, O=4, M=5, I=6, Z=7, E=8, D=9 <br /><br />It is obvious that U=1 (as U*STEM=STEM) and C=0 (as I-C=I). <br /><br />S*O is a single digit and also S*T is a single digit. Hence, their values (O, S, T) must be 2, 3 or 4 (as they can not be 0 or 1 or greater than 4). <br /><br />Consider, STEM*O=DMOC, where C=0. It means that M must be 5. Now, its simple. O=4, S=2, T=3, E=8, Z=7, I=6 and D=9.<br /> O U T 4 1 3<br /><br /> ------------- -------------<br /><br /> S T E M | D E M I S E 2 3 8 5 | 9 8 5 6 2 8<br /><br /> | D M O C | 9 5 4 0<br /><br /> ------------- -------------<br /><br /> T U I S 3 1 6 2<br /><br /> S T E M 2 3 8 5<br /><br /> ---------- ----------<br /><br /> Z Z Z E 7 7 7 8<br /><br /> Z U M M 7 1 5 5<br /><br /> -------- --------<br /><br /> I S T 6 2 3<br />Also, when arranged from 0 to 9, it spells CUSTOMIZED.<br />At what time after 4.00 p.m. is the minutes hand of a clock exactly aligned with the hour hand?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />4:21:49.5 <br /><br />Assume that X minutes after 4.00 PM minute hand exactly aligns with and hour hand. <br /><br />For every minute, minute hand travels 6 degrees. <br />Hence, for X minutes it will travel 6 * X degrees. <br /><br />For every minute, hour hand travels 1/2 degrees. <br />Hence, for X minutes it will travel X/2 degrees. <br /><br />At 4.00 PM, the angle between minute hand and hour hand is 120 degrees. Also, after X minutes, minute hand and hour hand are exactly aligned. So the angle with respect to 12 i.e. Vertical Plane will be same. Therefore, <br /><br />6 * X = 120 + X/2 <br />12 * X = 240 + X <br />11 * X = 240 <br />X = 21.8182 <br />X = 21 minutes 49.5 seconds <br /><br />Hence, at 4:21:49.5 minute hand is exactly aligned with the hour hand.<br /><br />A soldier looses his way in a thick jungle. At random he walks from his camp but mathematically in an interesting fashion. <br /><br />First he walks one mile East then half mile to North. Then 1/4 mile to West, then 1/8 mile to South and so on making a loop. <br /><br />Finally how far he is from his camp and in which direction?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />The soldier is 0.8944 miles away from his camp towards East-North. <br /><br />It is obvious that he is in East-North direction. <br /><br />Distance travelled in North and South directions <br />= 1/2 - 1/8 + 1/32 - 1/128 + 1/512 - 1/2048 + and so on... (a geometric series with r = (-1/4) ) <br /><br /> (1/2) * ( 1 - (-1/4)n ) <br />= --------------------------- <br /> ( 1 - (-1/4) ) <br /><br />= 1 / ( 2 * ( 1 - (-1/4) ) ) <br />= 2/5 <br /><br />Similarly in East and West directions <br />= 1 - 1/4 + 1/16 - 1/64 + 1/256 - and so on... (a geometric series with r = (-1/4) ) <br /><br /> (1) * ( 1 - (-1/4)n ) <br />= --------------------------- <br /> ( 1 - (-1/4) ) <br /><br />= 1 / ( ( 1- (-1/4) ) <br />= 4/5 <br /><br />So the soldier is 4/5 miles away towards East and 2/5 miles away towards North. So using right angled triangle, soldier is 0.8944 miles away from his camp.<br /><br />Raj has a jewel chest containing Rings, Pins and Ear-rings. The chest contains 26 pieces. Raj has 2 1/2 times as many rings as pins, and the number of pairs of earrings is 4 less than the number of rings. <br /><br />How many earrings does Raj have?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />12 earrings <br /><br />Assume that there are R rings, P pins and E pair of ear-rings. <br /><br />It is given that, he has 2 1/2 times as many rings as pins. <br />R = (5/2) * P or P = (2*R)/5 <br /><br />And, the number of pairs of earrings is 4 less than the number of rings. <br />E = R - 4 or R = E + 4 <br /><br />Also, there are total 26 pieces. <br />R + P + 2*E = 26 <br />R + (2*R)/5 + 2*E = 26 <br />5*R + 2*R + 10*E = 130 <br />7*R + 10*E = 130 <br />7*(E + 4) + 10*E = 130 <br />7*E + 28 + 10*E = 130 <br />17*E = 102 <br />E = 6 <br /><br />Hence, there are 6 pairs of Ear-rings i.e. total 12 Ear-rings<br />How many ways are there of arranging the sixteen black or white pieces of a standard international chess set on the first two rows of the board? <br /><br />Given that each pawn is identical and each rook, knight and bishop is identical to its pair.<br />Submitted<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />6,48,64,800 ways <br /><br />There are total 16 pieces which can be arranged on 16 places in 16P16 = 16! ways. <br />(16! = 16 * 15 * 14 * 13 * 12 * ..... * 3 * 2 * 1) <br /><br />But, there are some duplicate combinations because of identical pieces. <br />• There are 8 identical pawn, which can be arranged in 8P8 = 8! ways. <br />• Similarly there are 2 identical rooks, 2 identical knights and 2 identical bishops. Each can be arranged in 2P2 = 2! ways.<br />Hence, the require answer is <br />= (16!) / (8! * 2! * 2! * 2!) <br />= 6,48,64,800<br /><br /><br />A person with some money spends 1/3 for cloths, 1/5 of the remaining for food and 1/4 of the remaining for travel. He is left with Rs 100/- <br /><br />How much did he have with him in the begining?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Rs. 250/- <br /><br />Assume that initially he had Rs. X <br />He spent 1/3 for cloths =. (1/3) * X <br />Remaining money = (2/3) * X <br /><br />He spent 1/5 of remaining money for food = (1/5) * (2/3) * X = (2/15) * X <br />Remaining money = (2/3) * X - (2/15) * X = (8/15) * X <br /><br />Again, he spent 1/4 of remaining maoney for travel = (1/4) * (8/15) * X = (2/15) * X <br />Remaining money = (8/15) * X - (2/15) * X = (6/15) * X <br /><br />But after spending for travel he is left with Rs. 100/- So <br />(6/15) * X = 100 <br />X = 250<br /><br />Grass in lawn grows equally thick and in a uniform rate. It takes 24 days for 70 cows and 60 days for 30 cows to eat the whole of the grass. <br /><br />How many cows are needed to eat the grass in 96 days?<br />Answer<br /><br />20 cows <br /><br />g - grass at the beginning <br />r - rate at which grass grows, per day <br />y - rate at which one cow eats grass, per day <br />n - no of cows to eat the grass in 96 days <br /><br />From given data, <br />g + 24*r = 70 * 24 * y ---------- A <br />g + 60*r = 30 * 60 * y ---------- B <br />g + 96*r = n * 96 * y ---------- C <br /><br />Solving for (B-A), <br />(60 * r) - (24 * r) = (30 * 60 * y) - (70 * 24 * y) <br />36 * r = 120 * y ---------- D <br /><br />Solving for (C-B), <br />(96 * r) - (60 * r) = (n * 96 * y) - (30 * 60 * y) <br />36 * r = (n * 96 - 30 * 60) * y <br />120 * y = (n * 96 - 30 * 60) * y [From D] <br />120 = (n * 96 - 1800) <br />n = 20 <br /><br />Hence, 20 cows are needed to eat the grass in 96 days.<br />There is a safe with a 5 digit number as the key. The 4th digit is 4 greater than the second digit, while the 3rd digit is 3 less than the 2nd digit. The 1st digit is thrice the last digit. There are 3 pairs whose sum is 11. <br /><br />Find the number.<br />Answer<br /><br />65292 <br /><br />As per given conditions, there are three possible combinations for 2nd, 3rd and 4th digits. They are (3, 0, 7) or (4, 1, 8) or (5, 2, 9) <br /><br />It is given that there are 3 pairs whose sum is 11. All possible pairs are (2, 9), (3, 8), (4, 7), (5, 6). Now required number is 5 digit number and it contains 3 pairs of 11. So it must not be having 0 and 1 in it. Hence, the only possible combination for 2nd, 3rd and 4th digits is (5, 2, 9) <br /><br />Also, 1st digit is thrice the last digit. The possible combinations are (3, 1), (6, 2) and (9, 3), out of which only (6, 2) with (5, 2, 9) gives 3 pairs of 11. Hence, the answer is 65292.<br />Four friends - Arjan, Bhuvan, Guran and Lakha were comparing the number of sheep that they owned. <br /><br />It was found that Guran had ten more sheep than Lakha. <br /><br />If Arjan gave one-third to Bhuvan, and Bhuvan gave a quarter of what he then held to Guran, who then passed on a fifth of his holding to Lakha, they would all have an equal number of sheep. <br /><br />How many sheep did each of them possess? Give the minimal possible answer<br /><br />Answer<br /> <br /><br />Arjan, Bhuvan, Guran and Lakha had 90, 50, 55 and 45 sheep respectively. <br /><br />Assume that Arjan, Bhuvan, Guran and Lakha had A, B, G and L sheep respectively. As it is given that at the end each would have an equal number of sheep, comparing the final numbers from the above table. <br /><br />Arjan's sheep = Bhuvan's sheep <br />2A/3 = A/4 + 3B/4 <br />8A = 3A + 9B <br />5A = 9B <br /><br />Arjan's sheep = Guran's sheep <br />2A/3 = A/15 + B/5 + 4G/5 <br />2A/3 = A/15 + A/9 + 4G/5 (as B=5A/9) <br />30A = 3A + 5A + 36G <br />22A = 36G <br />11A = 18G <br /><br />Arjan's sheep = Lakha's sheep <br />2A/3 = A/60 + B/20 + G/5 + L <br />2A/3 = A/60 + A/36 + 11A/90 + L (as B=5A/9 and G=11A/18) <br />2A/3 = A/6 + L <br />A/2 = L <br />A = 2L <br /><br />Also, it is given that Guran had ten more sheep than Lakha. <br />G = L + 10 <br />11A/18 = A/2 + 10 <br />A/9 = 10 <br />A = 90 sheep <br /><br />Thus, Arjan had 90 sheep, Bhuvan had 5A/9 i.e. 50 sheep, Guran had 11A/18 i.e. 55 sheep and Lakha had A/2 i.e. 45 sheep.<br />Consider a number 235, where last digit is the sum of first two digits i.e. 2 + 3 = 5. <br /><br />How many such 3-digit numbers are there?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />There are 45 different 3-digit numbers. <br /><br />The last digit can not be 0. <br /><br />If the last digit is 1, the only possible number is 101. (Note that 011 is not a 3-digit number) <br /><br />If the last digit is 2, the possible numbers are 202 and 112. <br /><br />If the last digit is 3, the possible numbers are 303, 213 and 123. <br /><br />If the last digit is 4, the possible numbers are 404, 314, 224 and 134. <br /><br />If the last digit is 5, the possible numbers are 505, 415, 325, 235 and 145. <br /><br />Note the pattern here - If the last digit is 1, there is only one number. If the last digit is 2, there are two numbers. If the last digit is 3, there are three numbers. If the last digit is 4, there are four numbers. If the last digit is 5, there are five numbers. And so on..... <br /><br />Thus, total numbers are <br />1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 = 45 <br /><br />Altogether then, there are 45 different 3-digit numbers, where last digit is the sum of first two digits.<br /><br />Find the smallest number such that if its rightmost digit is placed at its left end, the new number so formed is precisely 50% larger than the original number.<br />Answer<br /><br />The answer is 285714. <br /><br />If its rightmost digit is placed at its left end, then new number is 428571 which is 50% larger than the original number 285714. <br /><br />The simplest way is to write a small program. And the other way is trial and error !!!<br />Two identical pack of cards A and B are shuffled throughly. One card is picked from A and shuffled with B. The top card from pack A is turned up. If this is the Queen of Hearts, what are the chances that the top card in B will be the King of Hearts?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />52 / 2703 <br /><br />There are two cases to be considered. <br /><br />CASE 1 : King of Hearts is drawn from Pack A and shuffled with Pack B <br /><br />Probability of drawing King of Hearts from Pack A = 1/51 (as Queen of Hearts is not to be drawn) <br />Probability of having King of Hearts on the top of the Pack B = 2/53 <br /><br />So total probability of case 1 = (1/51) * (2/53) = 2 / (51 * 53) <br /><br />CASE 2 : King of Hearts is not drawn from Pack A <br /><br />Probability of not drawing King of Hearts from Pack A = 50/51 (as Queen of Hearts is not to be drawn) <br />Probability of having King of Hearts on the top of the Pack B = 1/53 <br /><br />So total probability of case 2 = (50/51) * (1/53) = 50 / (51 * 53) <br /><br />Now adding both the probability, the required probability is <br />= 2 / (51 * 53) + 50 / (51 * 53) <br />= 52 / (51 * 53) <br />= 52 / 2703 <br />= 0.0192378<br />There are 3 ants at 3 corners of a triangle, they randomly start moving towards another corner. <br /><br />What is the probability that they don't collide?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Let's mark the corners of the triangle as A,B,C. There are total 8 ways in which ants can move. <br />1. A->B, B->C, C->A <br />2. A->B, B->C, C->B <br />3. A->B, B->A, C->A <br />4. A->B, B->A, C->B <br />5. A->C, C->B, B->A <br />6. A->C, C->B, B->C <br />7. A->C, C->A, B->A <br />8. A->C, C->A, B->C<br /><br />Out of which, there are only two cases under which the ants won't collide : <br />• A->B, B->C, C->A <br />• A->C, C->B, B->A <br /><br />Find all sets of consecutive integers that add up to 1000.<br />Submitted by : James Barberousse <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />There are total 8 such series: <br />1. Sum of 2000 numbers starting from -999 i.e. summation of numbers from -999 to 1000. <br />(-999) + (-998) + (-997) + ..... + (-1) + 0 + 1 + 2 + ..... + 997 + 998 + 999 + 1000 = 1000 <br />2. Sum of 400 numbers starting from -197 i.e. summation of numbers from -197 to 202. <br />(-197) + (-196) + (-195) + ..... + (-1) + 0 + 1 + 2 + ..... + 199 + 200 + 201 + 202 = 1000 <br />3. Sum of 125 numbers starting from -54 i.e. summation of numbers from -54 to 70. <br />(-54) + (-53) + (-52) + ..... + (-1) + 0 + 1 + 2 + ..... + 68 + 69 + 70 = 1000 <br />4. Sum of 80 numbers starting from -27 i.e. summation of numbers from -27 to 52. <br />(-27) + (-26) + (-25) + ..... + (-1) + 0 + 1 + 2 + ..... + 50 + 51 + 52 = 1000 <br />5. Sum of 25 numbers starting from 28 i.e. summation of numbers from 28 to 52. <br />28 + 29 + 30 + 31 + 32 + 33 + 34 + 35 + 36 + 37 + 38 + 39 + 40 + 41 + 42 + 43 + 44 + 45 + 46 + 47 + 48 + 49 + 50 + 51 + 52 = 1000 <br />6. Sum of 16 numbers starting from 55 i.e. summation of numbers from 55 to 70. <br />55 + 56 + 57 + 58 + 59 +60 + 61 + 62 + 63 + 64 + 65 + 66 + 67 + 68 + 69 + 70 = 1000 <br />7. Sum of 5 numbers starting from 198 i.e. summation of numbers from 198 to 202. <br />198 + 199 + 200 +201 + 202 = 1000 <br />8. Sum of 1 number starting from 1000. <br />1000 = 1000 <br /><br /><br /><br />There is a 4-character code, with 2 of them being letters and the other 2 being numbers. <br /><br />How many maximum attempts would be necessary to find the correct code? Note that the code is case-sensitive.<br />Answer<br /><br />The maximum number of attempts required are 16,22,400 <br /><br />There are 52 possible letters - a to z and A to Z, and 10 possible numbers - 0 to 9. Now, 4 characters - 2 letters and 2 numbers, can be selected in 52*52*10*10 ways. These 4 characters can be arranged in 4C2 i.e. 6 different ways - the number of unique patterns that can be formed by lining up 4 objects of which 2 are distinguished one way (i.e. they must be letters) and the other 2 are distinguished another way (i.e. they must be numbers). <br /><br />Consider an example : Let's assume that @ represents letter and # represents number. the 6 possible ways of arranging them are : @@##, @#@#, @##@, #@@#, #@#@, ##@@ <br /><br />Hence, the required answer is <br />= 52*52*10*10*6 <br />= 16,22,400 attempts <br />= 1.6 million approx. <br /><br />Thanks to Tim Sanders for opening BrainVista's brain !!!<br />How many possible combinations are there in a 3x3x3 rubics cube? <br /><br />In other words, if you wanted to solve the rubics cube by trying different combinations, how many might it take you (worst case senerio)? <br /><br />How many for a 4x4x4 cube?<br />Submitted<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />There are 4.3252 * 10^19 possible combinations for 3x3x3 Rubics and 7.4012 * 10^45 possible combinations for 4x4x4 Rubics. <br /><br /><br />Let's consider 3x3x3 Rubics first. <br /><br />There are 8 corner cubes, which can be arranged in 8! ways. <br />Each of these 8 cubes can be turned in 3 different directions, so there are 3^8 orientations altogether. But if you get all but one of the corner cube into chosen positions and orientations, only one of 3 orientations of the final corner cube is possible. Thus, total ways corner cubes can be placed = (8!) * (3^8)/8 = (8!) * (3^7) <br /><br />Similarly, 12 edge cubes can be arranged in 12! ways. <br />Each of these 12 cubes can be turned in 2 different directions, so there are 2^12 orientations altogether. But if you get all but one of the edge cube into chosen positions and orientations, only one of 2 orientations of the final edge cube is possible. Thus, total ways edge cubes can be placed = (12!) * (2^12)/2 = (12!) * (2^11) <br /><br />Here, we have essentially pulled the cubes apart and stuck cubes back in place wherever we please. In reality, we can only move cubes around by turning the faces of the cubes. It turns out that you can't turn the faces in such a way as to switch the positions of two cubes while returning all the others to their original positions. Thus if you get all but two cubes in place, there is only one attainable choice for them (not 2!). Hence, we must divide by 2. <br /><br />Total different possible combinations are <br />= [(8!) * (3^7)] * [(12!) * (2^11)] / 2 <br />= (8!) * (3^7) * (12!) * (2^10) <br />= 4.3252 * 10^19 <br /><br /><br />Similarly, for 4x4x4 Rubics total different possible combinations are <br />= [(8!) * (3^7)] * [(24!)] * [(24!) / (4!^6)] / 24 <br />= 7.4011968 * 10^45 <br /><br />Note that there are 24 edge cubes, which you can not turn in 2 orientations (hence no 2^24 / 2). Also, there are 4 center cubes per face i.e. (24!) / (4!^6). You can switch 2 cubes without affecting the rest of the combination as 4*4*4 has even dimensions (hence no division by 2). But pattern on one side is rotated in 4 directions over 6 faces, hence divide by 24.<br />Substitute digits for the letters to make the following relation true.<br /> N E V E R<br /><br /> L E A V E<br /><br /> + M E<br /><br /> -----------------<br /><br /> A L O N E<br />Note that the leftmost letter can't be zero in any word. Also, there must be a one-to-one mapping between digits and letters. e.g. if you substitute 3 for the letter M, no other letter can be 3 and all other M in the puzzle must be 3.<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />A tough one!!! <br /><br />Since R + E + E = 10 + E, it is clear that R + E = 10 and neither R nor E is equal to 0 or 5. This is the only entry point to <br /><br />solve it. Now use trial-n-error method.<br /><br /> N E V E R 2 1 4 1 9<br /><br /> L E A V E 3 1 5 4 1<br /><br /> + M E + 6 1<br /><br /> ----------------- -----------------<br /><br /> A L O N E 5 3 0 2 1<br /><br /><br />One of the four people - Mr. Clinton, his wife Monika, their son Mandy and their daughter Cindy - is a singer and another is a dancer. Mr. Clinton is older than his wife and Mady is older than his sister. <br />1. If the singer and the dancer are the same sex, then the dancer is older than the singer. <br />2. If neither the singer nor the dancer is the parent of the other, then the singer is older than the dancer. <br />3. If the singer is a man, then the singer and the dancer are the same age. <br />4. If the singer and the dancer are of opposite sex then the man is older than the woman. <br />5. If the dancer is a woman, then the dancer is older than the singer.<br />Whose occupation do you know? And what is his/her occupation?<br />Answer<br /><br />Cindy is the Singer. Mr. Clinton or Monika is the Dancer. <br /><br />From (1) and (3), the singer and the dancer, both can not be a man. From (3) and (4), if the singer is a man, then the dancer must be a man. Hence, the singer must be a woman. <br /><br />CASE I : Singer is a woman and Dancer is also a woman <br />Then, the dancer is Monika and the singer is Cindy. <br /><br />CASE II : Singer is a woman and Dancer is also a man <br />Then, the dancer is Mr. Clinton and the singer is Cindy. <br /><br />In both the cases, we know that Cindy is the Singer. And either Mr. Clinton or Monika is the Dancer.<br />There are 20 people in your applicant pool, including 5 pairs of identical twins. <br /><br />If you hire 5 people randomly, what are the chances you will hire at least 1 pair of identical twins? (Needless to say, this could cause trouble ;))<br />Submitted<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />The probability to hire 5 people with at least 1 pair of identical twins is 25.28% <br /><br />5 people from the 20 people can be hired in 20C5 = 15504 ways. <br /><br />Now, divide 20 people into two groups of 10 people each : <br />G1 - with all twins <br />G2 - with all people other than twins <br /><br />Let's find out all possible ways to hire 5 people without a single pair of indentical twins. <br />People from G1 People from G2 No of ways to hire G1 without a single pair of indentical twins No of ways to hire G2 Total ways<br />0 5 10C0 10C5 252<br />1 4 10C1 10C4 2100<br />2 3 10C2 * 8/9 10C3 4800<br />3 2 10C3 * 8/9 * 6/8 10C2 3600<br />4 1 10C4 * 8/9 * 6/8 * 4/7 10C1 800<br />5 0 10C5 * 8/9 * 6/8 * 4/7 * 2/6 10C0 32<br />Total 11584<br /><br />Thus, total possible ways to hire 5 people without a single pair of indentical twins = 11584 ways <br /><br />So, total possible ways to hire 5 people with at least a single pair of indentical twins = 15504 - 11584 = 3920 ways <br /><br />Hence, the probability to hire 5 people with at least a single pair of indentical twins <br />= 3920/15504 <br />= 245/969 <br />= 0.2528 <br />= 25.28%<br />In a hotel, rooms are numbered from 101 to 550. A room is chosen at random. What is the probability that room number starts with 1, 2 or 3 and ends with 4, 5 or 6?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />There are total 450 rooms. <br /><br />Out of which 299 room number starts with either 1, 2 or 3. (as room number 100 is not there) Now out of those 299 rooms only 90 room numbers end with 4, 5 or 6 <br /><br />So the probability is 90/450 i.e. 1/5 or 0.20<br />Draw 9 dots on a page, in the shape of three rows of three dots to form a square. Now place your pen on the page, draw 4 straight lines and try and cover all the dots. <br /><br />You're not allowed to lift your pen. <br /><br />Note: Don't be confined by the dimensions of the square.<br />Submitted<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />There are 3 persons X, Y and Z. On some day, X lent tractors to Y and Z as many as they had. After a month Y gave as many tractors to X and Z as many as they have. After a month Z did the same thing. At the end of this transaction each one of them had 24. <br /><br />Find the tractors each originally had? <br />Answer<br /><br />One way to solve it is by making 3 equations and solve them simultaneously. But there is rather easier way to solve it using Backtracing. <br /><br />It's given that at the end, each had 24 tractors (24, 24, 24) i.e. after Z gave tractors to X & Y as many as they had. It means that after getting tractors from Z their tractors got doubled. So before Z gave them tractors, they had 12 tractors each and Z had 48 tractors. (12, 12, 48) <br /><br />Similarly, before Y gave tractors to X & Z, they had 6 & 24 tractors respectively and Y had 42 tractors i.e. (6, 42, 24) <br /><br />Again, before X gave tractors to Y & Z, they had 21 & 12 tractors respectively and X had 39 tractors i.e. (39, 21, 12) <br /><br />Hence, initially X had 39 tractors, Y had 21 tractors and Z had 12 tractors.<br /><br />There is a 50m long army platoon marching ahead. The last person in the platoon wants to give a letter to the first person leading the platoon. So while the platoon is marching he runs ahead, reaches the first person and hands over the letter to him and without stopping he runs and comes back to his original position. <br /><br />In the mean time the whole platoon has moved ahead by 50m. <br /><br />The question is how much distance did the last person cover in that time. Assuming that he ran the whole distance with uniform speed.<br />Submitted<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />The last person covered 120.71 meters. <br /><br />It is given that the platoon and the last person moved with uniform speed. Also, they both moved for the identical amount of time. Hence, the ratio of the distance they covered - while person moving forward and backword - are equal. <br /><br />Let's assume that when the last person reached the first person, the platoon moved X meters forward. <br /><br />Thus, while moving forward the last person moved (50+X) meters whereas the platoon moved X meters. <br /><br />Similarly, while moving back the last person moved [50-(50-X)] X meters whereas the platoon moved (50-X) meters. <br /><br />Now, as the ratios are equal, <br />(50+X)/X = X/(50-X) <br />(50+X)*(50-X) = X*X <br /><br />Solving, X=35.355 meters <br /><br />Thus, total distance covered by the last person <br />= (50+X) + X <br />= 2*X + 50 <br />= 2*(35.355) + 50 <br />= 120.71 meters <br /><br /><br />Note that at first glance, one might think that the total distance covered by the last person is 100 meters, as he ran the total lenght of the platoon (50 meters) twice. TRUE, but that's the relative distance covered by the last person i.e. assuming that the platoon is stationary.<br />Assume that you have enough coins of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 cents. <br /><br />How many ways are there to make change for a dollar? Do explain your answer.<br /><br /> <br /><br />There are 292 ways to make change for a dollar using coins of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 cents. <br /><br />Let's generalised the teaser and make a table as shown above. <br /><br />If you wish to make change for 75 cents using only 1, 5, 10 and 25 cent coins, go to the .25 row and the 75 column to obtain 121 ways to do this. <br /><br />The table can be created from left-to-right and top-to-bottom. Start with the top left i.e. 1 cent row. There is exactly one way to make change for every amount. Then calculate the 5 cents row by adding the number of ways to make change for the amount using 1 cent coins plus the number of ways to make change for 5 cents less using 1 and 5 cent coins. <br /><br />Let's take an example: <br />To get change for 50 cents using 1, 5 and 10 cent coins. <br />* 50 cents change using 1 and 5 cent coins = 11 ways <br />* (50-10) 40 cents change using 1, 5 and 10 cent coins = 25 ways <br />* 50 cents change using 1, 5 and 10 cent coins = 11+25 = 36 ways <br /><br />Let's take another example: <br />To get change for 75 cents using all coins up to 50 cent i.e. 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 cents coins. <br />* 75 cents change using coins upto 25 cent = 121 ways <br />* (75-50) 25 cents change using coins upto 50 cent = 13 ways <br />* 75 cents change using coins upto 50 cent = 121+13 = 134 ways <br /><br />For people who don't want to tease their brain and love to do computer programming, there is a simple way. Write a small multi-loop program to solve the equation: A + 5B + 10C + 25D + 50E = 100 <br />where, <br />A = 0 to 100 <br />B = 0 to 20 <br />C = 0 to 10 <br />D = 0 to 4 <br />E = 0 to 2 <br /><br />The program should output all the possible values of A, B, C, D and E for which the equation is satisfied.<br /><br />In a Road Race, one of the three bikers was doing 15km less than the first and 3km more than the third. He also finished the race 12 minutes after the first and 3 minutes before the third. <br /><br />Can you find out the speed of each biker, the time taken by each biker to finish the race and the length of the course? <br /><br />Assume that there were no stops in the race and also they were driving with constant speeds through out the<br /><br />Answer<br /> <br /><br />Let us assume that <br />Speed of First biker = V1 km/min <br />Speed of Second biker = V2 km/min <br />Speed of Third biker = V3 km/min <br />Total time take by first biker = T1 min <br />Total distance = S km <br /><br />Now as per the data given in the teaser, at a time T min<br /> X1 = V1 * T ----> 1<br /><br /> X1 - 15 = V2 * T ----> 2<br /><br /> X1 - 18 = V3 * T ----> 3<br /><br />At a Distance S Km.<br /> S = V1 * T1 ----> 4<br /><br /> S = V2 * (T1 + 12) ----> 5<br /><br /> S = V3 * (T1 + 15) ----> 6<br /><br />Thus there are 6 equations and 7 unknown data that means it has infinite number of solutions. <br /><br />By solving above 6 equations we get, <br />Time taken by first biker, T1 = 60 Min. <br />Time taken by Second biker, T2 = 72 Min. <br />Time taken by first biker, T3 = 75 Min. <br /><br />Also, we get <br />Speed of first biker, V1 = 90/T km/min <br />Speed of second biker, V2 = (5/6)V1 = 75/T km/min <br />Speed of third biker, V3 = (4/5)V1 = 72/T km/min <br /><br />Also, the length of the course, S = 5400/T km <br /><br />Thus, for the data given, only the time taken by each biker can be found i.e. 60, 72 and 75 minutes. For other quantities, one more independent datum is required i.e. either T or V1 or V2 or V3 <br /><br />Thanks to Theertham Srinivas for the answer !!!<br />What is the four-digit number in which the first digit is 1/3 of the second, the third is the sum of the first and second, and the last is three times the second?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />The 4 digit number is 1349. <br /><br />It is given that the first digit is 1/3 of the second. There are 3 such possibilities. <br />1. 1 and 3 <br />2. 2 and 6 <br />3. 3 and 9 <br />Now, the third digit is the sum of the first and second digits. <br />1. 1 + 3 = 4 <br />2. 2 + 6 = 8 <br />3. 3 + 9 = 12 <br />It is clear that option 3 is not possible. So we are left with only two options. Also, the last digit is three times the second, which rules out the second option. Hence, the answer is 1349.<br /><br />Difference between Bholu's and Molu's age is 2 years and the difference between Molu's and Kolu's age is 5 years. <br /><br />What is the maximum possible value of the sum of the difference in their ages, taken two at a time?<br />Answer<br /><br />The maximum possible value of the sum of the difference in their ages - taken two at a time - is 14 years. <br /><br />It is given that - <br />"Difference between Bholu's and Molu's age is 2 years" <br />"Difference between Molu's and Kolu's age is 5 years" <br /><br />Now, to get the maximum possible value, the difference between Bholu's and Kolu's age should be maximum i.e. Molu's age should be in between Bholu's and Kolu's age. Then, the difference between Bholu's and Kolu's age is 7 years. <br /><br />Hence, the maximum possible value of the sum of the difference in their ages - taken two at a time - is (2 + 5 + 7) 14 years.<br />If it is given that: <br />25 - 2 = 3 <br />100 x 2 = 20 <br />36 / 3 = 2 <br /><br />What is 144 - 3 = ?<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />There are 3 possible answers to it. <br /><br />Answer 1 : 9 <br />Simply replace the first number by its square root. <br />(25) 5 - 2 = 3 <br />(100) 10 x 2 = 20 <br />(36) 6 / 3 = 2 <br />(144) 12 - 3 = 9 <br /><br />Answer 2 : 11 <br />Drop the digit in the tens position from the first number. <br />(2) 5 - 2 = 3 <br />1 (0) 0 x 2 = 20 <br />(3) 6 / 3 = 2 <br />1 (4) 4 - 3 = 11 <br /><br />You will get the same answer on removing left and right digit alternatively from the first number i.e remove left digit from first (2), right digit from second (0), left digit from third (3) and right digit from forth (4). <br />(2) 5 - 2 = 3 <br />10 (0) x 2 = 20 <br />(3) 6 / 3 = 2 <br />14 (4) - 3 = 11 <br /><br />Answer 3 : 14 <br />Drop left and right digit alternatively from the actual answer. <br />25 - 2 = (2) 3 (drop left digit i.e. 2) <br />100 * 2 = 20 (0) (drop right digit i.e. 0) <br />36 / 3 = (1) 2 (drop left digit i.e. 1) <br />144 - 3 = 14 (1) (drop right digit i.e. 1)<br /><br /><br />A 3 digit number is such that it's unit digit is equal to the product of the other two digits which are prime. Also, the difference between it's reverse and itself is 396. <br /><br />What is the sum of the three digits?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />The required number is 236 and the sum is 11. <br /><br />It is given that the first two digits of the required number are prime numbers i.e. 2, 3, 5 or 7. Note that 1 is neither prime nor composite. Also, the third digit is the multiplication of the first two digits. Thus, first two digits must be either 2 or 3 i.e. 22, 23, 32 or 33 which means that there are four possible numbers - 224, 236, 326 and 339. <br /><br />Now, it is also given that - the difference between it's reverse and itself is 396. Only 236 satisfies this condition. Hence, the sum of the three digits is 11.<br /><br />There are 4 mugs placed upturned on the table. Each mug have the same number of marbles and a statement about the number of marbles in it. The statements are: Two or Three, One or Four, Three or One, One or Two. <br /><br />Only one of the statement is correct. How many marbles are there under each mug?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />A simple one. <br /><br />As it is given that only one of the four statement is correct, the correct number can not appear in more than one statement. If it appears in more than one statement, then more than one statement will be correct. <br /><br />Hence, there are 4 marbles under each mug.<br />At University of Probability, there are 375 freshmen, 293 sophomores, 187 juniors, & 126 seniors. One student will randomly be chosen to receive an award. <br /><br />What percent chance is there that it will be a junior? Round to the nearest whole percent<br />Answer<br /><br />19% <br /><br />This puzzle is easy. Divide the number of juniors (187) by the total number of students (981), & then multiply the number by 100 to convert to a percentage. <br /><br />Hence the answer is (187/981)*100 = 19%<br /><br /><br />If you were to dial any 7 digits on a telephone in random order, what is the probability that you will dial your own phone number? <br /><br />Assume that your telephone number is 7-digits.<br />Answer<br /><br />1 in 10,000,000 <br /><br />There are 10 digits i.e. 0-9. First digit can be dialed in 10 ways. Second digit can be dialed in 10 ways. Third digit can be dialed in 10 ways. And so on..... <br /><br />Thus, 7-digit can be dialed in 10*10*10*10*10*10*10 (=10,000,000) ways. And, you have just one telephone number. Hence, the possibility that you will dial your own number is 1 in 10,000,000. <br /><br />Note that 0123456 may not be a valid 7-digit telephone number. But while dialing in random order, that is one of the possible 7-digit number which you may dial.<br />An anthropologist discovers an isolated tribe whose written alphabet contains only six letters (call the letters A, B, C, D, E and F). The tribe has a taboo against using the same letter twice in the same word. It's never done. <br /><br />If each different sequence of letters constitues a different word in the language, what is the maximum number of six-letter words that the language can employ?<br />Submitted<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />The language can employ maximum of 720 six-letter words. <br /><br />It is a simple permutation problem of arranging 6 letters to get different six-letter words. And it can be done in in 6! ways i.e. 720 ways. <br /><br />In otherwords, the first letter can be any of the given 6 letters (A through F). Then, whatever the first letter is, the second letter will always be from the remaining 5 letters (as same letter can not be used twice), and the third letter always be from the remaining 4 letters, and so on. Thus, the different possible six-letter words are 6*5*4*3*2*1 = 720<br /><br />Kate, Demi, Madona, Sharon, Britney and Nicole decided to lunch together in a restaurant. The waiter led them to a round table with six chairs. <br /><br />How many different ways can they seat?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />There are 120 different possible seating arrangments. <br /><br />Note that on a round table ABCDEF and BCDEFA is the same. <br /><br />The first person can sit on any one of the seats. Now, for the second person there are 5 options, for the third person there are 4 options, for the forth person there are 3 options, for the fifth person there are 2 options and for the last person there is just one option. <br /><br />Thus, total different possible seating arrangements are <br />= 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1 <br />= 120<br />3 blocks are chosen randomly on a chessboard. What is the probability that they are in the same diagonal? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />There are total of 64 blocks on a chessboard. So 3 blocks can be chosen out of 64 in 64C3 ways. <br />So the sample space is = 41664 <br /><br />There are 2 diagonal on chessboard each one having 8 blocks. Consider one of them. <br />3 blocks out of 8 blocks in diagonal can be chosen in 8C3 ways. <br />But there are 2 such diagonals, hence favourables = 2 * 8C3 = 2 * 56 = 112 <br /><br />The require probability is <br />= 112 / 41664 <br />= 1 / 372 <br />= 0.002688<br /><br /><br />What is the area of the triangle ABC with A(e,p) B(2e,3p) and C(3e,5p)? <br /><br />where p = PI (3.141592654) <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />A tricky ONE. <br /><br />Given 3 points are colinear. Hence, it is a straight line. <br /><br />Hence area of triangle is 0.<br /><br /><br /><br />Silu and Meenu were walking on the road. <br /><br />Silu said, "I weigh 51 Kgs. How much do you weigh?" <br /><br />Meenu replied that she wouldn't reveal her weight directly as she is overweight. But she said, "I weigh 29 Kgs plus half of my weight." <br /><br />How much does Meenu weigh?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Meenu weighs 58 Kgs. <br /><br />It is given that Meenu weighs 29 Kgs plus half of her own weight. It means that 29 Kgs is the other half. So she weighs 58 Kgs. <br /><br />Solving mathematically, let's assume that her weight is X Kgs. <br />X = 29 + X/2 <br />2*X = 58 + X <br />X = 58 Kgs<br />Consider the sum: ABC + DEF + GHI = JJJ <br /><br />If different letters represent different digits, and there are no leading zeros, what does J represent? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />The value of J must be 9. <br /><br />Since there are no leading zeros, J must be 7, 8, or 9. (JJJ = ABC + DEF + GHI = 14? + 25? + 36? = 7??) <br /><br />Now, the remainder left after dividing any number by 9 is the same as the remainder left after dividing the sum of the digits of that number by 9. Also, note that 0 + 1 + ... + 9 has a remainder of 0 after dividing by 9 and JJJ has a remainder of 0, 3, or 6. <br /><br />The number 9 is the only number from 7, 8 and 9 that leaves a remainder of 0, 3, or 6 if you remove it from the sum 0 + 1 + ... + 9. Hence, it follows that J must be 9.<br />A man has Ten Horses and nine stables as shown here.<br /> [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []<br />The man wants to fit Ten Horses into nine stables. How can he fit Ten horses into nine stables?<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />The answer is simple. It says the man wants to fit "Ten Horses" into nine stables. There are nine letters in the phrase "Ten Horses". So you can put one letter each in all nine stables.<br /> [T] [E] [N] [H] [O] [R] [S] [E] [S]<br /><br />A man is at a river with a 9 gallon bucket and a 4 gallon bucket. He needs exactly 6 gallons of water. <br /><br />How can he use both buckets to get exactly 6 gallons of water? <br /><br />Note that he cannot estimate by dumping some of the water out of the 9 gallon bucket or the 4 gallon bucket<br />Answer<br /><br />For the sack of explanation, let's identify 4 gallon bucket as Bucket P and 9 gallon bucket as Bucket Q. <br /><br />Operation 4 gallon bucket<br />(Bucket P) 9 gallon bucket<br />(Bucket Q)<br />Initially 0 0<br />Fill the bucket Q with 9 gallon water 0 9<br />Pour 4 gallon water from bucket Q to bucket P 4 5<br />Empty bucket P 0 5<br />Pour 4 gallon water from bucket Q to bucket P 4 1<br />Empty bucket P 0 1<br />Pour 1 gallon water from bucket Q to bucket P 1 0<br />Fill the bucket Q with 9 gallon water 1 9<br />Pour 3 gallon water from bucket Q to bucket P 4 6<br /><br />9 gallon bucket contains 6 gallon of water, as required.<br /><br />Each of the five characters in the word BRAIN has a different value between 0 and 9. Using the given grid, can you find out the value of each character?<br /> B R A I N 31<br /><br /> B B R B A 31<br /><br /> N I A B B 32<br /><br /> N I B A I 30<br /><br /> I R A A A 23<br /><br /> 37 29 25 27 29<br />The numbers on the extreme right represent the sum of the values represented by the characters in that row. Also, the numbers on the last raw represent the sum of the values represented by the characters in that column. e.g. B + R + A + I + N = 31 (from first row)<br />Answer<br /><br />B=7, R=6, A=4, I=5 and N=9 <br /><br />Make total 10 equations - 5 for rows and 5 for columns - and sovle them. <br /><br />From Row3 and Row4, <br />N + I + A + B + B = N + I + B + A + I + 2 <br />B = I + 2 <br /><br />From Row1 and Row3, <br />B + R + A + I + N = N + I + A + B + B - 1 <br />R = B - 1 <br /><br />From Column2, <br />R + B + I + I + R = 29 <br />B + 2R + 2I = 29 <br />B + 2(B - 1) + 2I = 29 <br />3B + 2I = 31 <br />3(I + 2) + 2I = 31 <br />5I = 25 <br />I = 5 <br /><br />Hence, B=7 and R=6 <br /><br />From Row2, <br />B + B + R + B + A = 31 <br />3B + R + A = 31 <br />3(7) + 6 + A = 31 <br />A = 4 <br /><br />From Row1, <br />B + R + A + I + N = 31 <br />7 + 6 + 4 + 5 + N = 31 <br />N = 9 <br /><br />Thus, B=7, R=6, A=4, I=5 and N=9<br /><br />Submit<br />Answer<br /> <br />Users<br />Answer (24)<br /> <br />BrainV<br /><br /><br />There are 9 coins. Out of which one is odd one i.e weight is less or more. How many iterations of weighing are required to find odd coin?<br />Answer<br /><br />It is always possible to find odd coin in 3 weighings and to tell whether the odd coin is heavier or lighter. <br />1. Take 8 coins and weigh 4 against 4. <br />o If both are not equal, goto step 2 <br />o If both are equal, goto step 3 <br /><br />2. One of these 8 coins is the odd one. Name the coins on heavier side of the scale as H1, H2, H3 and H4. Similarly, name the coins on the lighter side of the scale as L1, L2, L3 and L4. Either one of H's is heavier or one of L's is lighter. Weigh (H1, H2, L1) against (H3, H4, X) where X is one coin remaining in intial weighing. <br />o If both are equal, one of L2, L3, L4 is lighter. Weigh L2 against L3. <br /> If both are equal, L4 is the odd coin and is lighter. <br /> If L2 is light, L2 is the odd coin and is lighter. <br /> If L3 is light, L3 is the odd coin and is lighter. <br /><br />o If (H1, H2, L1) is heavier side on the scale, either H1 or H2 is heavier. Weight H1 against H2 <br /> If both are equal, there is some error. <br /> If H1 is heavy, H1 is the odd coin and is heavier. <br /> If H2 is heavy, H2 is the odd coin and is heavier. <br /><br />o If (H3, H4, X) is heavier side on the scale, either H3 or H4 is heavier or L1 is lighter. Weight H3 against H4 <br /> If both are equal, L1 is the odd coin and is lighter. <br /> If H3 is heavy, H3 is the odd coin and is heavier. <br /> If H4 is heavy, H4 is the odd coin and is heavier. <br /><br />3. The remaining coin X is the odd one. Weigh X against the anyone coin used in initial weighing. <br />o If both are equal, there is some error. <br />o If X is heavy, X is the odd coin and is heavier. <br />o If X is light, X is the odd coin and is lighter. <br />In a sports contest there were m medals awarded on n successive days (n > 1). <br />1. On the first day 1 medal and 1/7 of the remaining m - 1 medals were awarded. <br />2. On the second day 2 medals and 1/7 of the now remaining medals was awarded; and so on. <br />3. On the nth and last day, the remaining n medals were awarded.<br />How many days did the contest last, and how many medals were awarded altogether?<br />Answer<br /><br />Total 36 medals were awarded and the contest was for 6 days. <br /><br />On day 1: Medals awarded = (1 + 35/7) = 6 : Remaining 30 medals <br />On day 2: Medals awarded = (2 + 28/7) = 6 : Remaining 24 medals <br />On day 3: Medals awarded = (3 + 21/7) = 6 : Remaining 18 medals <br />On day 4: Medals awarded = (4 + 14/7) = 6 : Remaining 12 medals <br />On day 5: Medals awarded = (5 +7/7) = 6 : Remaining 6 medals <br />On day 6: Medals awarded 6 <br /><br />I got this answer by writing small program. If anyone know any other simpler method, do submit it.<br /><br />A number of 9 digits has the following properties: <br />• The number comprising the leftmost two digits is divisible by 2, that comprising the leftmost three digits is divisible by 3, the leftmost four by 4, the leftmost five by 5, and so on for the nine digits of the number i.e. the number formed from the first n digits is divisible by n, 2<=n<=9. <br />• Each digit in the number is different i.e. no digits are repeated. <br />• The digit 0 does not occur in the number i.e. it is comprised only of the digits 1-9 in some order.<br />Find the number.<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />The answer is 381654729 <br /><br />One way to solve it is Trial-&-Error. You can make it bit easier as odd positions will always occupy ODD numbers and even positions will always occupy EVEN numbers. Further 5th position will contain 5 as 0 does not occur. <br /><br />The other way to solve this problem is by writing a computer program that systematically tries all possibilities.<br /><br /><br />1/3 rd of the contents of a container evaporated on the 1st day. 3/4th of the remaining contents of the container evaporated on the second day. <br /><br />What part of the contents of the container is left at the end of the second day?<br />Answer<br /><br />Assume that contents of the container is X <br /><br />On the first day 1/3rd is evaporated. <br />(1 - 1/3) of X is remaining i.e. (2/3)X <br /><br />On the Second day 3/4th is evaporated. Hence, <br />(1- 3/4) of (2/3)X is remaining <br />i.e. (1/4)(2/3)X = (1/6) X <br /><br />Hence 1/6th of the contents of the container is remaining<br /><br />There are four people in a room (not including you). Exactly two of these four always tell the truth. The other two always lie. <br /><br />You have to figure out who is who IN ONLY 2 QUESTIONS. Your questions have to be YES or NO questions and can only be answered by one person. (If you ask the same question to two different people then that counts as two questions). Keep in mind that all four know each other's characteristics whether they lie or not. <br /><br />What questions would you ask to figure out who is who? Remember that you can ask only 2 questions.<br />Submitted<br />You have 3 baskets, & each one contains exactly 4 balls, each of which is of the same size. Each ball is either red, black, white, or purple, & there is one of each color in each basket. <br /><br />If you were blindfolded, & lightly shook each basket so that the balls would be randomly distributed, & then took 1 ball from each basket, what chance is there that you would have exactly 2 red balls?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />There are 64 different possible outcomes, & in 9 of these, exactly 2 of the balls will be red. There is thus a slightly better than 14% chance [(9/64)*100] that exactly 2 balls will be red. <br /><br />A much faster way to solve the problem is to look at it this way. There are 3 scenarios where exactly 3 balls are red: <br /><br /> 1 2 3 <br /><br /> -----------<br /><br /> R R X <br /><br /> R X R <br /><br /> X R R <br /><br />X is any ball that is not red.<br />There is a 4.6875% chance that each of these situations will occur. <br /><br />Take the first one, for example: 25% chance the first ball is red, multiplied by a 25% chance the second ball is red, multiplied by a 75% chance the third ball is not red. <br /><br />Because there are 3 scenarios where this outcome occurs, you multiply the 4.6875% chance of any one occurring by 3, & you get 14.0625%<br /><br />Consider a state lottery where you get to choose 8 numbers from 1 to 80, no repetiton allowed. The Lottery Commission chooses 11 from those 80 numbers, again no repetition. You win the lottery if atleast 7 of your numbers are there in the 11 chosen by the Lottery Commission. <br /><br />What is the probablity of winning the lottery?<br />Answer<br /><br />The probability of winning the lottery is two in one billion i.e. only two person can win from one billion !!! <br /><br />Let's find out sample space first. The Lottery Commission chooses 11 numbers from the 80. Hence, the 11 numbers from the 80 can be selected in 80C11 ways which is very very high and is equal to 1.04776 * 1013 <br /><br />Now, you have to select 8 numbers from 80 which can be selected in 80C8 ways. But we are interested in only those numbers which are in 11 numbers selected by the Lottery Commision. There are 2 cases. <br />• You might select 8 numbers which all are there in 11 numbers choosen by the Lottery Commission. So there are 11C8 ways. <br />• Another case is you might select 7 lucky numbers and 1 non-lucky number from the remaining 69 numbers. There are ( 11C7 ) * ( 69C1 ) ways to do that. <br />So total lucky ways are <br />= ( 11C8 ) + ( 11C7 ) * ( 69C1 ) <br />= (165) + (330) * (69) <br />= 165 + 22770 <br />= 22935 <br /><br />Hence, the probability of the winning lottery is <br />= (Total lucky ways) / (Total Sample space) <br />= (22935) / ( 1.04776 * 1013) <br />= 2.1889 * 10-9 <br />i.e. 2 in a billion.<br /><br />Submit<br />Answer<br /> <br />Users<br />Answer (4)<br /> <br />BrainVista<br />Answer<br /> <br />Puzzle <br /><br />To move a Safe, two cylindrical steel bars 7 inches in diameter are used as rollers. <br /><br />How far will the safe have moved forward when the rollers have made one revolution?<br />Answer<br /><br />The safe must have moved 22 inches forward. <br /><br />If the rollers make one revolution, the safe will move the distance equal to the circumference of the roller. Hence, the distance covered by the safe is <br />= PI * Diameter (or 2 * PI * Radius) <br />= PI * 7 <br />= 3.14159265 * 7 <br />= 21.99115 <br />= 22 inches approx.<br />SubmittIf a rook and a bishop of a standard chess set are randomly placed on a chessboard, what is the probability that one is attacking the other? <br /><br />Note that both are different colored pieces.<br />SubmAnswer<br /><br />The probability of either the Rook or the Bishop attacking the other is 0.3611 <br /><br />A Rook and a Bishop on a standard chess-board can be arranged in 64P2 = 64*63 = 4032 ways <br /><br />Now, there are 2 cases - Rook attacking Bishop and Bishop attacking Rook. Note that the Rook and the Bishop never attack each other simultaneously. Let's consider both the cases one by one. <br /><br />Case I - Rook attacking Bishop <br />The Rook can be placed in any of the given 64 positions and it always attacks 14 positions. Hence, total possible ways of the Rook attacking the Bishop = 64*14 = 896 ways <br /><br />Case II - Bishop attacking Rook <br />View the chess-board as a 4 co-centric hollow squares with the outermost square with side 8 units and the innermost square with side 2 units. <br /><br />If the bishop is in one of the outer 28 squares, then it can attack 7 positions. If the bishop is in one of the 20 squares at next inner-level, then it can attack 9 positions. Similarly if the bishop is in one of the 12 squares at next inner-level, then it can attack 11 positions. And if the bishop is in one of the 4 squares at next inner-level (the innermost level), then it can attack 13 positions. <br /><br />Hence, total possible ways of the Bishop attacking the Rook <br />= 28*7 + 20*9 + 12*11 + 4*13 <br />= 560 ways <br /><br />Thus, the required probability is <br />= (896 + 560) / 4032 <br />= 13/36 <br />= 0.3611<br />itted ed<br />Here in England McDonald's has just launched a new advertising campaign. The poster shows 8 McDonald's products and underneath claims there are 40312 combinations of the above items. <br /><br />Given that the maximum number of items allowed is 8, and you are allowed to have less than 8 items, and that the order of purchase does not matter (i.e. buying a burger and fries is the same as buying fries and a burger) <br /><br />How many possible combinations are there? Are McDonald's correct in claiming there are 40312 combinations?<br />Answer<br /><br />Total possible combinations are 12869. <br /><br />It is given that you can order maximum of 8 items and you are allowed to have less than 8 items. Also, the order of purchase does not matter. Let's create a table for ordering total N items using X products. <br />Items<br />Ordered<br />(N) Products Used (X)<br /> 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8<br />1 1 - - - - - - -<br />2 1 1 - - - - - -<br />3 1 2 1 - - - - -<br />4 1 3 3 1 - - - -<br />5 1 4 6 4 1 - - -<br />6 1 5 10 10 5 1 - -<br />7 1 6 15 20 15 6 1 -<br />8 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1<br />Total (T) 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1<br />Ways to choose<br />X products from<br />8 products (W) 8C1 8C2 8C3 8C4 8C5 8C6 8C7 8C8<br />Total combinations<br />(T*W) 64 784 3136 4900 3136 784 64 1<br /><br />Thus, total possible combinations are <br />= 64 + 784 + 3136 + 4900 + 3136 + 784 + 64 + 1 <br />= 12869<br />What are the chances that at least two out of a group of fifty people share the same birthday?<br />SubmittedAnswer<br /><br />The probability of atleast two out of a group of 50 people share the same birthday is 97% <br /><br />Probability of atleast two share the same birthday = 1 - probability of all 50 have different birthdays <br /><br />Probability of all 50 have different birthday <br />= 365/365 * 364/365 * 363/365 * ... * 317/365 * 316/365 <br />= (365 * 364 * 363 * 362 * ... * 317 * 316)/36550 <br />= 0.0296264 <br /><br />Probability of atleast two share the same birthday <br />= 1 - 0.0296264 <br />= 0.9703735 <br />= 97% approx. <br /><br />Thus, the probability of atleast two out of a group of 50 people share the same birthday is 97% <br /><br />This explains why in a school/college with classrooms of 50 students, there are at least two students with a birthday on the same day of the year. Also, if there are 23 people in the room, then there are 50% chances that atleast two of them have a birthday on the same day of the year!!!<br /><br />A tank can be filled by pipe A in 30 minutes and by pipe B in 24 minutes. Outlet pipe C can empty the full tank in X minutes. <br /><br />If the tank is empty initially and if all the three pipes A, B and C are opened simultaneously, the tank will NEVER be full. Give the maximal possible value of X.<br />Answer<br /><br />The maximum possible value of X is 13 minutes 20 seconds. <br /><br />In one minute, <br />pipe A can fill 1/30 part of the tank. <br />pipe B can fill 1/24 part of the tank. <br /><br />Thus, the net water level increase in one minute is <br />= 1/30 + 1/24 <br />= 3/40 part of the tank <br /><br />In order to keep the tank always empty, outlet pipe C should empty at least 3/40 part of the tank in one minute. Thus, pipe C can empty the full tank in 40/3 i.e. 13 minutes 20 seconds.<br />A worker earns a 5% raise. A year later, the worker receives a 2.5% cut in pay, & now his salary is Rs. 22702.68 <br /><br />What was his salary to begin with?<br />Answer<br /><br />Rs.22176 <br /><br />Assume his salary was Rs. X <br /><br />He earns 5% raise. So his salary is (105*X)/100 <br /><br />A year later he receives 2.5% cut. So his salary is ((105*X)/100)*(97.5/100) which is Rs. 22702.68 <br /><br />Hence, solving equation ((105*X)/100)*(97.5/100) = 22702.68 <br />X = 22176<br /><br />500 men are arranged in an array of 10 rows and 50 columns according to their heights. <br /><br />Tallest among each row of all are asked to come out. And the shortest among them is A. <br /><br />Similarly after resuming them to their original positions, the shortest among each column are asked to come out. And the tallest among them is B. <br /><br />Now who is taller A or B ?<br />A person wanted to withdraw X rupees and Y paise from the bank. But cashier made a mistake and gave him Y rupees and X paise. Neither the person nor the cashier noticed that. <br /><br />After spending 20 paise, the person counts the money. And to his surprise, he has double the amount he wanted to withdraw. <br /><br />Find X and Y. (1 Rupee = 100 Paise)<br /><br />As given, the person wanted to withdraw 100X + Y paise. <br /><br />But he got 100Y + X paise. <br /><br />After spending 20 paise, he has double the amount he wanted to withdraw. Hence, the equation is<br /><br /> 2 * (100X + Y) = 100Y + X - 20<br /><br /> 200X + 2Y = 100Y +X - 20<br /><br /> 199X - 98Y = -20<br /><br /> 98Y - 199X = 20<br /><br /><br />Now, we got one equation; but there are 2 variables. We have to apply little bit of logic over here. We know that if we interchange X & Y, amount gets double. So Y should be twice of X or one more than twice of X i.e. Y = 2X or Y = 2X+1 <br /><br />Case I : Y=2X <br />Solving two equations simultaneously <br />98Y - 199X = 20 <br />Y - 2X = 0 <br />We get X = - 20/3 & Y = - 40/2 <br /><br />Case II : Y=2X+1 <br />Solving two equations simultaneously <br />98Y - 199X = 20 <br />Y - 2X = 1 <br />We get X = 26 & Y = 53 <br /><br />Now, its obvious that he wanted to withdraw Rs. 26.53<br /><br />Submit<br />Answer<br /> <br />Users<br />Answer (2)<br /> <br />BrainVista<br />Answer<br /> <br />Puzzle <br /><br /><br />At the Party: <br />1. There were 9 men and children. <br />2. There were 2 more women than children. <br />3. The number of different man-woman couples possible was 24. Note that if there were 7 men and 5 women, then there would have been 35 man-woman couples possible. <br /><br />Also, of the three groups - men, women and children - at the party: <br />4. There were 4 of one group. <br />5. There were 6 of one group. <br />6. There were 8 of one group.<br />Exactly one of the above 6 statements is false. <br /><br />Can you tell which one is false? Also, how many men, women and children are there at the party?<br />Answer<br /><br />Statement (4) is false. There are 3 men, 8 women and 6 children. <br /><br />Assume that Statements (4), (5) and (6) are all true. Then, Statement (1) is false. But then Statement (2) and (3) both can not be true. Thus, contradictory to the fact that exactly one statement is false. <br /><br />So Statement (4) or Statement (5) or Statement (6) is false. Also, Statements (1), (2) and (3) all are true. <br /><br />From (1) and (2), there are 11 men and women. Then from (3), there are 2 possible cases - either there are 8 men and 3 women or there are 3 men and 8 women. <br /><br />If there are 8 men and 3 women, then there is 1 child. Then Statements (4) and (5) both are false, which is not possible. <br /><br />Hence, there are 3 men, 8 women and 6 children. Statement (4) is false.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00242<br /><br />There is a shortage of tubelights, bulbs and fans in a village - Kharghar. It is found that <br />• All houses do not have either tubelight or bulb or fan. <br />• exactly 19% of houses do not have just one of these. <br />• atleast 67% of houses do not have tubelights. <br />• atleast 83% of houses do not have bulbs. <br />• atleast 73% of houses do not have fans.<br />What percentage of houses do not have tubelight, bulb and fan? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />42% houses do not have tubelight, bulb and fan. <br /><br />Let's assume that there are 100 houses. Hence, there should be total 300 items i.e. 100 tubelights, 100 bulbs and 100 fans. <br /><br />From the given data, we know that there is shortage of atleast (67+83+73) 223 items in every 100 houses. <br /><br />Also, exactly 19 houses do not have just one item. It means that remaining 81 houses should account for the shortage of remaining (223-19) 204 items. If those remaining 81 houses do not have 2 items each, there would be a shortage of 162 items. But total of 204 items are short. Hence, atleast (204-162) 42 houses do not have all 3 items - tubelight, bulb and fan. <br /><br />Thus, 42% houses do not have tubelight, bulb and fan.<br />What is the remainder left after dividing 1! + 2! + 3! + … + 100! By 7? <br /><br />Think carefully !!!<br />Answer<br /><br />A tricky one. <br /><br />7! onwards all terms are divisible by 7 as 7 is one of the factor. So there is no remainder left for those terms i.e. remainder left after dividing 7! + 8! + 9! + ... + 100! is 0. <br /><br />The only part to be consider is <br />= 1! + 2! + 3! + 4! + 5! + 6! <br />= 1 + 2 + 6 + 24 + 120 + 720 <br />= 873 <br /><br />The remainder left after dividing 873 by 7 is 5 <br /><br />Hence, the remainder is 5.<br /><br />Imagine that you have 26 constants, labelled A through Z. Each constant is assigned a value in the following way: A = 1; the rest of the values equal their position in the alphabet (B corresponds to the second position so it equals 2, C = 3, etc.) raised to the power of the preceeding constant value. So, B = 2 ^ (A's value), or B = 2^1 = 2. C = 3^2 = 9. D = 4^9, etc. <br /><br />Find the exact numerical value to the following equation: (X - A) * (X - B) * (X - C) * ... * (X - Y) * (X - Z)<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />(X - A) * (X - B) * (X - C) * ... * (X - Y) * (X - Z) equals 0 since (X - X) is zero<br />If three babies are born every second of the day, then how many babies will be born in the year 2001?<br />SuAnswer<br /><br />9,46,08,000 babies <br /><br />The total seconds in year 2001 <br />= 365 days/year * 24 hours/day * 60 minutes/hours * 60 seconds/minute <br />= 365 * 24 * 60 * 60 seconds <br />= 3,15,36,000 seconds <br /><br />Thus, there are 3,15,36,000 seconds in the year 2001. Also, three babies born are every second. Hence, total babies born <br />= 3 * 3,15,36,000 seconds <br />= 9,46,08,000bmitted<br /><br />Replace the letters with the correct numbers.<br /> T W O<br /><br /> X T W O <br /><br /> ---------<br /><br /> T H R E E<br /><br />Submitted by : Timmy Chan<br />Answer<br /><br />T=1, W=3, O=8, H=9, R=2, E=4<br /> 1 3 8 <br /><br /> x 1 3 8 <br /><br />------------ <br /><br /> 1 9 0 4 4<br />You can reduce the number of trials. T must be 1 as there is multiplication of T with T in hundred's position. Also, O can not be 0 or 1. Now, you have to find three digit number whose square satisfies above conditions and square of that has same last two digits. Hence, it must be between 102 and 139.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00052<br /><br />Four words add up to a fifth word numerically:<br /><br /> mars<br /><br /> venus<br /><br /> uranus<br /><br /> saturn<br /><br /> -------- +<br /><br /> neptune <br /><br />Each of the ten letters (m, a, r, s, v, e, n, u, t, and p) represent a unique number from the range 0 .. 9. <br /><br />Furthermore, numbers 1 and 6 are being used most frequently. <br />Answer<br /><br />The easiest way to solve this problem is by writing a computer program that systematically tries all possible mappings from the numbers onto the letters. This will give you only one solution which meets the condition that numbers 1 and 6 are most frequently used. <br /><br /> mars m = 4<br /><br /> venus a = 5<br /><br /> uranus r = 9<br /><br /> saturn s = 3<br /><br /> -------- + v = 2 4593<br /><br /> neptune e = 0 20163<br /><br /> n = 1 695163<br /><br /> u = 6 358691<br /><br /> t = 8 -------- +<br /><br /> p = 7 1078610 <br /><br />There are 4 army men. They have been captured by a rebel group and have been held at ransom. An army intelligent officer orders them to be burried deep in dirt up to their necks. The format of their burrial are as shown in the figure. <br /><br />Conditions <br />• They each have hats on their heads. either black(b) or white (w) look at diagram above. There are total 2 white hats and 2 black hats. <br />• They only look in front of them not behind. They are not allowed to communicate by talking. <br />• Between army man 1 and 2, there is a wall. <br />• Captive man 4 can see the colour of hats on 2 and 3 <br />• 3 can only see 2's hat <br />• 2 can only see a wall and 1 can see a wall too, but is on the other side<br />The officer speaks up, "If one of you can correctly tell me the colour of your hat, you will all go scott free back to your contries. If you are wrong, you will all be killed. <br /><br />How can one of them be certain about the hat they are wearing and not risk the lives of their fellow souldiers by taking a 50/50 guess!<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />Either soldier 3 or soldier 4 can save the life as soldier 1 and soldier 2 can not see colour of any hat, even not their own.. In our case soldier 3 will tell the colour of his hat. <br /><br />Soldier 4 can see the hat on soldier 2 and soldier 3. If both are white, then he can be sure about colour of his hat which will be black and vice-versa. But if one of them is white and one is black, then soldier 4 can not say anything as he can have either of them. So he will keep mum. <br /><br />If soldier 4 won't say anyhing for a while, then soldier 3 will know that soldier 4 is not in position to tell the colour of hat on his hat. It means that colour of soldier 3's hat is opposite of colour of soldier 2's hat. So soldier 3 can tell correctly the colour of hat on his head which is Black. <br /><br />Here, we are assuming that all the soldiers are intelligent enough. Also, this solution will work for any combination of 2 Black hats and 2 White hats.<br />One side of the bottom layer of a triangular pyramid has 12 balls. How many are there in the whole pyramid? <br /><br />Note that the pyramid is equilateral and solid.<br />Answer<br /><br />There are total 364 balls. <br /><br />As there are 12 balls along one side, it means that there are 12 layers of balls. The top most layer has 1 ball. The second layer has 3 (1+2) balls. The third layer has 6 (1+2+3) balls. The fourth layer has 10 (1+2+3+4) balls. The fifth layer has 15 (1+2+3+4+5) balls. Similarly, there are 21, 28, 36, 45, 55, 66 and 78 balls in the remaining layers. <br /><br />Hence, the total number of balls are <br />= 1 + 3 + 6 + 10 + 15 + 21 + 28 + 36 + 45 + 55 + 66 + 78 <br />= 364 balls<br /><br /><br />A blindfolded man is asked to sit in the front of a carrom board. The holes of the board are shut with lids in random order, i.e. any number of all the four holes can be shut or open. <br /><br />Now the man is supposed to touch any two holes at a time and can do the following. <br />• Open the closed hole. <br />• Close the open hole. <br />• Let the hole be as it is. <br />After he has done it, the carrom board is rotated and again brought to some position. The man is again not aware of what are the holes which are open or closed. <br /><br />How many minimum number of turns does the blindfolded man require to either open all the holes or close all the holes? <br /><br />Note that whenever all the holes are either open or close, there will be an alarm so that the blindfolded man will know that he has won.<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />The blindfolded man requires 5 turns. <br />1. Open two adjacent holes. <br />2. Open two diagonal holes. Now atleast 3 holes are open. If 4th hole is also open, then you are done. If not, the 4th hole is close. <br />3. Check two diagonal holes. <br />o If one is close, open it and all the holes are open. <br />o If both are close, open any one hole. Now, two holes are open and two are close. The diagonal holes are in the opposite status i.e. in both the diagonals, one hole is open and one is close.<br /><br />4. Check any two adjacent holes. <br />o If both are open, close both of them. Now, all holes are close. <br />o If both are close, open both of them. Now, all holes are open. <br />o If one is open and one is close, invert them i.e. close the open hole and open the close hole. Now, the diagonal holes are in the same status i.e. two holes in one diagonal are open and in other are close.<br /><br />5. Check any two diagonal holes. <br />o If both are open, close both of them. Now, all holes are close. <br />o If both are close, open both of them. Now, all holes are open.<br /><br />In the middle of the confounded desert, there is the lost city of "Ash". To reach it, I will have to travel overland by foot from the coast. On a trek like this, each person can only carry enough rations for five days and the farthest we can travel in one day is 30 miles. Also, the city is 120 miles from the starting point. <br /><br />What I am trying to figure out is the fewest number of persons, including myself, that I will need in our Group so that I can reach the city, stay overnight, and then return to the coast without running out of supplies. <br /><br />How many persons (including myself) will I need to accomplish this mission?<br />Answer<br /><br />Total 4 persons (including you) required. <br /><br />It is given that each person can only carry enough rations for five days. And there are 4 persons. Hence, total of 20 days rations is available. <br />1. First Day : 4 days of rations are used up. One person goes back using one day of rations for the return trip. The rations remaining for the further trek is for 15 days. <br />2. Second Day : The remaining three people use up 3 days of rations. One person goes back using 2 days of rations for the return trip. The rations remaining for the further trek is for 10 days. <br />3. Third Day : The remaining two people use up 2 days of rations. One person goes back using 3 days of rations for the return trip. The rations remaining for the further trek is for 5 days. <br />4. Fourth Day : The remaining person uses up one day of rations. He stays overnight. The next day he returns to the coast using 4 days of rations.<br /><br />Thus, total 4 persons, including you are required.<br />At what time after 4.00 p.m. is the minutes hand of a clock exactly aligned with the hour hand?<br />Answer<br /><br />4:21:49.5 <br /><br />Assume that X minutes after 4.00 PM minute hand exactly aligns with and hour hand. <br /><br />For every minute, minute hand travels 6 degrees. <br />Hence, for X minutes it will travel 6 * X degrees. <br /><br />For every minute, hour hand travels 1/2 degrees. <br />Hence, for X minutes it will travel X/2 degrees. <br /><br />At 4.00 PM, the angle between minute hand and hour hand is 120 degrees. Also, after X minutes, minute hand and hour hand are exactly aligned. So the angle with respect to 12 i.e. Vertical Plane will be same. Therefore, <br /><br />6 * X = 120 + X/2 <br />12 * X = 240 + X <br />11 * X = 240 <br />X = 21.8182 <br />X = 21 minutes 49.5 seconds <br /><br />Hence, at 4:21:49.5 minute hand is exactly aligned with the hour hand.<br /><br /><br />Substitute digits for the letters to make the following Division true<br /> O U T<br /><br /> -------------<br /><br /> S T E M | D E M I S E<br /><br /> | D M O C<br /><br /> -------------<br /><br /> T U I S<br /><br /> S T E M<br /><br /> ----------<br /><br /> Z Z Z E<br /><br /> Z U M M<br /><br /> --------<br /><br /> I S T<br />Note that the leftmost letter can't be zero in any word. Also, there must be a one-to-one mapping between digits and letters. e.g. if you substitute 3 for the letter M, no other letter can be 3 and all other M in the puzzle must be 3.<br />Submitted by : Calon<br />Answer<br /><br />C=0, U=1, S=2, T=3, O=4, M=5, I=6, Z=7, E=8, D=9 <br /><br />It is obvious that U=1 (as U*STEM=STEM) and C=0 (as I-C=I). <br /><br />S*O is a single digit and also S*T is a single digit. Hence, their values (O, S, T) must be 2, 3 or 4 (as they can not be 0 or 1 or greater than 4). <br /><br />Consider, STEM*O=DMOC, where C=0. It means that M must be 5. Now, its simple. O=4, S=2, T=3, E=8, Z=7, I=6 and D=9.<br /> O U T 4 1 3<br /><br /> ------------- -------------<br /><br /> S T E M | D E M I S E 2 3 8 5 | 9 8 5 6 2 8<br /><br /> | D M O C | 9 5 4 0<br /><br /> ------------- -------------<br /><br /> T U I S 3 1 6 2<br /><br /> S T E M 2 3 8 5<br /><br /> ---------- ----------<br /><br /> Z Z Z E 7 7 7 8<br /><br /> Z U M M 7 1 5 5<br /><br /> -------- --------<br /><br /> I S T 6 2 3<br />Also, when arranged from 0 to 9, it spells CUSTOMIZED.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00015<br /><br />In the town called Alibaug, the following facts are true: <br />• No two inhabitants have exactly the same number of hairs. <br />• No inhabitants has exactly 2025 hairs. <br />• There are more inhabitants than there are hairs on the head of any one inhabitants. <br />What is the largest possible number of the inhabitants of Alibaug? <br />Answer<br /><br />2025 <br /><br />It is given that no inhabitants have exactly 2025 hairs. Hence there are 2025 inhabitants with 0 to 2024 hairs in the head. <br /><br />Suppose there are more than 2025 inhabitants. But these will violate the condition that "There are more inhabitants than there are hairs on the head of any one inhabitants." As for any number more than 2025, there will be same number of inhabitants as the maximum number of hairs on the head of any inhabitant.<br />There are four groups of Mangoes, Apples and Bananas as follows: <br />Group I : 1 Mango, 1 Apples and 1 Banana <br />Group II : 1 Mango, 5 Apples and 7 Bananas <br />Group III : 1 Mango, 7 Apples and 10 Bananas <br />Group IV : 9 Mango, 23 Apples and 30 Bananas <br /><br />Group II costs Rs 300 and Group III costs Rs 390. <br /><br />Can you tell how much does Group I and Group IV cost?<br />Answer<br /><br />Group I costs Rs 120 and Group IV costs Rs 1710 <br /><br />Assume that the values of one mango, one apple and one banana are M, A and B respectively. <br /><br />From Group II : M + 5A + 7B = 300 <br />From Group III : M + 7A + 10B = 390 <br /><br />Subtracting above to equations : 2A + 3B = 90 <br /><br />For Group I : <br />= M + A + B <br />= (M + 5A + 7B) - (4A + 6B) <br />= (M + 5A + 7B) - 2(2A + 3B) <br />= 300 - 2(90) <br />= 300 - 180 <br />= 120 <br /><br />Similarly, for Group IV : <br />= 9M + 23A + 30B <br />= 9(M + 5A + 7B) - (22A + 33B) <br />= 9(M + 5A + 7B) - 11(2A + 3B) <br />= 9(300) - 11(90) <br />= 2700 - 990 <br />= 1710 <br /><br />Thus, Group I costs Rs 120 and Group IV costs Rs 1710.<br />Tic-Tac-Toe is being played. One 'X' has been placed in one of the corners. No 'O' has been placed yet. <br /><br />Where does the player that is playing 'O' has to put his first 'O' so that 'X' doesn't win? <br /><br />Assume that both players are very intelligent. Explain your answer<br />Answer<br /><br />"O" should be placed in the center. <br /><br />Let's number the positions as:<br /> 1 | 2 | 3<br /><br /> ---------<br /><br /> 4 | 5 | 6<br /><br /> ---------<br /><br /> 7 | 8 | 9<br />It is given that "X" is placed in one of the corner position. Let's assume that its at position 1. <br /><br />Now, let's take each position one by one. <br />• If "O" is placed in position 2, "X" can always win by choosing position 4, 5 or 7. <br />• If "O" is placed in position 3, "X" can always win by choosing position 4, 7 or 9. <br />• If "O" is placed in position 4, "X" can always win by choosing position 2, 3 or 5. <br />• If "O" is placed in position 6, "X" can always win by choosing position 3, 5 or 7. <br />• If "O" is placed in position 7, "X" can always win by choosing position 2, 3 or 9. <br />• If "O" is placed in position 8, "X" can always win by choosing position 3, 5 or 7. <br />• If "O" is placed in position 9, "X" can always win by choosing position 3, or 7.<br />If "O" is placed in position 5 i.e. center position, "X" can't win unless "O" does something foolish ;)) <br /><br />Hence, "O" should be placed in the center.<br /><br />Amit, Bhavin, Himanshu and Rakesh are sitting around a table. <br />• The Electonics Engineer is sitting to the left of the Mechanical Engineer. <br />• Amit is sitting opposite to Computer Engineer. <br />• Himanshu likes to play Computer Games. <br />• Bhavin is sitting to the right of the Chemical Engineer.<br />Can you figure out everyone's profession?<br />Answer<br /><br />Amit is the Mechanical Engineer. Bhavin is the Computer Engineer. Himanshu and Rakesh are either Chemical Engineer or Elecronics Engineer. <br /><br />Amit and Bhavin are sitting opposite to each other. Whereas Chemical Engineer and Elecronics Engineer are sitting opposite to each other. <br /><br />We cannot find out who is Chemical Engineer and Elecronics Engineer as data provided is not sufficient<br /><br />Five friends with surname Batliwala, Pocketwala, Talawala, Chunawala and Natakwala have their first name and middle name as follow. <br />1. Four of them have a first and middle name of Paresh. <br />2. Three of them have a first and middle name of Kamlesh. <br />3. Two of them have a first and middle name of Naresh. <br />4. One of them have a first and middle name of Elesh. <br />5. Pocketwala and Talawala, either both are named Kamlesh or neither is named Kamlesh. <br />6. Either Batliwala and Pocketwala both are named Naresh or Talawala and Chunawala both are named Naresh. <br />7. Chunawala and Natakwala are not both named Paresh.<br />Who is named Elesh?<br />Answer<br /><br />Pocketwala is named Elesh. <br /><br />From (1) and (7), it is clear that Batliwala, Pocketwala and Talawala are named Paresh. <br /><br />From (6) and (5), if Pocketwala or Talawala both are named Kamlesh, then either of them will have three names i.e. Paresh, Kamlesh and Naresh. Hence, Pocketwala and Talawala both are not named Kamlesh. It means that Batliwala, Chunawala and Natakwala are named Kamlesh. <br /><br />Now it is clear that Talawala and Chunawala are named Naresh. Also, Pocketwala is named Elesh.<br /><br />Mr. Wagle goes to work by a bus. One day he falls asleep when the bus still has twice as far to go as it has already gone. <br /><br />Halfway through the trip he wakes up as the bus bounces over some bad potholes. When he finally falls asleep again, the bus still has half the distance to go that it has already travelled. Fortunately, Mr. Wagle wakes up at the end of his trip. <br /><br />What portion of the total trip did Mr. Wagle sleep?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Mr. wagle slept through half his trip. <br /><br />Let's draw a timeline. Picture the bus route on a line showen below: <br /><br /> ---------------- ________ -------- ________________<br /><br /> Start 1/3 1/2 2/3 End<br /><br /><br /><br /> ----- shows time for which Mr. Wagle was not sleeping<br /><br /> _____ shows time for which Mr. Wagle was sleeping<br /><br /><br />When Mr. Wagle fell asleep the first time, the bus sill had twice as far to go as it had already gone, that marks the first third of his trip. <br /><br />He wake up halfway through the trip i.e slept from 1/3 mark to the 1/2 mark. He fell sleep again when the bus still had half the distance to go that it had already traveled i.e 2/3 mark. <br /><br />Adding up, all sleeping times, <br />= (1/2 - 1/3) + (1 - 2/3) <br />= 1/6 + 1/3 <br />= 1/2 <br /><br />Hence, Mr. wagle slept through half his trip.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00068<br /><br />In your sock drawer, you have a ratio of 5 pairs of blue socks, 4 pairs of brown socks, and 6 pairs of black socks. <br /><br />In complete darkness, how many socks would you need to pull out to get a matching pair of the same color? <br />4 If you don't agree, try it yourself!<br />You have a bucket of jelly beans. Some are red, some are blue, and some green. With your eyes closed, pick out 2 of a like color. <br /><br />How many do you have to grab to be sure you have 2 of the same?<br /><br />You have a bucket of jelly beans. Some are red, some are blue, and some green. With your eyes closed, pick out 2 of a like color. <br /><br />How many do you have to grab to be sure you have 2 of the same?<br />If you select 4 Jelly beans you are guarenteed that you will have 2 that are the same color.<br /><br /><br />There are 70 employees working with BrainVista of which 30 are females. Also, <br />• 30 employees are married <br />• 24 employees are above 25 years of age <br />• 19 married employees are above 25 years, of which 7 are males <br />• 12 males are above 25 years of age <br />• 15 males are married.<br />How many unmarried females are there and how many of them are above 25?<br />Answer<br /><br />15 unmarried females & none are above 25 years of age. <br /><br />Simply put all given information into the table structure and you will get the answer. <br /> Married Unmarried<br /> Below 25 Above 25 Below 25 Above 25<br />Female 3 12 15 0<br />Male 8 7 20 5<br /><br />There is a safe with a 5 digit number as the key. The 4th digit is 4 greater than the second digit, while the 3rd digit is 3 less than the 2nd digit. The 1st digit is thrice the last digit. There are 3 pairs whose sum is 11. <br /><br />Find the number.<br />Answer<br /><br />65292 <br /><br />As per given conditions, there are three possible combinations for 2nd, 3rd and 4th digits. They are (3, 0, 7) or (4, 1, 8) or (5, 2, 9) <br /><br />It is given that there are 3 pairs whose sum is 11. All possible pairs are (2, 9), (3, 8), (4, 7), (5, 6). Now required number is 5 digit number and it contains 3 pairs of 11. So it must not be having 0 and 1 in it. Hence, the only possible combination for 2nd, 3rd and 4th digits is (5, 2, 9) <br /><br />Also, 1st digit is thrice the last digit. The possible combinations are (3, 1), (6, 2) and (9, 3), out of which only (6, 2) with (5, 2, 9) gives 3 pairs of 11. Hence, the answer is 65292.<br />My friend collects antique stamps. She purchased two, but found that she needed to raise money urgently. So she sold them for Rs. 8000 each. On one she made 20% and on the other she lost 20%. <br /><br />How much did she gain or lose in the entire transaction?<br />Answer<br /><br />She lost Rs 666.67 <br /><br />Consider the first stamp. She mades 20% on it after selling it for Rs 8000. <br /><br />So the original price of first stamp is <br />= (8000 * 100) / 80 <br />= Rs 6666.67 <br /><br />Similarly, consider second stamp. She lost 20% on it after selling it for Rs 8000 <br /><br />So the original price of second stamp is <br />= (8000 * 100) / 80 <br />= Rs 10000 <br /><br />Total buying price of two stamps <br />= Rs 6666.67 + Rs 10000 <br />= Rs 16666.67 <br /><br />Total selling price of two stamps <br />= Rs 8000 + Rs 8000 <br />= Rs 16000 <br /><br />Hence, she lost Rs 666.67<br /><br /><br />Assume for a moment that the earth is a perfectly uniform sphere of radius 6400 km. Suppose a thread equal to the length of the circumference of the earth was placed along the equator, and drawn to a tight fit. <br /><br />Now suppose that the length of the thread is increased by 12 cm, and that it is pulled away uniformly in all directions. <br /><br />By how many cm. will the thread be separated from the earth's surface?<br />Answer<br /><br />The cicumference of the earth is <br />= 2 * PI * r <br />= 2 * PI * 6400 km <br />= 2 * PI * 6400 * 1000 m <br />= 2 * PI * 6400 * 1000 * 100 cm <br />= 1280000000 * PI cm <br /><br />where r = radius of the earth, PI = 3.141592654 <br /><br />Hence, the length of the thread is = 1280000000 * PI cm <br /><br />Now length of the thread is increasd by 12 cm. So the new length is = (1280000000 * PI) + 12 cm <br /><br />This thread will make one concentric circle with the earth which is slightly away from the earth. The circumfernce of that circle is nothing but (1280000000 * PI) + 12 cm <br /><br />Assume that radius of the outer circle is R cm <br />Therefore, <br />2 * PI * R = (1280000000 * PI) + 12 cm <br /><br />Solving above equation, R = 640000001.908 cm <br />Radius of the earth is r = 640000000 cm <br /><br />Hence, the thread will be separatedfrom the earth by <br />= R - r cm <br />= 640000001.908 - 640000000 <br />= 1.908 cm<br />Scientist decided to do a study on the population growth of rabbits. Inside a controlled environment, 1000 rabbits were placed. <br /><br />Six months later, there were 1000Z rabbits. At the beginning of the 3rd year, there were roughly 2828Z rabbits, which was 4 times what the scientists placed in there at the beginning of the 1st year. <br /><br />If Z is a positive variable, how many rabbits would be there at the beginning of the 11th year?<br />SubmiAnswer<br /><br />At the beginning of the 11th year, there would be 1,024,000 rabbits. <br /><br />At the beginning, there were 1000 rabbits. Also, there were 4000 rabbits at the beginning of third year which is equal to 2828Z. Thus, Z = 4000/2828 i.e. 1.414 (the square root of 2) <br /><br />Note that 2828Z can be represented as 2000*Z*Z (Z=1.414), which can be further simplified as 1000*Z*Z*Z*Z <br /><br />Also, it is given that at the end of 6 months, there were 1000Z rabbits. <br /><br />It is clear that the population growth is 1.414 times every six months i.e. 2 times every year. After N years, the population would be 1000*(Z^(2N)) i.e. 1000*(2^N) <br /><br />Thus, at the beginning of the 11th year (i.e. after 10 years), there would be 1000*(2^10) i.e. 1,024,000 rabbits.<br />tted<br />A class of 100 students. 24 of them are girls and 32 are not. Which base am I using? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Let the base be X. <br /><br />Therefore <br />(X*X + X*0 + 0) = (2*X +4) + (3*X + 2) <br />X*X = 5*X + 6 <br />X*X - 5*X -6 = 0 <br />(X-6)(X+1) = 0 <br /><br />Therefore base is 6<br /><br />A man is stranded on a desert island. All he has to drink is a 20oz bottle of sprite. <br /><br />To conserve his drink he decides that on the first day he will drink one oz and the refill the bottle back up with water. On the 2nd day he will drink 2oz and refill the bottle. On the 3rd day he will drink 3oz and so on... <br /><br />By the time all the sprite is gone, how much water has he drunk?<br />SubmittAnswer<br /><br />The man drunk 190oz of water. <br /><br />It is given that the man has 20oz bottle of sprite. Also, he will drink 1oz on the first day and refill the bottle with water, will drink 2oz on the second day and refill the bottle, will drink 3oz on the third day and refill the bottle, and so on till 20th day. Thus at the end of 20 days, he must have drunk (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ..... +18 + 19 + 20) = 210oz of liquid. <br /><br />Out of that 210oz, 20oz is the sprite which he had initially. Hence, he must have drunk 190oz of water.ed<br />You have four 9's and you may use any of the (+, -, /, *) as many times as you like. I want to see a mathematical expression which uses the four 9's to = 100 <br /><br />How many such expressions can you make?<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />There are 5 such expressions. <br /><br />99 + (9/9) = 100 <br /><br />(99/.99) = 100 <br /><br />(9/.9) * (9/.9) = 100 <br /><br />((9*9) + 9)/.9 = 100 <br /><br />(99-9)/.9 = 100<br />Two planes take off at the same exact moment. They are flying across the Atlantic. One leaves New York and is flying to Paris at 500 miles per hour. The other leaves Paris and is flying to New York at only 450 miles per hour ( because of a strong head wind ). <br /><br />Which one will be closer to Paris when they meet?<br />They will both be the same distance from Paris when they meet!!!<br /><br />12 members were present at a board meeting. Each member shook hands with all of the other members before & after the meeting. <br /><br />How many hand shakes were there?<br />Answer<br /><br />132 <br /><br />Think of it this way: the first person shakes hands with 11 people, the second person also shakes hands with 11 people, but you only count 10, because the hand shake with the first person was already counted. Then add 9 for the third person, 8 for the fourth, & so on. <br /><br />66 hand shakes took place before & 66 after the meeting, for a total of 132.<br />Arrange five planets such that 4 of them add up to 5th planet numerically. Each of the letters of the planet should represent a unique number from the range 0 - 9. You have to use all ten digits. <br /><br />There is an amazing mathematical relationship exists among the names of the planet.<br />Answer<br /><br />The tought process is initially to find planets such that the total number of alphabets in them is 10. <br /><br />The only possible combination of planets is Saturn, Uranus, Venus, Mars and Neptune because for other combinations there will be more than 10 alphabets. Among these five, Neptune is the lenghtiest, so it must be the sum of the other four.<br /><br /> S A T U R N <br /><br /> U R A N U S<br /><br /> V E N U S<br /><br /> + M A R S<br /><br /> --------------<br /><br /> N E P T U N E<br /><br /><br />Now the only possible value for N is 1. By finding the value for S, we can reach the result:<br /><br /> 3 5 8 6 9 1 <br /><br /> 6 9 5 1 6 3<br /><br /> 2 0 1 6 3<br /><br /> + 4 5 9 3<br /><br /> --------------<br /><br /> 1 0 7 8 6 1 0<br /><br />You have 14 apples. Your Friend Marge takes away 3 and gives you 2. You drop 7 but pick up 4. Bret takes 4 and gives 5. You take one from Marge and give it to Bret in exchange for 3 more. You give those 3 to Marge and she gives you an apple and an orange. Frank comes and takes the apple Marge gave you and gives you a pear. You give the pear to Bret in exchange for an apple. Frank then takes an apple from Marge, gives it to Bret for an orange, gives you the orange for an apple. <br /><br />How many pears do you have?<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />None <br /><br />Frank gave you a pear in exchange of the apple which Marge gave you. And you gave that pear to Bret in exchange for an apple. All the others exchanges involved apples and/or organges.<br />Four couples are going to the movie. Each row holds eight seats. Betty and Jim don't want to sit next to Alice and Tom. Alice and Tom don't want to sit next to Gertrude and Bill. On the otherhand, Sally and Bob don't want to sit next to Betty and Jim. <br /><br />How can the couples arrange themselves in a row so that they all sit where they would like?<br />Submitted by : Tara Smith<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />From the given data, it can be inferred that: <br />(Sally & Bob) NOT (Betty & Jim) NOT (Alice & Tom) NOT (Gertrude & Bill) <br /><br />(A) NOT (B) means A and B can not seat next to each other. <br /><br />Now, it is obvious that (Betty & Jim) and (Alice & Tom) will occupy the corner seats as both of them can have only one neighbour. Therefore, <br />(Gertrude & Bill) will seat next to (Betty & Jim) <br />(Sally & Bob) will seat next to (Gertrude & Bill) <br />(Alice & Tom) will seat next to (Sally & Bob) <br /><br />Thus, there are two possible arrangements - a mirror images of each other. <br /><br />1. (Betty & Jim) - (Gertrude & Bill) - (Sally & Bob) - (Alice & Tom) <br />2. (Alice & Tom) - (Sally & Bob) - (Gertrude & Bill) - (Betty & Jim)<br />Substitute digits for the letters to make the following addition problem true.<br /> W H O S E<br /><br /> T E E T H<br /><br /> A R E<br /><br /> + A S<br /><br /> -------------------<br /><br /> S W O R D S<br />Note that the leftmost letter can't be zero in any word. Also, there must be a one-to-one mapping between digits and letters. e.g. if you substitute 3 for the letter H, no other letter can be 3 and all other H in the puzzle must be 3.<br />Answer<br /><br />It is obvious that S=1 and T=9. <br /><br />Also, (H + E) should be greater than 10 and hence, (E + H + E) must 20. Thus, there are 3 possible values for (E, H) pair: (6, 8) or (7, 6) or (8, 4). Use trial-n-error and everything will fit-in.<br /><br /> W H O S E 2 8 5 1 6<br /><br /> T E E T H 9 6 6 9 8<br /><br /> A R E 4 7 6<br /><br /> + A S + 4 1<br /><br /> ------------------- -------------------<br /><br /> S W O R D S 1 2 5 7 3 1<br /><br />When Socrates was imprisoned for being a disturbing influence, he was held in high esteem by his guards. All four of them hoped that something would occur that would facilitate his escape. One evening, the guard who was on duty intentionally left the cell door open so that Socrates could leave for distant parts. <br /><br />Socrates did not attempt to escape, as it was his philosophy that if you accept society's rules, you must also accept it's punishments. However, the open door was considered by the authorities to be a serious matter. It was not clear which guard was on that evening. The four guards make the following statements in their defense: <br /><br />Aaron: <br />A) I did not leave the door open. <br />B) Clement was the one who did it. <br /><br />Bob: <br />A) I was not the one who was on duty that evening. <br />B) Aaron was on duty. <br /><br />Clement: <br />A) Bob was the one on duty that evening. <br />B) I hoped Socrates would escape. <br /><br />David: <br />A) I did not leave the door open. <br />B) I was not surprised that Socrates did not attempt to escape. <br /><br />Considering that, in total, three statements are true, and five statements are false, which guard is guiltyAnswer<br /><br />David is the guilty. <br /><br />Note that "All four of them hoped that something would occur that would facilitate his escape". It makes Clement's statement B True and David's statement B False. <br /><br />Now consider each of them as a guilty, one at a time. <br /> Aaron Bob Clement David True<br />Stmts<br /> A B A B A B A B <br />If Aaron is guilty False False True True False True True False 4<br />If Bob is guilty True False False False True True True False 4<br />If Clement is guilty True True True False False True True False 5<br />If David is guilty True False True False False True False False 3<br /><br />Since in total, three statements are true and five statements are false. It is clear from the above table that David is?<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00474<br /><br />Given any whole number take the sum of the digits, and the product of the digits, and multiply these together to get a new whole number. <br /><br />For example, starting with 6712, the sum of the digits is (6+7+1+2) = 16, and the product of the digits is (6*7*1*2) = 84. The answer in this case is then 84 x 16 = 1344. <br /><br />If we do this again starting from 1344, we get (1+3+4+4) * (1*3*4*4) = 576 <br /><br />And yet again (5+7+6) * (5*7*6) = 3780 <br /><br />At this stage we know what the next answer will be (without working it out) because, as one digit is 0, the product of the digits will be 0, and hence the answer will also be 0. <br /><br />Can you find any numbers to which when we apply the above mentioned rule repeatedly, we never end up at 0? <br /> Brain Teaser No : 00474<br /><br />Given any whole number take the sum of the digits, and the product of the digits, and multiply these together to get a new whole number. <br /><br />For example, starting with 6712, the sum of the digits is (6+7+1+2) = 16, and the product of the digits is (6*7*1*2) = 84. The answer in this case is then 84 x 16 = 1344. <br /><br />If we do this again starting from 1344, we get (1+3+4+4) * (1*3*4*4) = 576 <br /><br />And yet again (5+7+6) * (5*7*6) = 3780 <br /><br />At this stage we know what the next answer will be (without working it out) because, as one digit is 0, the product of the digits will be 0, and hence the answer will also be 0. <br /><br />Can you find any numbers to which when we apply the above mentioned rule repeatedly, we never end up at 0? <br /><br />There were N stations on a railroad. After adding X stations 46 additional tickets have to be printed. <br /><br />Find N and X.<br />Answer<br /><br />Let before adding X stations, total number of tickets <br />t = N(N-1) <br /><br />After adding X stations total number of tickets are <br />t + 46 = (N+X)(N+X-1) <br /><br />Subtracting 1st from 2nd <br />46 = (N+X)(N+X-1) - N(N-1) <br />46 = N2 + NX - N + NX + X2 - X - N2 + N <br />46 = 2NX + X2 - X <br />46 = (2N - 1)X + X2 <br />X2 + (2N - 1)X - 46 = 0 <br /><br />Now there are only two possible factors of 46. They are (46,1) and (23,2) <br /><br />Case I: (46,1) <br />2N - 1 = 45 <br />2N = 46 <br />N = 23 <br />And X = 1 <br /><br />Case II: (23,2) <br />2N - 1 = 21 <br />2N = 22 <br />N = 11 <br />And X = 2 <br /><br />Hence, there are 2 possible answers.<br /><br />An emergency vehicle travels 10 miles at a speed of 50 miles per hour. <br /><br />How fast must the vehicle travel on the return trip if the round-trip travel time is to be 20 minutes?<br />Answer<br /><br />75 miles per hour <br /><br />While going to the destination, the vehicle travels 10 mils at the speed of 50 miles per hour. So the time taken to travel 10 miles is <br />= (60 * 10) / 50 <br />= 12 minutes <br /><br />Now it's given that round-trip travel time is 20 minutes. So the vehicle should complete its return trip of 10 miles in 8 minutes. So the speed of the vehicle must <br />= (60 * 10) / 8 <br />= 75 miles per hour<br />All of the students at a college are majoring in psychology, business, or both. 73% of the students are psychology majors, & 62% are business majors. <br /><br />If there are 200 students, how many of them are majoring in both psychology & business?<br />Answer<br /><br />70 students are majoring in both, psychology & business <br /><br />If 73% of the students are psychology majors, we know that 27% are not psychology majors. By the same reasoning, 38% are not business majors, because 62% of the students do major in business. So: 27 + 38 = 65 <br /><br />65% of the students are not majoring in both psychology & business, so 35% are double majors, a total of 70 students.<br />Two trains starting at same time, one from Bangalore to Mysore and other in opposite direction arrive at their destination 1hr and 4hrs respectively after passing each other. <br /><br />Answer<br /> <br /><br />The speed of Bangalore-Mysore train is TWICE the speed of Mysore-Bangalore train. <br /><br />Let the distance between Bangalore and Mysore is D kms. <br />Also, let speed of the train from Bangalore to Mysore is X km/hr and speed of the tain from Mysore to Bangalore is Y km/hr. <br /><br />Now, assume that both the trains met each other at T kms from the Bangalore (point P in figure) <br />Time taken by Bangalore-Mysore train to reach P = Time taken by Mysore-Bangalore train to reach P <br />( T / X ) = ( D - T ) / Y -----equ(I) <br /><br />Also, Bangalore-Mysore train and Mysore-Bangalore train arrive destination 1 hr and 4 hrs respectively after passing each other. It means that Bangalore-Mysore train travels (D - T) kms in 1 hr at X km/hr and Mysore-Bangalore train travels T kms in 4 hrs at Y km/hr. Hence, <br />( D - T ) = X and <br />T = 4 * Y <br /><br />Substituting these values in equation I, we get <br />( 4 * Y ) / X = X / Y <br />4 * Y * Y = X * X <br />2 * Y = X <br /><br />Hence, the speed of Bangalore-Mysore train is TWICE the speed of Mysore-Bangalore train.How much faster is one train from other?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />49 times <br /><br />Let's assume that everyone clinked their mug with friend to his left only. It means that there are total 49 clinks. Now the right clink of each person is left clink of the person on right which is already happened. Hence, there are only 49 clinks.<br /><br />Mrs. Watsherface had a garage sale. A custmer named Gina bought an old lamp and a rug. She paid a total of $5.25 for everything. The rug cost 25 cents more than the lamp. <br /><br />How much did each cost?<br />Submitted by : Kimi<br />Answer<br /><br />The lamp cost $ 2.50 and the rug cost $ 2.75 <br /><br />A simple one. <br /><br />Assume that the lamp cost $ L. <br />Hence the rug must have cost $ (L + 0.25) <br />Also, total cost is $ 5.25, Hence the equation : <br />L + L + 0.25 = 5.25 <br />2 * L = 5 <br />L = 2.50 <br /><br />Hence, the lamp cost $ 2.50 and the rug cost $ 2.75<br /><br />Brain Teaser No : 00518<br /><br />Write 1111......(243 times) i.e. a 243 digit number with all 1s. <br /><br />Prove that it is divisible by 243.<br />SubmittAnswer<br /><br />Prove it using the mathematical induction. <br /><br />First here are a couple of things to note: <br /><br />[1] A number whose digits add up to a multiple of three is divisable by 3. <br />e.g. 369: 3+6+9=18: 1+8=9 which is a multiple of 3 hence 369 is divisable by 3. <br /><br />[2] Whenever a number (X) is multiplied with another number (Y) then the product (X*Y) will have all the factors of X as well as all the factors of Y in its set of factors. <br />e.g. if X has factors of (1,P,Q,X) and Y has factors of (1,Q,R,Y) then X*Y has factors of (1,P,Q,Q,R,X,Y). <br /><br /><br />Let <br />N = any series of digits (e.g. N=369) <br />D = the number of digits in N (e.g. if N=369 then D=3) <br />P = is a number constructed in the following way : a 1, followed by (D-1) 0s, followed by another 1, followed by (D-1) 0s, followed by another 1. (e.g. if N=369 then D=3 and P would be 1001001) Note that P will always be divisible by 3. <br /><br />Also, if we multiply N with P we are essentially repeating N for (D-1) times. <br />e.g. if N=369 then D=3, P=1001001 and N*P=369369369 <br /><br />Let's start with N=111. It is clear that N is divisible by 3. (From [1]) <br />Also, D=3 and P=1001001 <br />N*P=111111111 (9 times) <br />The resulting number 111111111 must be divisible by 9 as N and P both are divisible by 3. <br /><br /><br />Now, let's start with N=111111111. It is clear that N is divisible by 9. <br />Also, D=9 and P=1000000001000000001 <br />N*P=111111111... (27 times) <br />The resulting number 1111111... (27 times) must be divisible by 27 as N is divisible by 9 and P is divisible by 3. <br /><br />Repeat the same procedure for N=1111111... (27 times) The resulting number 1111111... (81 times) must be divisible by 81 as N is divisible by 27 and P is divisible by 3. <br /><br />Similarly, for N=1111111... (81 times) The resulting number 1111111... (243 times) must be divisible by 243 as N is divisible by 81 and P is divisible by 3. <br /><br />Thus, 1111111... (243 times) is divisible by 243. <br /><br />Thanks to Ryan Hutcherson for solution !!!<br />edKaran bought a little box of midget matches, each one inch in length. He found that he could arrange them all in the form of a triangle whose area was just as many square inches as there were matches. <br /><br />He then used up six of the matches, and found that with the remainder he could again construct another triangle whose area was just as many square inches as there were matches. <br /><br />And using another six matches he could again do precisely the same. <br /><br />How many matches were there in the box originally? <br /><br />Note that the match-box can hold maximum of 50 matches.<br />Answer<br /><br />Initially, there were 42 or 36 matches in the match-box. <br /><br />There are 42 matches in the box with which he could form a triangle 20, 15, 7, with an area of 42 square inches. After 6 matches had been used, the remaining 36 matches would form a triangle 17, 10, 9, with an area of 36 square inches. After using another 6 matches, the remaining 30 matches would form a triangle 13, 12, 5, with an area of 30 square inches. After using another 6, the 24 remaining would form a triangle 10, 8, 6, with an area of 24 square inches. <br /><br />Thus, there are two possible answers. There were either 42 or 36 matches in the match-box. <br /><br /><br />Also it is interesting to know that there are just 5 such triangles for which the perimeter and the area is the same (assuming all sides are integers) and they are : <br />1. 24 (10, 8, 6) <br />2. 30 (13, 12, 5) <br />3. 36 (17, 10, 9) <br />4. 42 (20, 15, 7) <br />5. 60 (29, 25, 6)<br /><br />Find the values of each of the alphabets.<br /><br /> N O O N<br /><br /> S O O N<br /><br /> + M O O N<br /><br /> ----------<br /><br /> J U N E<br />Answer<br /><br />Using trial and error. There are 2 solutions to it and may be more.<br /><br /> 2 4 4 2<br /><br /> 1 4 4 2<br /><br /> + 5 4 4 2<br /><br /> ----------<br /><br /> 9 3 2 6<br /><br /><br /> 4 1 1 4<br /><br /> 5 1 1 4<br /><br /> + 0 1 1 4<br /><br /> ----------<br /><br /> 9 3 4 2<br /><br />We have to fill number from 1 to 12 at the intersection point of two or more lines. We have to construct a star using two triangle. The sum of all number lying in straight lines should be same. This can be easilty understood by the fig. and hence solved.<br />Submitted by : Vaibhav Gupta <br />Submit<br />Answer<br /> <br />Users<br />Answer (3)<br /> <br />BrainVista<br />Answer<br /> <br />Puzzle A<br />Friend<br /> <br />Add to<br />Favourite<br /><br /><br /> <br /><br />We have one answer where sum of all the numbers lying in straight lines is 26. <br /><br />If you have others, do submit them.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00355<br /><br />Montu, Bantu, Chantu and Pintu have pets. <br /><br />Montu says, "If Pintu and I each have a dog, then exactly one of Bantu and Chantu has a dog." <br /><br />Bantu says, "If Chantu and I each have a cat, then exactly one of Montu and Pintu has a dog." <br /><br />Chantu says, "If Montu and I each have a dog, then exactly one of Bantu and Pintu has a cat." <br /><br />Pintu says, "If Bantu and I each have a cat, then exactly one of Bantu and I has a dog." <br /><br />Only one of the four is telling the truth. Who is telling the truth? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Bantu is telling the truth. <br /><br />For a IF-THEN statement to be false, IF part has to be true and THEN part has to be false. <br /><br />Since only one statement is true and remaining three are false, IF part of three statements are true & THEN part of one statement is true. Let's put the given information in table. The pet-name in the normal text represents the IF part and the pet-name in round brackets represents the THEN part. <br /> Montu Bantu Chantu Pintu<br />Montu says Dog (Dog) (Dog) Dog<br />Bantu says (Dog) Cat Cat (Dog)<br />Chantu says Dog (Cat) Dog (Cat)<br />Pintu says Cat<br />(Dog) Cat<br />(Dog)<br /><br />It is clear that the IF part of the statements made by Montu, Chantu and Pintu are true as they do not contradict each other. And the IF part of the statement made by Bantu is false. <br /><br />Thus, Bantu is telling the truth. <br /><br />Montu have a Dog and may or may not have a Cat. <br />Bantu have a Cat. <br />Chantu have a Dog. <br />Pintu have a Dog and a Cat.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00520<br /><br />Somebody marked the six faces of a die with the numbers 1, 2 and 3 - each number twice. The die was put on a table. Four people - Abu, Babu, Calu and Dabu - sat around the table so that each one was able to see only three sides of the die at a glance. <br />• Abu sees the number 1 and two even numbers. <br />• Babu and Calu can see three different numbers each. <br />• Dabu sees number 2 twice and he can't remember the third number.<br />What number is face down on the table? <br />Answer<br /><br />Number 3 is face down on the table. <br /><br />If Abu can see two even numbers i.e. number 2 twice, and if Dabu can see number 2 twice, then number 2 must be facing up. <br /><br />Now everything else is simple. (see the following diagram)<br /><br /> Dabu Abu<br /><br /><br /><br /> 1<br /><br /><br /><br /> 3 2 2<br /><br /><br /><br /> 1<br /><br /><br /><br /> Calu Babu<br />Thus, the number hidden from the view is number 3 and hence the answer.<br />Two identical pack of cards A and B are shuffled throughly. One card is picked from A and shuffled with B. The top card from pack A is turned up. If this is the Queen of Hearts, what are the chances that the top card in B will be the King of Hearts?<br />Answer<br /><br />52 / 2703 <br /><br />There are two cases to be considered. <br /><br />CASE 1 : King of Hearts is drawn from Pack A and shuffled with Pack B <br /><br />Probability of drawing King of Hearts from Pack A = 1/51 (as Queen of Hearts is not to be drawn) <br />Probability of having King of Hearts on the top of the Pack B = 2/53 <br /><br />So total probability of case 1 = (1/51) * (2/53) = 2 / (51 * 53) <br /><br />CASE 2 : King of Hearts is not drawn from Pack A <br /><br />Probability of not drawing King of Hearts from Pack A = 50/51 (as Queen of Hearts is not to be drawn) <br />Probability of having King of Hearts on the top of the Pack B = 1/53 <br /><br />So total probability of case 2 = (50/51) * (1/53) = 50 / (51 * 53) <br /><br />Now adding both the probability, the required probability is <br />= 2 / (51 * 53) + 50 / (51 * 53) <br />= 52 / (51 * 53) <br />= 52 / 2703 <br />= 0.0192378<br />How many possible combinations are there in a 3x3x3 rubics cube? <br /><br />In other words, if you wanted to solve the rubics cube by trying different combinations, how many might it take you (worst case senerio)? <br /><br />How many for a 4x4x4 cube?<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />There are 4.3252 * 10^19 possible combinations for 3x3x3 Rubics and 7.4012 * 10^45 possible combinations for 4x4x4 Rubics. <br /><br /><br />Let's consider 3x3x3 Rubics first. <br /><br />There are 8 corner cubes, which can be arranged in 8! ways. <br />Each of these 8 cubes can be turned in 3 different directions, so there are 3^8 orientations altogether. But if you get all but one of the corner cube into chosen positions and orientations, only one of 3 orientations of the final corner cube is possible. Thus, total ways corner cubes can be placed = (8!) * (3^8)/8 = (8!) * (3^7) <br /><br />Similarly, 12 edge cubes can be arranged in 12! ways. <br />Each of these 12 cubes can be turned in 2 different directions, so there are 2^12 orientations altogether. But if you get all but one of the edge cube into chosen positions and orientations, only one of 2 orientations of the final edge cube is possible. Thus, total ways edge cubes can be placed = (12!) * (2^12)/2 = (12!) * (2^11) <br /><br />Here, we have essentially pulled the cubes apart and stuck cubes back in place wherever we please. In reality, we can only move cubes around by turning the faces of the cubes. It turns out that you can't turn the faces in such a way as to switch the positions of two cubes while returning all the others to their original positions. Thus if you get all but two cubes in place, there is only one attainable choice for them (not 2!). Hence, we must divide by 2. <br /><br />Total different possible combinations are <br />= [(8!) * (3^7)] * [(12!) * (2^11)] / 2 <br />= (8!) * (3^7) * (12!) * (2^10) <br />= 4.3252 * 10^19 <br /><br /><br />Similarly, for 4x4x4 Rubics total different possible combinations are <br />= [(8!) * (3^7)] * [(24!)] * [(24!) / (4!^6)] / 24 <br />= 7.4011968 * 10^45 <br /><br />Note that there are 24 edge cubes, which you can not turn in 2 orientations (hence no 2^24 / 2). Also, there are 4 center cubes per face i.e. (24!) / (4!^6). You can switch 2 cubes without affecting the rest of the combination as 4*4*4 has even dimensions (hence no division by 2). But pattern on one side is rotated in 4 directions over 6 faces, hence divide by 24.<br /><br /> Brain Teaser No : 00528<br /><br />Substitute digits for the letters to make the following relation true.<br /> N E V E R<br /><br /> L E A V E<br /><br /> + M E<br /><br /> -----------------<br /><br /> A L O N E<br />Note that the leftmost letter can't be zero in any word. Also, there must be a one-to-one mapping between digits and letters. e.g. if you substitute 3 for the letter M, no other letter can be 3 and all other M in the puzzle must be 3. <br />Answer<br /><br />A tough one!!! <br /><br />Since R + E + E = 10 + E, it is clear that R + E = 10 and neither R nor E is equal to 0 or 5. This is the only entry point to <br /><br />solve it. Now use trial-n-error method.<br /><br /> N E V E R 2 1 4 1 9<br /><br /> L E A V E 3 1 5 4 1<br /><br /> + M E + 6 1<br /><br /> ----------------- -----------------<br /><br /> A L O N E 5 3 0 2 1<br />There are 20 people in your applicant pool, including 5 pairs of identical twins. <br /><br />If you hire 5 people randomly, what are the chances you will hire at least 1 pair of identical twins? (Needless to say, this could cause trouble ;))<br />SubmAnswer<br /><br />The probability to hire 5 people with at least 1 pair of identical twins is 25.28% <br /><br />5 people from the 20 people can be hired in 20C5 = 15504 ways. <br /><br />Now, divide 20 people into two groups of 10 people each : <br />G1 - with all twins <br />G2 - with all people other than twins <br /><br />Let's find out all possible ways to hire 5 people without a single pair of indentical twins. <br />People from G1 People from G2 No of ways to hire G1 without a single pair of indentical twins No of ways to hire G2 Total ways<br />0 5 10C0 10C5 252<br />1 4 10C1 10C4 2100<br />2 3 10C2 * 8/9 10C3 4800<br />3 2 10C3 * 8/9 * 6/8 10C2 3600<br />4 1 10C4 * 8/9 * 6/8 * 4/7 10C1 800<br />5 0 10C5 * 8/9 * 6/8 * 4/7 * 2/6 10C0 32<br />Total 11584<br /><br />Thus, total possible ways to hire 5 people without a single pair of indentical twins = 11584 ways <br /><br />So, total possible ways to hire 5 people with at least a single pair of indentical twins = 15504 - 11584 = 3920 ways <br /><br />Hence, the probability to hire 5 people with at least a single pair of indentical twins <br />= 3920/15504 <br />= 245/969 <br />= 0.2528 <br />= 25.28%itted<br />Veeru says to Jay, "Can you figure out how many Eggs I have in my bucket?" He gives 3 clues to Jay: If the number of Eggs I have <br />1. is a multiple of 5, it is a number between 1 and 19 <br />2. is not a multiple of 8, it is a number between 20 and 29 <br />3. is not a multiple of 10, it is a number between 30 and 39<br />How many Eggs does Veeru have in his bucket?<br />Answer<br /><br />32 eggs <br /><br />Let's apply all 3 condition separately and put all possible numbers together. <br /><br />First condition says that if multiple of 5, then the number is between 1 and 19. Hence, the possible numbers are (5, 10, 15, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39) <br /><br />Second condition says that if not a multiple of 8, then the number is between 20 and 29. Hence, the possible numbers are (8, 16, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 32) <br /><br />Third condition says that if not a multiple of 10, then the number is between 30 and 39. Hence, the possible numbers are (10, 20, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39) <br /><br />Only number 32 is there in all 3 result sets. That means that only number 32 satisfies all three conditions. Hence, Veeru have 32 eggs in his bucket.<br /><br />Submit<br />Answer<br /> <br />Users<br />Answer (14)<br /> <br />BrainV<br /><br /><br />Mr. Black, Mr. White and Mr. Grey were chatting in the Yahoo conference. They were wearing a black suit, a white suit and a grey suit, not necessarily in the same order. <br /><br />Mr. Grey sent message, "We all are wearing suit that are of the same color as our names but none of us is wearing a suit that is the same color as his name." <br /><br />On that a person wearing the white suit replied, "What difference does that make?" <br /><br />Can you tell what color suit each of the three persons had on?<br />Answer<br /><br />Mr. Grey is wearing Black suit. <br />Mr. White is wearing Grey suit. <br />Mr. Black is wearing White suit. <br /><br />Mr. Grey must not be wearing grey suit as that is the same colour as his name. Also, he was not wearing white suit as the person wearing white suit responded to his comment. So Mr Grey must be wearing a black suit. <br /><br />Similarly, Mr. White must be wearing either black suit or grey suit. But Mr. Grey is wearing a black suit. Hence, Mr. White must be wearing a grey suit. <br /><br />And, Mr. Black must be wearing white suit.<br />Substitute numbers for the letters so that the following mathematical expressions are correct.<br /> ABC DEF GHI<br /><br /> --- = IE --- = IE --- = IE<br /><br /> 3 6 9<br />Note that the same number must be used for the same letter whenever it appears.<br />Answer<br /><br />A=2, B=1, C=9, D=4, E=3, F=8, G=6, H=5, I=7 <br /><br />Let's start with GHI = 9 * IE. Note that I appears on both the side. Also, after multiplying IE by 9 the answer should have I at the unit's place. The possible values of IE are 19, 28, 37, 46, 55, 64, 73, 82 and 91; out of which only 64, 73 and 82 satisfies the condition. (as all alphabet should represent different digits) <br /><br />Now, consider DEF = 6 * IE. Out of three short-listed values, only 73 satisfies the equation. Also, ABC = 3 * IE is satisfied by 73. <br /><br />Hence, A=2, B=1, C=9, D=4, E=3, F=8, G=6, H=5, I=7<br /> 219 438 657<br /><br /> --- = 73 --- = 73 --- = 73<br /><br /> 3 6 9<br /><br />Brain Teaser No : 00374<br /><br />A, B, C and D are related to each other. <br />• One of the four is the opposite sex from each of the other three. <br />• D is A's brother or only daughter. <br />• A or B is C's only son. <br />• B or C is D's sister.<br />Answer<br /><br />A, B & D are males; C is female. B is C's only son. A & D are C's brothers.<br /> A(male) --- C(female) --- D(male)<br /><br /> |<br /><br /> |<br /><br /> B(male)<br />Work out which relation can hold and discard the contradictory options. <br /><br />From (2) and (4), D can not be a only daughter and have a sister (B or C). Hence, D is A's brother i.e. D is a Male. <br /><br />From (4), let's say that B is D's sister i.e. B is Female. <br />From (3), A is C's only son i.e. A is Male. <br />But D is A's brother which means that A is not C's only son. Hence, our assumption was wrong. <br /><br />Thus, C is D's sister i.e. C is Female. And B must be C's only son. <br /><br />Now it is clear that D & B are Males and C is Female. A must be a Male as only one of them is of opposite sex from each of the other three. And he is C & D's brother.How are they related to each other?<br /><br /><br />Dr. DoLittle always goes walking to the clinic and takes the same time while going and while coming back. One day he noticed something. <br /><br />When he left the home, the hour hand and the minute hand were exactly opposite to each other and when he reached the clinic, they were together. <br /><br />Similarly, when he left the clinic, the hour hand and the minute hand were together and when he reached the home, they were exactly opposite to each other. <br /><br />How much time does Dr. DoLittle take to reach home from the clinic? Give the minimal possible answer.<br />Answer<br /><br />32 minutes 43.6 seconds <br /><br />In twelve hours, the minute hand and the hour hand are together for 11 times. It means that after every 12/11 hours, both the hands are together. <br /><br />Similarly in twelve hours, the minute hand and the hour hand are exactly opposite to each other for 11 times. It means that after every 12/11 hours, both the hands are opposite. <br /><br />Now, let's take an example. We know that at 12 both the hands are together and at 6 both the hands are exactly opposite to each other. <br /><br />After 6, both the hands are in opposition at [6+(12/11)] hours, [6+2*(12/11)] hours, [6+3*(12/11)] hours and so on. The sixth such time is [6+6*(12/11)] hours which is the first time after 12. Thus after 12, both the hands are opposite to each other at 12:32:43.6 <br /><br />Hence, Dr. DoLittle takes 32 minutes and 43.6 seconds to reach home from the clinic.<br /><br /><br />SlowRun Express runs between Bangalore and Mumbai, For the up as well as the down journey, the train leaves the starting station at 10:00 PM everyday and reaches the destination at 11:30 PM after three days. <br /><br />Mr. Haani once travelled by SlowRun Express from Mumbai to Bangalore. How many SlowRun Express did he cross during his journey?<br />Answer<br /><br />Mr. Haani crossed 7 SlowRun Expresses during his journey. <br /><br />Let's say that Mr. Haani travelled by SlowRun Express on Wednesday 10:00PM from Mumbai. The first train he would have crossed is the one scheduled to arrive at Mumbai at 11:30 PM the same day i.e. the one that left Bangalore at 10:00 PM on last Sunday. <br /><br />Also, he would have crossed the last train just before reaching Bangalore on Saturday. <br /><br />Thus, Mr. Haani must have crossed 7 SlowRun Expresses during his journey.<br />Six cabins numbered 1-6 consecutively, are arranged in a row and are separated by thin dividers. These cabins must be assigned to six staff members based on following facts. <br />1. Miss Shalaka's work requires her to speak on the phone frequently throughout the day. <br />2. Miss Shudha prefers cabin number 5 as 5 is her lucky number. <br />3. Mr. Shaan and Mr. Sharma often talk to each other during their work and prefers to have adjacent cabins. <br />4. Mr. Sinha, Mr. Shaan and Mr. Solanki all smoke. Miss Shudha is allergic to smoke and must have non-smokers adjacent to her. <br />5. Mr. Solanki needs silence during work.<br />Can you tell the cabin numbers of each of them?<br />Answer<br /><br />The cabins from left to right (1-6) are of Mr. Solanki, Mr. Sinha, Mr. Shaan, Mr. Sharma, Miss Shudha and Miss Shalaka. <br /><br />From (2), cabin number 5 is assigned to Miss Shudha. <br /><br />As Miss Shudha is allergic to smoke and Mr. Sinha, Mr. Shaan & Mr. Solanki all smoke, they must be in cabin numbers 1, 2 and 3 not necessarily in the same order. Also, Miss Shalaka and Mr. Sharma must be in cabin 4 and 6. <br /><br />From (3), Mr. Shaan must be in cabin 3 and Mr. Sharma must be in cabin 4. Thus, Miss Shalaka is in cabin 6. <br /><br />As Mr. Solanki needs silence during work and Mr. Shaan is in cabin 3 who often talks to Mr. Sharma during work, Mr. Solanki must be in cabin 1. Hence, Mr. Sinha is in cabin 2. <br /><br />Thus, the cabins numbers are <br />1# Mr. Solanki, <br />2# Mr. Sinha, <br />3# Mr. Shaan, <br />4# Mr. Sharma, <br />5# Miss Shudha, <br />6# Miss Shalaka<br />SkyFi city is served by 6 subway lines - A, E, I, O, U and Z. <br />• When it snows, morning service on line E is delayed. <br />• When it rains or snows, service on the lines A, U and Z is delayed both morning and afternoon. <br />• When the temperature drops below 20 C, afternoon service is cancelled on either line A or line O, but not both. <br />• When the temperature rises above 40 C, afternoon service is cancelled on either line I or line Z, but not both. <br />• When service on line A is delayed or cancelled, service on line I is also delayed. <br />• When service on line Z is delayed or cancelled, service on line E is also delayed.<br />On February 10, it snows all day with the temperature at 18C. On how many lines service will be delayed or cancelled, including both morning and afternoon?<br />SkyFi city is served by 6 subway lines - A, E, I, O, U and Z. <br />• When it snows, morning service on line E is delayed. <br />• When it rains or snows, service on the lines A, U and Z is delayed both morning and afternoon. <br />• When the temperature drops below 20 C, afternoon service is cancelled on either line A or line O, but not both. <br />• When the temperature rises above 40 C, afternoon service is cancelled on either line I or line Z, but not both. <br />• When service on line A is delayed or cancelled, service on line I is also delayed. <br />• When service on line Z is delayed or cancelled, service on line E is also delayed.<br />On February 10, it snows all day with the temperature at 18C. On how many lines service will be delayed or cancelled, including both morning and afternoon?<br />In a certain game, if 2 wixsomes are worth 3 changs, and 4 changs are worth 1 plut, then 6 plutes are worth how many wixsomes?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />It is given that <br />2 wixsomes = 3 changs <br />8 wixsomes = 12 changs ----- (I) <br /><br />Also, given that <br />4 changs = 1 plut <br />12 changs = 3 plutes <br />8 wixsomes = 3 plutes ----- From (I) <br /><br />Therefore, <br />6 plutes = 16 wixsomes<br /><br />In a certain year, the number of girls who graduated from City High School was twice the number of boys. If 3/4 of the girls and 5/6 of the boys went to college immediately after graduation, what fraction of the graduates that year went to college immediately after graduation?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Assume that number of boys graduated from City High School = B <br />Therefore, number of girls graduated from City High School = 2*B <br /><br />It is given that 3/4 of the girls and 5/6 of the boys went to college immediately after graduation. <br />Hence, total students went to college <br />= (3/4)(2*B) + (5/6)(B) <br />= B * (3/2 + 5/6) <br />= (7/3)B <br /><br />Fraction of the graduates that year went to college immediately after graduation <br />= [(7/3)B] / [3*B] <br />= 7/9 <br /><br />Therefore, the answer is 7/9<br /><br />A mule and a donkey were carrying full sacks on their backs. <br /><br />The mule started complaining that his load was too heavy. The donkey said to him "Why are you complaining? If you gave me one of your sacks I'd have double what you have and if I give you one of my sacks we'd have an even amount." <br /><br />How many sacks were each of them carrying? Give the minimal possible answer.<br />SubmittAnswer<br /><br />The mule was carrying 5 sacks and the donkey was carrying 7 sacks. <br /><br />Let's assume that the mule was carrying M sacks and the donkey was carrying D sacks. <br /><br />As the donkey told the mule, "If you gave me one of your sacks I'd have double what you have." <br />D + 1 = 2 * (M-1) <br />D + 1 = 2M - 2 <br />D = 2M - 3 <br /><br />The donkey also said, "If I give you one of my sacks we'd have an even amount." <br />D - 1 = M + 1 <br />D = M + 2 <br /><br />Comparing both the equations, <br />2M - 3 = M + 2 <br />M = 5 <br /><br />Substituting M=5 in any of above equation, we get D=7 <br /><br />Hence, the mule was carrying 5 sacks and the donkey was carrying 7 sacks.<br />edTwo people enter a race in whick you run to a point and back. Person A runs 20 mph to and from the point. Person B runs to the point going 10 mph and 30 mph going back. <br /><br />Who came in first?<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />Person A came in first. <br /><br />Let's assume that the distance between start and the point is D miles. <br /><br />Total time taken by Person A to finish <br />= (D/20) + (D/20) <br />= D/10 <br />= 0.1D <br /><br />Total time taken by Person B to finish <br />= (D/10) + (D/30) <br />= 2D/15 <br />= 0.1333D <br /><br />Thus, Person A is the Winner. <br /><br /><br /><br />Alternatively (if you don't like mathematics ;)), analyse the situation as follow: <br /><br />Note that initially speed of Person A (20 mph) was twice the speed of Person B (10 mph). Hence, when Person A (20 mph forward) reached the point, Person B (10 mph forward) was halfway. When Person A (20 mph back) finished, Person B (still 10 mph forward) reached the point. <br /><br />Thus, Person A wins the race and by that time Person B covers only half the distance, no matter how far the point is!!!<br />Mark ate half of a pizza on Monday. He ate half of what was left on Tuesday and so on. He followed this pattern for one week. <br /><br />How much of the pizza would he have eaten during the week?<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />Mark would have ate 127/128 (99.22%) of the pizza during the week. <br /><br />Mark ate half the pizza on Monday. On Tuesday, he would have ate half of the remaining pizza i.e. 1/4 of the original pizza. Similarly, he would have ate 1/8 of the original pizza on Wednesday and so on for the seven days. <br /><br />Total pizza Mark ate during the week is <br />= 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 + 1/16 + 1/32 + 1/64 + 1/128 <br />= 127/128 <br />= 99.22% of the original pizza<br />In the General meeting of "Friends Club", Sameer said, "The repairs to the Club will come to a total of Rs 3120 and I propose that this amount should be met by the members, each paying an equal amount." <br /><br />The proposal was immediately agreed. However, four members of the Club chose to resign, leaving the remaining members to pay an extra Rs 26 each. <br /><br />How many members did the Club originally have?<br />Answer<br /><br />The Club originally had 24 members. <br /><br />Assume that there were initially N members. <br /><br />As 4 members resigned and remaining members paid Rs 26 each, it means that total amount of 4 members is equal to Rs 26 each from remaining (N-4) members. Thus, <br /><br />4 * (3120 / N) = 26 * (N - 4) <br />12480 = 26N2 - 104N <br />26N2 - 104N - 12480 = 0 <br /><br />Solving the quadratic equation we get N=24. <br /><br />Hence, the Club originally had 24 members.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00206<br /><br />A tank can be filled by pipe A in 30 minutes and by pipe B in 24 minutes. Outlet pipe C can empty the full tank in one hour and twenty minutes. <br /><br />If the tank is empty initially and if all the three pipes A, B and C are opened simultaneously, in how much time will the tank be full? <br />Answer<br /><br />The tank will be full in 16 minutes. <br /><br />In one minute, <br />pipe A can fill 1/30 part of the tank. <br />pipe B can fill 1/24 part of the tank. <br />pipe C can empty 1/80 part of the tank. <br /><br />Thus, the net water level in one minute is <br />= 1/30 + 1/24 - 1/80 <br />= 15/240 part of the tank <br /><br />Hence, the tank will be full in 240/15 i.e. 16 minutes.<br /><br />A rich old Arab has three sons. When he died, he willed his 17 camels to the sons, to be divided as follows: <br /><br />First Son to get 1/2 of the camels Second Son to get 1/3rd of the camels Third Son to get 1/9th of the camels. <br /><br />The sons are sitting there trying to figure out how this can possibly be done, when a very old wise man goes riding by. They stop him and ask him to help them solve their problem. Without hesitation he divides the camels properly and continues riding on his way. <br /><br />How did he do it?<br />Answer<br /><br />The old man temporarily added his camel to the 17, making a total of 18 camels. <br /><br />First son got 1/2 of it = 9 <br /><br />Second son got 1/3 of it = 6 <br /><br />Third son got 1/9 of it = 2 <br /><br />For a total of 17. He then takes his camel back and rides away......<br /><br /><br />There were two men standing on a street. The one says to the other, "I have 3 daughters, the product of their ages is 36. What is the age of the OLDEST daughter?" <br /><br />The second guy says, "I need more information." So, the first guy says, "The sum of their ages is equal to the address of the house across the street." <br /><br />The second guy looks at the address and says, "I still need more information." So, the first guy says, "My oldest daughter wears a red dress."<br />Answer<br /><br />The answer is 9 years. <br /><br />First you need to find all the possible sets of three numbers that when multiplied equals 36: <br /><br />1 1 36 <br />1 2 18 <br />1 3 12 <br />1 4 9 <br />1 6 6 <br />2 2 9 <br />2 3 6 <br />3 3 4 <br /><br />Then you add the numbers together to find the sum <br />1 1 36 = 38 <br />1 2 18 = 21 <br />1 3 12 = 16 <br />1 4 9 = 14 <br />1 6 6 = 13 <br />2 2 9 = 13 <br />2 3 6 = 11 <br />3 3 4 = 10 <br /><br />Even though we don't know the address the guy knows it. For him to need more information that means that at least two of the sets of numbers has the same sum. Two of them do, 1 6 6 and 2 2 9. <br /><br />When the first guy said that his OLDEST daugher wears a red dress that meant that there had to be the oldest. So 1 6 6 can't possibly be the answer. So the possible possiblity is 2 2 9 and the OLDEST daughter is 9 years old. <br /><br />Therefore, the answer is 9.<br /><br />Submit<br />Answer<br /> <br />User<br /><br />There are 3 colored boxes - Red, Green and Blue. Each box contains 2 envelopes. Each envelope contains money - two of them contain Rs. 25000 each, two of them contain Rs. 15000 each and remaining two contain Rs. 10000 each. <br /><br />There is one statement written on the cover of each box. <br />* Red Box: Both, a red box and a blue box contain Rs. 10000 each. <br />* Green Box: Both, a green box and a red box contain Rs. 25000 each. <br />* Blue Box: Both, a blue box and a green box contain Rs. 15000 each. <br /><br />Only one of the above 3 statements is true and the corresponding box contains the maximum amount. <br /><br />Can you tell which box contains the maximum amount and how much?<br />Answer<br /><br />Blue box contains the maximum amount Rs. 40000 <br /><br />As it is given that only one of the given 3 statements is true; assume in turn, each statement to be true & the other 2 false and check whether the corresponding box contains the maximum amount. <br /><br />Let's assume that the statement on the Blue box is true. Thus, the given 3 statements can be interpreted as <br />* Atmost one, a red box or a blue box contains Rs. 10000. <br />* Atmost one, a green box or a red box contains Rs. 25000. <br />* Both, a blue box and a green box contain Rs. 15000 each. <br /><br />Going through all possible combinations, we can conclude that <br />Red Box : Rs. 10000 + Rs. 25000 = Rs. 35000 <br />Green Box : Rs. 10000 + Rs. 15000 = Rs. 25000 <br />Blue Box : Rs. 15000 + Rs. 25000 = Rs. 40000 <br /><br />You can test out for other two statements i.e. assuming Red box statement true and then Green box statement true. In both the cases, other statements will contradict the true statement.<br /><br />Sachin, Dravid and Ganguly played in a Cricket match between India and England. <br />• None of them scored more than 99 runs. <br />• If you add the digits of the runs scored by Sachin to his own score, you will get the runs scored by Dravid. <br />• If you reverse the digits of the runs scored by Dravid, you will get the runs scored by Ganguly. <br />• The total runs scored by them is 240.<br />Can you figure out their individual scores?<br />Answer<br /><br />Sachin, Dravid and Ganguly scored 75, 87 and 78 respectively. <br /><br />Sachin's score must be less than 86, otherwise Dravid's score would be more than 99. Also, he must have scored atleast 42 - incase Dravid and Ganguly scored 99 each. <br /><br />Also, as none of them scored more than 99 and the total runs scored by them is 240; their individual scores must be around 80. <br /><br />Now, use trial-n-error method to solve the teaser.<br />Three men, including Gianni and three woman, including Sachi are in line at the BrentWood post office. Each has two different pieces of business to conduct. <br />1. The first person is a woman. <br />2. Carlos wants to send an overnight package. <br />3. Lau is just ahead of Pimentelli who is the same sex as Lau. <br />4. Gianni is two places ahead of the person who wants to buy stamps. <br />5. Knutson - who is the opposite sex than Rendler - isn't the person who wanted to complain about a mail carrier. <br />6. The six people, not necessarily in the same order are - Anthony, Donna, the person who wants to fill out a change-of-address form, the one who wants to buy a money order, the one who wants to send Airmail to Tibet and the second person in the line. <br />7. The four tasks of the last two people in line, not necessarily in the same order are - sending books fourth class, buying a money order, picking up a package and complaining about a mail carrier. <br />8. The person who wants to send books fourth class is just behind a person of the same sex. <br />9. Mary is just behind a person who wants to send an insured package. <br />10. The person who wants to send Airmail to Tibet is either two places ahead of or two places behind the one who wants to add postage to his or her meter. <br />11. Anthony isn't two places behind the who wants to pickup a registered letter. <br />12. Toriseza is two places ahead of the person who wants to pick up a package. <br />13. Knutson isn't just ahead of the person who wants to send an item parcel post.<br />Can you figure out where each customer is in the line, his or her full name (one surname is Loti) and the two things he or she wants to accomplish? Provide your answer is POSITION - FIRST NAME - LAST NAME - BUSINESS format. <br />Submit<br />Answer<br /> <br />Users<br />Answer (8)<br /> <br /><br /><br />Answer<br /><br />A very TOUGH puzzle !!! <br />POS FIRST NAME LAST NAME BUSINESS<br />1 Sachi Loti • Fill Out a Change-of-Address Form<br />• Add Postage to Meter<br />2 Gianni Lau • Pick Up a Registered Letter<br />• Send an Item Parcel Post<br />3 Carlos Pimentelli • Overnight Package<br />• Send Airmail to Tibet<br />4 Donna Toriseza • Buy Stamps<br />• Send an Insured Package<br />5 Mary Knutson • Buy a Money Order<br />• Send Books fourth Class<br />6 Anthony Rendler • Complain About a Mail Carrier<br />• Pick Up a Package<br /><br /> Brain Teaser No : 00164<br /><br />Substitute digits for the letters to make the following relation true.<br /> W O R L D<br /><br /> + T R A D E<br /><br /> -------------<br /><br /> C E N T E R<br />Note that the leftmost letter can't be zero in any word. Also, there must be a one-to-one mapping between digits and letters. e.g. if you substitute 3 for the letter W, no other letter can be 3 and all other W in the puzzle must be 3. <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />A tough one. <br /><br />It is obvious that C=1. Also, the maximum possible value of E is 7. Now, start putting possible values of D, E and R as they occure frequently and use trial-n-error.<br /><br /> W O R L D 5 3 6 8 4<br /><br /> + T R A D E + 7 6 0 4 2<br /><br /> ------------ ------------<br /><br /> C E N T E R 1 2 9 7 2 6 <br /> Brain Teaser No : 00107<br /><br />If you look at a clock and the time is 3:15. <br /><br />What is the angle between the hour and the minute hands? ( The answer to this is not zero!) <br />Answer<br /><br />7.5 degrees <br /><br />At 3:15 minute hand will be perfactly horizontal pointing towards 3. Whereas hour hand will be towards 4. Also, hour hand must have covered 1/4 of angle between 3 and 4. <br /><br />The angle between two adjacent digits is 360/12 = 30 degrees. <br /><br />Hence 1/4 of it is 7.5 degrees.<br />An apple vendor has 1000 apples and 10 empty boxes. He asks his son to place all the 1000 apples in all the 10 boxes in such a manner that if he asks for any number of apples from 1 to 1000, his son should be able to pick them in terms of boxes. <br /><br />How did the son place all the apples among the 10 boxes, given that any number of apples can be put in one box.<br />Answer<br /><br />1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 489 <br /><br />Let's start from scratch. <br />• The apple vandor can ask for only 1 apple, so one box must contain 1 apple. <br />• He can ask for 2 apples, so one box must contain 2 apples. <br />He can ask for 3 apples, in that case box one and box two will add up to 3. <br />• He can ask for 4 apples, so one box i.e. third box must contain 4 apples. <br />• Now using box number one, two and three containing 1, 2 and 4 apples respectively, his son can give upto 7 apples. Hence, forth box must contain 8 apples. <br />• Similarly, using first four boxes containing 1, 2, 4 and 8 apples, his son can give upto 15 apples. Hence fifth box must contain 16 apples. <br />• You must have noticed one thing till now that each box till now contains power of 2 apples. Hence the answer is 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 489. This is true for any number of apples, here in our case only upto 1000.<br /><br /> Brain Teaser No : 00261<br /><br />The letters P, Q, R, S, T, U and V, not necessarily in that order represents seven consecutive integers from 22 to 33. <br />• U is as much less than Q as R is greater than S. <br />• V is greater than U. <br />• Q is the middle term. <br />• P is 3 greater than S.<br />Can you find the sequence of letters from the lowest value to the highest value? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />The sequence of letters from the lowest value to the highest value is TUSQRPV. <br /><br />From (3), Q is the middle term. <br />___ ___ ___ _Q_ ___ ___ ___ <br /><br />From (4), there must be exactly 2 numbers between P and S which gives two possible positions. <br /><br />[1] ___ _S_ ___ _Q_ _P_ ___ ___ <br /><br />[2] ___ ___ _S_ _Q_ ___ _P_ ___ <br /><br /><br />From (1), the number of letters between U and Q must be same as the number of letters between S and R. Also, the number of letters between them can be 1, 2 or 3. <br /><br />Using trial and error, it can be found that there must be 2 letters between them. Also, it is possible only in option [2] above. <br /><br />[2] ___ _U_ _S_ _Q_ _R_ _P_ ___ <br /><br />From (2) V must be the highest and the remaining T must be the lowest number. <br /><br />_T_ _U_ _S_ _Q_ _R_ _P_ _V_ <br /><br />Thus, the sequence of letters from the lowest value to the highest value is TUSQRPV.<br />A contractor had employed 100 labourers for a flyover construction task. He did not allow any woman to work without her husband. Also, atleast half the men working came with their wives. <br /><br />He paid five rupees per day to each man, four ruppes to each woman and one rupee to each child. He gave out 200 rupees every evening. <br /><br />How many men, women and children were working with the constructor?<br />Answer<br /><br />16 men, 12 women and 72 children were working with the constructor. <br /><br />Let's assume that there were X men, Y women and Z children working with the constructor. Hence, <br /><br />X + Y + Z = 100 <br />5X + 4Y + Z = 200 <br /><br />Eliminating X and Y in turn from these equations, we get <br />X = 3Z - 200 <br />Y = 300 - 4Z <br /><br />As if woman works, her husband also works and atleast half the men working came with their wives; the value of Y lies between X and X/2. Substituting these limiting values in equations, we get <br /><br />if Y = X, <br />300 - 4Z = 3Z - 200 <br />7Z = 500 <br />Z = 500/7 i.e. 71.428 <br /><br />if Y = X/2, <br />300 - 4Z = (3Z - 200)/2 <br />600 - 8Z = 3Z - 200 <br />11Z = 800 <br />Z = 800/11 i.e. 72.727 <br /><br />But Z must be an integer, hence Z=72. Also, X=16 and Y=12 <br /><br />There were 16 men, 12 women and 72 children working with the constructor.<br /><br />Because cigars cannot be entirely smoked, a Bobo who collects cigar butts can make a cigar to smoke out of every 3 butts that he finds. <br /><br />Today, he has collected 27 cigar butts. How many cigars will he be able to smoke?<br />Answer<br /><br />13 not 12 <br /><br />He makes 9 originals from the 27 butts he found, and after he smokes them he has 9 butts left for another 3 cigars. And then he has 3 butts for another cigar. <br /><br />So 9+3+1=13<br />In a small town, there are three temples in a row and a well in front of each temple. A pilgrim came to the town with certain number of flowers. <br /><br />Before entering the first temple, he washed all the flowers he had with the water of well. To his surprise, flowers doubled. He offered few flowers to the God in the first temple and moved to the second temple. Here also, before entering the temple he washed the remaining flowers with the water of well. And again his flowers doubled. He offered few flowers to the God in second temple and moved to the third temple. Here also, his flowers doubled after washing them with water. He offered few flowers to the God in third temple. <br /><br />There were no flowers left when pilgrim came out of third temple and he offered same number of flowers to the God in all three temples. <br /><br />What is the minimum number of flowers the pilgrim had initially? How many flower did he offer to each God?<br />Answer<br /> <br /><br />The pilgrim had 7 flowers, initially and he offered 8 flowers to each God. <br /><br />Assume that the pilgrim had X flowers initially and he offered Y flowers to each God. <br /><br />From the above figure, there are (8X - 7Y) flowers when the pilgrim came out of the third temple. But it is given that there were no flowers left when he came out of third temple. It means that <br />(8X - 7Y) = 0 <br />8X = 7Y <br /><br />The minimum values of X and Y are 7 and 8 respectively to satisfy above equation. Hence, the pilgrim had 7 flowers and he offered 8 flowers to each God. <br /><br />In general, the pilgrim had 7N flowers initially and he offered 8N flowers to each God, where N = 1, 2, 3, 4, .....<br /><br /> Brain Teaser No : 00432<br /><br />Tanya wants to go on a date and prefers her date to be tall, dark and handsome. <br />1. Of the preferred traits - tall, dark and handsome - no two of Adam, Bond, Cruz and Dumbo have the same number. <br />2. Only Adam or Dumbo is tall and fair. <br />3. Only Bond or Cruz is short and handsome. <br />4. Adam and Cruz are either both tall or both short. <br />5. Bond and Dumbo are either both dark or both fair.<br />Who is Tanya's date? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Cruz is Tanya's date. <br /><br />As no two of them have the same number of preferred traits - from (1), exactly one of them has none of the preferred traits and exactly one of them has all the preferred traits. <br /><br />From (4) and (5), there are only two possibilities: <br />* Adam & Cruz both are tall and Bond & Dumbo both are fair. <br />* Adam & Cruz both are short and Bond & Dumbo both are dark. <br /><br />But from (2), second possibility is impossible. So the first one is the correct possibility i.e. Adam & Cruz both are tall and Bond & Dumbo both are fair. <br /><br />Then from (3), Bond is short and handsome. <br /><br />Also, from (1) and (2), Adam is tall and fair. Also, Dumbo is the person without any preferred traits. Cruz is Dark. Adam and Cruz are handsome. Thus, following are the individual preferred traits: <br /><br />Cruz - Tall, Dark and Handsome <br />Adam - Tall and Handsome <br />Bond - Handsome <br />Dumbo - None :-( <br /><br />Hence, Cruz is Tanya's date.<br />Consider a game of Tower of Hanoi (like the one that you can play on BrainVista). <br /><br />If the tower has 2 discs, the least possible moves with which you can move the entire tower to another peg is 3. <br /><br />If the tower has 3 discs, the least possible moves with which you can move the entire tower to another peg is 7. <br /><br />What is the least possible moves with which you can move the entire tower to another peg if the tower has N discs?<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />There are number of ways to find the answer. <br /><br />To move the largest disc (at level N) from one tower to the other, it requires 2(N-1) moves. Thus, to move N discs from one tower to the other, the number of moves required is <br />= 2(N-1) + 2(N-2) + 2(N-3) + ..... + 22 + 21 + 20 <br />= 2N - 1 <br /><br /><br />For N discs, the number of moves is one more than two times the number of moves for N-1 discs. Thus, the recursive function is <br />F(1) = 1 <br />F(N) = 2*[F(N-1)] + 1 <br />where N is the total number of discs <br /><br /><br />Also, one can arrive at the answer by finding the number of moves for smaller number of discs and then derive the pattern. <br />For 1 disc, number of moves = 1 <br />For 2 discs, number of moves = 3 <br />For 3 discs, number of moves = 7 <br />For 4 discs, number of moves = 15 <br />For 5 discs, number of moves = 31 <br /><br />Thus, the pattern is 2N – 1<br />A boy found that he had a 48 inch strip of paper. He could cut an inch off every second. <br /><br />How long would it take for him to cut 48 pieces? He can not fold the strip and also, can not stack two or more strips and cut them together.<br />SubmiAnswer<br /><br />47 seconds. <br /><br />To get 48 pieces, the boy have to put only 47 cuts. i.e. he can cut 46 pieces in 46 seconds. After getting 46 pieces, he will have a 2 inches long piece. He can cut it into two with just a one cut in 1 second. Hence, total of 47 seconds.tted by : Kimi<br /><br />The cricket match between India and Pakistan was over. <br />• Harbhajan scored more runs than Ganguly. <br />• Sachin scored more runs than Laxman but less than Dravid <br />• Badani scored as much runs as Agarkar but less than Dravid and more than Sachin. <br />• Ganguly scored more runs than either Agarkar or Dravid. <br />Each batsman scored 10 runs more than his immediate batsman. The lowest score was 10 runs. How much did each one of them score<br />Answer<br /><br />A simple one. Use the given facts and put down all the players in order. The order is as follow with Harbhajan, the highest scorer and Laxman, the lowest scorer. <br />1. Harbhajan <br />2. Ganguly <br />3. Dravid <br />4. Badani, Agarkar <br />5. Sachin <br />6. Laxman <br />Also, as the lowest score was 10 runs. Laxman must have scored 10, Sachin 20, Badani & Agarkar 30 and so on. <br />1. Harbhajan - 60 runs <br />2. Ganguly - 50 runs <br />3. Dravid - 40 runs <br />4. Badani, Agarkar - 30 runs each <br />5. Sachin - 20 runs <br />6. Laxman - 10 runs <br />There are 10 statements written on a piece of paper: <br />1. At least one of statements 9 and 10 is true. <br />2. This either is the first true or the first false statement. <br />3. There are three consecutive statements, which are false. <br />4. The difference between the numbers of the last true and the first true statement divides the number, that is to be found. <br />5. The sum of the numbers of the true statements is the number, that is to be found. <br />6. This is not the last true statement. <br />7. The number of each true statement divides the number, that is to be found. <br />8. The number that is to be found is the percentage of true statements. <br />9. The number of divisors of the number, that is to be found, (apart from 1 and itself) is greater than the sum of the numbers of the true statements. <br />10. There are no three consecutive true statements. <br />Find the minimal possible number?<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />The numebr is 420. <br /><br />If statement 6 is false, it creates a paradox. Hence, Statement 6 must be true. <br /><br />Consider Statement 2: <br />• If it is true, it must be the first true statement. Otherwise, it creates a paradox. <br />• If it is false, it must be the second false statement. Otherwise, it creates a paradox.<br />In both the cases, Statement 1 is false. <br /><br />As Statement 1 is false, Statement 9 and Statement 10 both are false i.e. there are three consecutive true statements. <br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10<br />False - - - - True - - False False<br /><br />Let\'s assume that Statement 3 is false i.e. there are no three consecutive false statements. It means that Statement 2 and Statement 8 must be true, else there will be three consecutive false statements. <br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10<br />False True False - - True - True False False<br /><br />Also, atleast two of Statements 4, 5 and 7 must be true as there are three consecutive true statements. <br /><br />According to Statement 8, the number that is to be found is the percentage of true statements. Hence, number is either 50 or 60. Now if Statement 7 is true, then the number of each true statement divides the number, that is to be found. But 7 and 8 do not divide either 50 or 60. Hence, Statement 7 is false which means that Statement 4 and 5 are true. But Statement 5 contradicts the Statement 8. Hence, our assumption that Statement 3 is false is wrong and Statement 3 is true i.e. there are 3 consecutive false statements which means that Statement 8 is false as there is no other possibilities of 3 consecutive false statements. <br /><br />Also, Statement 7 is true as Statement 6 is not the last true statement. <br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10<br />False - True - - True True False False False<br /><br />According to Statement 7, the number of each true statement divides the number, that is to be found. And according to Statement 5, the sum of the numbers of the true statements is the number, that is to be found. For all possible combinations Statement 5 is false. <br /><br />There 3 consecutive true statements. Hence, Statement 2 and Statement 4 are true. <br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10<br />False True True True False True True False False False<br /><br />Now, the conditions for the number to be found are: <br />1. The numebr is divisible by 5 (Statement 4) <br />2. The numebr is divisible by 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 (Statement 7) <br />3. The number of divisors of the number, that is to be found, (apart from 1 and itself) is not greater than the sum of the numbers of the true statements. (Statement 9)<br />The minimum possible number is 420. <br /><br />The divisors of 420, apart from 1 and itself are 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 20, 21, 28, 30, 35, 42, 60, 70, 84, 105, 140, 210. There are total of 22 divisors. Also, the sum of the numbers of the true statements is 22 (2+3+4+6+7=22), which satisfies the third condition.<br />Ankit and Tejas divided a bag of Apples between them. <br /><br />Tejas said, "It's not fair! You have 3 times as many Apples I have." Ankit said, "OK, I will give you one Apple for each year of your age." Tejas replied, "Still not fair. Now, you have twice as many Apples as I have." "Dear, that's fair enough as I am twice older than you.", said Ankit. <br /><br />Ankit went to Kitchen to drink water. While Ankit was in Kitchen, Tejas took apples from Ankit's pile equal to Ankit's age. <br /><br />Who have more apples now?<br />Answer<br /><br />At the end, Ankit and Tejas, both have the same number of apples. <br /><br />Let's assume that initially Tejas got N apples and his age is T years. Hence, initially Ankit got 3N apples and his age is 2T years. <br />Operation Ankit's Apples Tejas's Apples<br />Initially 3N N<br />Ankit gave T apples to Tejas<br />(equals age of Tejas) 3N - T N + T<br />Tejas took 2T apples from Ankit's pile<br />(equals age of Ankit) 3N - 3T N + 3T<br /><br />It is given that after Ankit gave T apples to Tejas, Ankit had twice as many apples as Tejas had. <br />3N - T = 2*(N + T) <br />3N - T = 2N + 2T <br />N = 3T <br /><br />From the table, at the end Ankit have (3N - 3T) apples and Tejas have (N + 3T) apples. Substituting N = 3T, we get <br />Ankit's apples = 3N - 3T = 9T - 3T = 6T <br />Tejas's apples = N + 3T = 3T + 3T = 6T <br /><br />Thus, at the end Ankit and Tejas, both have the same number of apples.<br /><br />On evey Sunday Amar, Akbar and Anthony lunch together at Preetam-Da-Dhaba where they order lassi based on following facts. <br />1. Unless neither Amar nor Akbar have lassi, Anthony must have it. <br />2. If Amar does not have lassi, either Akbar or Anthony or both have it. <br />3. Anthony has lassi only if either Amar or Akbar or both have it. <br />4. Akbar and Anthony never have lassi together.<br />Who order(s) lassi?<br />Answer<br /><br />Amar and Anthony both have lassi whereas Akbar never does. <br /><br />Fact (2) can be alternatively stated that "either Amar or Akbar or Anthony must have lassi". <br /><br />From Fact (3), it can be infered that either Amar or Akbar must have lassi. <br /><br />Now, from Fact (1), it is apparent that Anthony too must have lassi. But according to Fact (4), Akbar cannot have lassi when Anthony does.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00191<br /><br />Decipher this sentence.<br /><br /> B R W Q H L F K W H J K Q I B W K <br /><br /><br /><br /> Q I C E D W Z B G W K K M I K E<br /><br /><br /><br /> Z B G Q H S K Z B G J K Z K W<br /><br /><br /><br /> B U U Z B G J D B H F W.<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Start with ZBG and ZBGJ. It should be either "the/then" or "you/your" combination as they appear more.<br /><br /> B R W Q H L F K W H J K Q I B W K <br /><br /> o b s t a c l e s a r e t h o s e<br /><br /><br /><br /> Q I C E D W Z B G W K K M I K E<br /><br /> t h i n g s y o u s e e w h e n<br /><br /><br /><br /> Z B G Q H S K Z B G J K Z K W<br /><br /> y o u t a k e y o u r e y e s<br /><br /><br /><br /> B U U Z B G J D B H F W.<br /><br /> o f f y o u r g o a l s.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00001<br /><br />At what time immediately prior to Six O'clock the hands of the clock are exactly opposite to each other. Give the exact time in hours, minutes and seconds. <br />Answer<br /><br />It is obvious that between 5 O'clock and 6 O'clock the hands will not be exactly opposite to each other. It is also obvious that the hands will be opposite to each other just before 5 O'clock. Now to find exact time: <br /><br />The hour hand moves 1 degree for every 12 degrees that the minute hand moves. Let the hour hand be X degree away from 5 O'clock. Therefore the minute hand is 12X degree away from 12 O'clock. <br /><br />Therefore solving for X <br /><br />Angle between minute hand and 12 O'clock + Angle between 12 O'clock and 4 O'clock + Angle between 4 O'clock and hour hand = 180 <br />12X + 120 + (30-X) = 180 <br />11X = 30 <br />Hence X = 30/11 degrees <br />(hour hand is X degree away from 5 O'clock) <br /><br />Now each degree the hour hand moves is 2 minutes. <br /><br />Therefore minutes are <br />= 2 * 30/11 <br />= 60/11 <br />= 5.45 (means 5 minutes 27.16 seconds) <br /><br />Therefore the exact time at which the hands are opposite to each other is <br />= 4 hrs. 54 min. 32.74 seconds<br /><br />Ali Baba had four sons, to whom he bequeathed his 39 camels, with the proviso that the legacy be divided in the following way : <br /><br />The oldest son was to receive one half the property, the next a quarter, the third an eighth and the youngest one tenth. The four brothers were at a loss as how to divide the inheritance among themselves without cutting up a camel, until a stranger appeared upon the scene. <br />Dismounting from his camel, he asked if he might help, for he knew just what to do. The brothers gratefully accepted his offer. <br /><br />Adding his own camel to Ali Baba's 39, he divided the 40 as per the will. The oldest son received 20, the next 10, the third 5 and the youngest 4. One camel remained : this was his, which he mounted and rode away. <br /><br />Scratching their heads in amazement, they started calculating. The oldest thought : is not 20 greater than the half of 39? Someone must have received less than his proper share ! But each brother discovered that he had received more than his due. How is it possible?<br />Answer<br /><br />They took their percentages from 40 and not from 39, so they got more than their share. <br /><br />The oldest son got 1/2 of 40 = 20 which is 0.5 more <br />The second son got 1/4 of 40 = 10 which is 0.25 more <br />The third son got 1/8 of 40 = 5 which is 0.125 more <br />The youngest son got 1/10 of 40 = 4 which is 0.1 more <br /><br />And the stranger got 1/40 of 40 = 1 which is 0.025 more (As he is not supposed to get anything) <br /><br />All these fractions add to = 0.5 + 0.25 + 0.125 + 0.1 + 0.025 = 1 which stranger took away.<br />There is a family party consisting of two fathers, two mothers, two sons, one father-in-law, one mother-in-law, one daughter-in-law, one grandfather, one grandmother and one grandson. <br /><br />What is the minimum number of persons required so that this is possible?<br />Answer<br /><br />There are total 2 couples and a son. Grandfather and Grand mother, their son and his wife and again their son. So total 5 people. <br /><br />Grandfather, Grandmother <br />| <br />| <br />Son, wife <br />| <br />| <br />Son<br /><br /><br />A man went into a fast food restaurant and ate a meal costing Rs. 105, giving the accountant a Rs. 500 note. He kept the change, came back a few minutes later and had some food packed for his girl friend. He gave the accountant a Rs. 100 note and received Rs. 20 in change. Later the bank told the accountant that both the Rs. 500 and the Rs. 100 notes were counterfeit. <br /><br />How much money did the restaurant lose? Ignore the profit of the food restaurant.<br />Answer<br /><br />He lost Rs.600 <br /><br />First time restaurant has given food worth Rs.105 and Rs. 395 change. Similarly second time, food worth Rs.80 and Rs.20 change. Here, we are not considering food restaurant profits.<br /><br /> S L I D E<br /><br /> - D E A N<br /><br /> ---------<br /><br /> 3 6 5 1<br />Each of seven digits from 0-9 are represented by a different letter above such that the subtraction is true. <br /><br />What word represents 3651?<br />Answer<br /><br />3651 represents LENS. <br /><br />Let's assign possible values to each letter and then use trial-n-error. <br /><br />S must be 1. <br /><br />Then D (under L) must be greater than 5. If D is 6, then L is 0. But then A must be 0 or 1 which is impossible. Hence, the possible values of D are 7, 8 or 9. <br /><br />N must be E + 1. Also, D must be A + 5 as the possible values of D are 7, 8 or 9, D can not be (10+A) + 5. <br /><br />Now using trial-n-error, we get S=1, I=2, L=3, A=4, N=5, E=6 and D=9<br /><br /> S L I D E 1 3 2 9 6<br /><br /> - D E A N - 9 6 4 5 <br /><br /> -------------- --------------<br /><br /> 3 6 5 1 L E N S<br />Hence, 3651 represents LENS.<br />Adam, Burzin, Clark and Edmund each live in an apartment. Their apartments are arranged in a row numbered 1 to 4 from left to right. Also, one of them is the landlord. <br />1. If Clark's apartment is not next to Burzin's apartment, then the landlord is Adam and lives in apartment 1. <br />2. If Adam's apartment is right of Clark's apartment, then the landlord is Edmund and lives in apartment 4. <br />3. If Burzin's apartment is not next to Edmund's apartment, then the landlord is Clark and lives in apartment 3. <br />4. If Edmund's apartment is right of Adam's apartment, then the landlord is Burzin and lives in apartment 2.<br />Who is the landlord?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Clark is the landlord. <br /><br />Assume each statement true, one at a time and see that no other statement is contradicted. <br /><br />Let's assume that Statement (1) is true. Then, Adam is the landlord and lives in apartment 1. Also, other three's apartments will be on the right of his apartment - which contradicts Statement (4) i.e. If Edmund's apartment is right of Adam's apartment, then the landlord is Burzin. Thus, Adam is not the landlord. <br /><br />Let's assume that Statement (2) is true. Then, Edmund is the landlord and lives in apartment 4. Also, other three's apartments will be on the left of his apartment - which again contradicts Statement (4) i.e. If Edmund's apartment is right of Adam's apartment, then the landlord is Burzin. Thus, Edmund is not the landlord either. <br /><br />Let's assume that Statement (3) is true. Then, Clark is the landlord and lives in apartment 3. It satisfies all the statements for <br />(1) Adam - (2) Edmund - (3) Clark - (4) Burzin <br /><br />Hence, Clark is the landlord. <br /><br />Similarly, you can assume Statement (4) true and find out that it also contradicts.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00456<br /><br />B, J and P are related to each other. <br />1. Among the three are B's legal spouse, J's sibling and P's sister-in-law. <br />2. B's legal spouse and J's sibling are of the same sex.<br />Who is the married man? <br />Answer<br /><br />J is the married man. <br /><br />Note that a person's sister-in-law may be the wife of that person's brother or the sister of that person's spouse. <br /><br />There are 2 cases: <br />1. If B's legal spouse is J, then J's sibling must be P and P's sister-in-law must be B. <br />2. If B's legal spouse is P, then P's sister-in-law must be J and J's sibling must be B.<br />It is given that B's legal spouse and J's sibling are of the same sex. Also, it is obvious that P's sister-in-law is female. Then, B's legal spouse and J's sibling both must be males.<br /><br /> B's spouse J's sibling P's sister-in-law<br /><br /> (male) (male) (female)<br /><br />------------------------------------------------------<br /><br />Case I J P B<br /><br />Case II P B J<br /><br />Case II is not possible as B & P are married to each other and both are male. Hence, J is the married man.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00041<br /><br />A polygon has 1325 diagonals. How many vertices does it have? <br />Answer<br /><br />The formula to find number of diagonals (D) given total number of vertices or sides (N) is<br /><br /> N * (N - 3) <br /><br /> D = ----------- <br /><br /> 2<br /><br />Using the formula, we get <br />1325 * 2 = N * (N - 3) <br />N2 - 3N - 2650 = 0 <br /><br />Solving the quadratic equation, we get N = 53 or -50 <br /><br />It is obvious that answer is 53 as number of vertices can not be negative. <br /><br />Alternatively, you can derive the formula as triange has 0 diagonals, quadrangel has 2, pentagon has 5, hexagon has 9 and so on...... <br /><br />Hence the series is 0, 0, 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, ........ (as diagram with 1,2 or 3 vertices will have 0 diagonals). <br /><br />Using the series one can arrive to the formula given above.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00076<br /><br />A cube is made of a white material, but the exterior is painted black. <br /><br />If the cube is cut into 125 smaller cubes of exactly the same size, how many of the cubes will have atleast 2 of their sides painted black? <br />Answer<br /><br />44 <br /><br />36 of the cubes have EXACTLY 2 of their sides painted black, but because a cube with 3 of its sides painted black has 2 of its sides painted black, you must also include the corner cubes. This was a trick question, but hopefully the title of the puzzle tipped you off to this.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00238<br /><br />Imagine a triangle of coins on a table so that the first row has one coin in it and the second row has two coins in it and so on. If you can only move one coin at a time, how many moves does it take to make the triangle point the other way? <br /><br />For a triangle with two row it is one, for a triangle with three rows it is two, for a triangle with four rows it is three. <br /><br />For a traingle with five rows is it four?<br />Submitted <br />Answer<br /><br />It takes 5 moves to make the triangle with 5 rows point the other way. <br /><br />0 = a coin that has not been moved. <br />X = the old position of the moved coin <br />8 = the new position of the moved coin. <br /><br />________X <br />_______X X <br />____8 0 0 0 8 <br />_____0 0 0 0 <br />____X 0 0 0 X <br />_______8 8 <br />________8 <br /><br /><br />For traingle of any number of rows, the optimal number of moves can be achieved by moving the vertically symmetrical coins i.e. by moving same number of coins from bottom left and right, and remaining coins from the top. <br /><br /><br />For a triangle with an odd number of rows, the total moves require are : <br />(N2/4) - (N-4) Where N = 4, 6, 8, 10, ... <br /><br />For a triangle with even number of rows, the total moves require are : <br />((N2-1)/4) - (N-4) Where N = 5, 7, 9, 11, ... <br /><br />Thanks to Alex Crosse for submitting above formulas.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00053<br /><br />A man is going to an Antique Car auction. All purchases must be paid for in cash. He goes to the bank and draws out $25,000. <br /><br />Since the man does not want to be seen carrying that much money, he places it in 15 evelopes numbered 1 through 15. Each envelope contains the least number of bills possible of any available US currency (i.e. no two tens in place of a twenty). <br /><br />At the auction he makes a successful bid of $8322 for a car. He hands the auctioneer envelopes number(s) 2, 8, and 14. After opening the envelopes the auctioneer finds exactly the right amount. <br /><br />How many ones did the auctioneer find in the envelopes? <br />Answer<br /><br />Each envelope contains the money equal to the 2 raised to the envelope number minus 1. The sentence "Each envelope contains the least number of bills possible of any available US currency" is only to misguide you. This is always possible for any amount !!! <br /><br />One more thing to notice here is that the man must have placed money in envelopes in such a way that if he bids for any amount less than $25000, he should be able to pick them in terms of envelopes. <br /><br />First envelope contains, 20 = $1 <br />Second envelope contains, 21 = $2 <br />Third envelope contains, 22 = $4 <br />Fourth envelope contains, 23 = $8 and so on... <br /><br />Hence the amount in envelopes are $1, $2, $4, $8, $16, $32, $64, $128, $256, $512, $1024, $2048, $4096, $8192, $8617 <br /><br />Last envelope (No. 15) contains only $8617 as total amount is only $25000. <br /><br />Now as he bids for $8322 and gives envelope number 2, 8 and 14 which contains $2, $128 and $8192 respectively. <br /><br />Envelope No 2 conrains one $2 bill <br />Envelope No 8 conrains one $100 bill, one $20 bill, one $5 bill, one $2 bill and one $1 bill <br />Envelope No 14 conrains eighty-one $100 bill, one $50 bill, four $10 bill and one $2 bill <br /><br />Hence the auctioneer will find one $1 bill in the envelopes.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00090<br /><br />The minute and the hour hand of a watch meet every 65 minutes. <br /><br />How much does the watch lose or gain time and by how much? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />The minute and the hour hand meet 11 times in 12 hours in normal watch i.e. they meet after every <br />= (12 * 60) / 11 minutes <br />= 65.45 minutes <br />= 65 minutes 27.16 seconds <br /><br />But in our case they meet after every 65 minutes means the watch is gaining 27.16 seconds.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00093<br /><br />There is a number that is 5 times the sum of its digits. What is this number? Answer is not 0. <br />Answer<br /><br />The number is 45, simply because <br />45 = 5 * (4 + 5) <br />How does one find this number? <br /><br />Let T be the digit in the tens place and U be the digit in the units place. Then, the number is 10*T + U, and the sum of its digits is T + U. <br /><br />The following equation can be readily written: <br />10*T + U = 5*(T + U) or <br />10*T + U = 5*T + 5*U or <br />5*T = 4*U <br /><br />Thus, T / U = 4 / 5 <br /><br />Since T and U are digits, T must be 4 and U must be 5.<br />There are six boxes containing 5, 7, 14, 16, 18, 29 balls of either red or blue in colour. Some boxes contain only red balls and others contain only blue. <br /><br />One sales man sold one box out of them and then he says, "I have the same number of red balls left out as that of blue." <br /><br />Which box is the one he solds out?<br />Answer<br /><br />Total no of balls = 5 + 7 + 14 + 16 + 18 + 29 = 89 <br /><br />Total number of balls are odd. Also, same number of red balls and blue balls are left out after selling one box. So it is obvious that the box with odd number of balls in it is sold out i.e. 5, 7 or 29. <br /><br />Now using trial and error method, <br />(89-29) /2 = 60/2 = 30 and <br />14 + 16 = 5 + 7 + 18 = 30 <br /><br />So box with 29 balls is sold out.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00218<br /><br />Ekta got chocolates to give her friends on her Birthday. If she gives 3 chocolates to each friend, one friend will get only 2 chocolates. Also, if she gives 2 chocolates to each friends, she will left with 15 chocolates. <br /><br />How many chocolates Ekta got on her Birthday? and how many friends are there? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />47 Chocolates and 16 Friends <br /><br />Let's assume that there are total C chocolates and F friends. <br /><br />According to first case, if she gives 3 chocolates to each friend, one friend will get only 2 chocolates. <br />3*(F - 1) + 2 = C <br /><br />Similarly, if she gives 2 chocolates to each friends, she will left with 15 chocolates. <br />2*F + 15 = C <br /><br />Solving above 2 equations, F = 16 and C = 47. Hence, Ekta got 47 chocolates and 16 friends<br />Pooja and Esha met each other after long time. In the course of their conversation, Pooja asked Esha her age. Esha replied, "If you reverse my age, you will get my husbund's age. He is of course older than me. Also, the difference between our age is 1/11th of the sum of our age." <br /><br />Can you help out Pooja in finding Esha's age?<br />Answer<br /><br />Esha's age is 45 years. <br /><br />Assume that Esha's age is 10X+Y years. Hence, her hunsbands age is (10Y + X) years. <br /><br />It is given that difference between their age is 1/11th of the sum of their age. Hence, <br />[(10Y + X) - (10X + Y)] = (1/11)[(10Y + X) + (10X + Y)] <br />(9Y - 9X) = (1/11)(11X + 11Y) <br />9Y - 9X = X + Y <br />8Y = 10X <br />4Y = 5X <br /><br />Hence, the possible values are X=4, Y=5 and Esha's age is 45 years.<br />A fish had a tail as long as its head plus a quarter the lenght of its body. Its body was three-quarters of its total length. Its head was 4 inches long. <br /><br />What was the length of the fish?<br />Submitted<br /><br />The fish is 128 inches long. <br /><br />It is obvious that the lenght of the fish is the summation of lenghts of the head, the body and the tail. Hence, <br />Fish (F) = Head (H) + Body (B) + Tail (T) <br /><br />But it is given that the lenght of the head is 4 inches i.e. H = 4. The body is three-quarters of its total length i.e. B = (3/4)*F. And the tail is its head plus a quarter the lenght of its body i.e. T = H + B/4. Thus, the equation is <br />F = H + B + T <br />F = 4 + (3/4)*F + H + B/4 <br />F = 4 + (3/4)*F + 4 + (1/4)*(3/4)*F <br />F = 8 + (15/16)*F <br />(1/16)*F = 8 <br />F = 128 inches <br /><br />Thus, the fish is 128 inches long.<br /><br />Assume that you have just heard of a scandal and you are the first one to know. You pass it on to four person in a matter of 30 minutes. Each of these four in turn passes it to four other persons in the next 30 minutes and so on. <br /><br />How long it will take for everybody in the World to get to know the scandal? <br /><br />Assume that nobody hears it more than once and the population of the World is approximately 5.6 billions.<br />Answer<br /><br />Everybody in the World will get to know the scandal in 8 hours. <br /><br />You came to know of a scandal and you passed it on to 4 persons in 30 minutes. So total (1+4) 5 persons would know about it in 30 minutes. <br /><br />By the end of one hour, 16 more persons would know about it. So total of (1+4+16) 21 persons would know about it in one hour. <br /><br />Similarly, the other (1+4+16+64) persons would have know about it in one and a half hours. (1+4+16+64+256) persons would have know about it in two hours and so on... <br /><br />It can be deduced that the terms of the above series are the power of 4 i.e. 4^0, 4^1, 4^2, 4^3 and so on upto (2N+1) terms. Also, the last term would be 4^2N where N is the number of hours. <br /><br />Sum of the above mentioned series = [4^(2N+1)-1]/3 <br /><br />The sum of the series must be 5.6 billions. Hence, equating the sum of the series with 5.6 billions, we get N=8 hours. <br /><br />Scandals travel FAST !!!<br /> A B C<br /><br /> D<br /><br /> E F G<br /><br /> H<br /><br /> I<br />Each of the digits from 1 to 9 is represented by a different letter above. Also, A + B + C = C + D + E = E + F + G = G + H + I = 13 <br /><br />Which digit does E represent?<br />Answer<br /><br />E represents 4. <br /><br />Find out all possible groups of three different numbers that add up to 13 and arrange them according to given condition. <br /><br />If one number is 9, it must go with 1 and 3. <br />If one number is 8, it must go with either 1 and 4 or 2 and 3. <br />If one number is 7, it must go with either 1 and 5 or 2 and 4. <br />If one number is 6, it must go with either 2 and 5 or 3 and 4. <br /><br />It is clear that 9 must go with 1 and 3. Also, no digit may be used in more than two sums. Hence, there are 2 cases: <br />Case I: If 8 goes with 1 and 4, then 7 goes with 2 and 4, then 6 goes with 2 and 5. <br />Case II: If 8 goes with 2 and 3, then 7 goes with 2 and 4, then 6 goes with 3 and 4. <br /><br />But in case II, 3 is used in three sums. Hence, Case I is correct. And the possible arrangements are:<br /><br /> 9 3 1 5 6 2<br /><br /> 8 7<br /><br /> 4 7 2 4 8 1<br /><br /> 6 3<br /><br /> 5 9<br />Thus, E must be 4.<br />A, B and C are three points on a straight line, not necessarily equidistant with B being between A and C. Three semicircles are drawn on the same side of the line with AB, BC and AC as the diameters. BD is perpendicular to the line ABC, and D lies on the semicircle AC. <br /><br />If the funny shaped diagram between the three semicircles has an area of 1000 square cms, find the length of BD.<br />Answer<br /> <br /><br />The length of BD is 35.68 cms <br /><br />There are 3 right-angled triangles - ABD, CBD and ADC. <br /><br />From ABD, AB^2 + BD^2 = AD^2 ------ I <br />From CBD, CB^2 + BD^2 = CD^2 ------ II <br />From ADC, AD^2 + CD^2 = AC^2 ------ III <br /><br />Adding I and II, <br />AB^2 + BC^2 + 2*BD^2 = AD^2 + CD^2 ------ IV <br /><br />FROM III and IV <br />AB^2 + BC^2 + 2*BD^2 = AC^2 <br />AB^2 + BC^2 + 2*BD^2 = (AB+CB)^2 <br />2*BD^2 = 2*AB*CB <br />BD^2 = AB*CB <br />BD = SQRT(AB*CB) <br /><br />Given that funny shaped diagram beween three semicircles has an area of 1000 square cms. <br />[PI/2 * (AC/2)^2] - [PI/2 * (AB/2)^2] - [PI/2 * (BC/2)^2] = 1000 <br />PI/8 * [AC^2 - AB^2 - BC^2] = 1000 <br />PI * [(AB+BC)^2 - AB^2 - BC^2] = 8000 <br />PI * [2*AB*BC] = 8000 <br />AB * BC = 4000/PI <br /><br />Hence BD = SQRT(4000/PI) = 35.68 cms <br />where PI = 3.141592654 <br /><br />Hence, the length of BD is 35.68 cms.<br /><br />Submit<br />Answer<br /> <br />Users<br />Answer (33)<br /> <br />BrainVista<br />Answer<br /> <br />P<br /><br /><br /> Brain Teaser No : 00660<br /><br />Gomzi has 3 timepieces in his house - a wall clock, an alarm clock and a wristwatch. The wristwatch is always accurate, whereas the wall clock gains 2 minutes everyday and the alarm clock loses 2 minutes everyday. <br /><br />At exactly midnight last night, all three watches were showing the same time. <br /><br />If today is 25 July 2003, then on which date all three clocks will show the same time again? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />All three clocks will show the same time again on midnight between 19 July 2004 and 20 July 2004. <br /><br />A clock finishes on round in 12*60 i.e. 720 minutes. <br /><br />If a clock gains 2 minutes everyday, then it would be 720 minutes ahead after 360 days. Thus, after 360 days, it will show the same time again. <br /><br />Similary, if a clock loses 2 minutes everyday, then it would be 720 minutes behind after 360 days. Thus, after 360 days, it will show the same time again. <br /><br />Thus, after 360 days all three clocks will show the same time again i.e. midnight between 19 July 2004 and 20 July 2004.<br />You have 9 marbles. 8 marbles weigh 1 ounce each, & one marble weighs 1.5 ounces. You are unable to determine which is the heavier marble by looking at them. You have a weighing scale that consists of 2 pans, but the scale is only good for 2 total weighings. <br /><br />How can you determine which marble is the heaviest one using the scale & in 2 weighings?<br />Answer<br /><br />Divide 9 marbles into 3 groups of 3 marbles each. <br /><br />Take any 2 groups and place them on each pan. If they balance, remove the marbles from the pans, & place any 2 of the marbles from the remaining unweighed group on the pans, 1 on each pan. <br /><br />If one is heavier, it is the heavier marble, but if they balance, the remaining unweighed marble is the heavier one. <br /><br />If your first weighing does not balance, remove the marbles from the lighter pan, & place 1 marble on each pan from the heavier pan. The heavier 1 is the 1.5 ounce marble, but if they balance, then the marble from the heavy pan from the first weighing that was not weighed in the second weighing is the heavy 1.<br />Once a week a wagon driver leaves his hut and drives his wagon to the river dock to pick up supplies for his town. At 4:05 PM, one-fifth of the way to the dock, he passes the Temple. At 4:15 PM, one-third of the way, he passes the Preetam-Da-Dhabaa. <br /><br />At what time does he reached the dock?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />5:05 PM <br /><br />At 4:05 PM, the wagon driver passes the temple, one-fifth of the way to the dock. Also, at 4:15 PM, he passes the Preetam-Da-Dhabaa, one-third of the way. Thus, he travels 2/15 (1/3 - 1/5) of the distance in 10 minutes. <br /><br />At 4:15 PM, he has already travelled 1/3 of the distance. Thus 2/3 of the way is remaining, which can be travelled in <br />= ( (2/3) * 10 ) / (2/15) <br />= 50 minutes <br /><br />At 4:15, he was at Preetam-Da-Dhabaa.and remaining way will take 50 more minutes. Hence, the driver will reach at 5:05 PM to the dock.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00115<br /><br />Four prisoners escape from a prison. <br />The prisoners, Mr. East, Mr. West, Mr. South, Mr. North head towards different directions after escaping. <br />The following information of their escape was supplied: <br />• The escape routes were North Road, South Road, East Road and West Road <br />• None of the prisoners took the road which was their namesake <br />• Mr. East did not take the South Road <br />• Mr.West did not the South Road <br />• The West Road was not taken by Mr. East<br />What road did each of the prisoners take to make their escape<br />Answer<br /><br />Put all the given information into the table structure as follow: <br /> North Road South Road East Road West Road<br />Mr. North No <br />Mr. South No <br />Mr. East No No No<br />Mr. West No No<br /><br />Now from table, two things are obvious and they are: <br />• Mr.North took the South Road <br />• Mr.East took the North Road<br />Put this information into the table, Also keep in mind that the prisoners head towards different directions after escaping. <br /> North Road South Road East Road West Road<br />Mr. North No YES No No<br />Mr. South No No <br />Mr. East YES No No No<br />Mr. West No No No<br /><br />Now from the table: <br />• Mr.West took the East Road <br />• Mr.South took the West Road<br />So the answer is: <br />• Mr.North took the South Road <br />• Mr.South took the West Road <br />• Mr.East took the North Road <br />• Mr.West took the East Road<br /><br />Shahrukh speaks truth only in the morning and lies in the afternoon, whereas Salman speaks truth only in the afternoon and lies in the morning. <br /><br />A says that B is Shahrukh. <br /><br />Is it morning or afternoon and who is A - Shahrukh or Salman?<br />Answer<br /><br />It is Afternoon and A can be Salman or Shahrukh. If A is Salman, he is speaking truth. If A is Shahrukh, he is lying. <br /><br />Want to confirm it? Consider following 4 possible answers and check for its truthness individually. <br />1. It is Morning and A is Shahrukh <br />2. It is Morning and A is Salman <br />3. It is Afternoon and A is Shahrukh <br />4. It is Afternoon and A is Salman<br /><br />A rich man died. In his will, he has divided his gold coins among his 5 sons, 5 daughters and a manager. <br /><br />According to his will: First give one coin to manager. 1/5th of the remaining to the elder son. Now give one coin to the manager and 1/5th of the remaining to second son and so on..... After giving coins to 5th son, divided the remaining coins among five daughters equally. <br /><br />All should get full coins. Find the minimum number of coins he has?<br />Answer<br /><br />We tried to find out some simple mathematical method and finally we wrote small C program to find out the answer. The answer is 3121 coins. <br /><br />Here is the breakup: <br />First son = 624 coins <br />Second son = 499 coins <br />Third son = 399 coins <br />Forth son = 319 coins <br />Fifth son = 255 coins <br />Daughters = 204 each <br />Manager = 5 coins<br />There is a grid of 20 squares by 10 squares. How many different rectangles are possible? <br /><br />Note that square is a rectangle.<br />Answer<br /><br />11550 <br /><br />The Generic solution to this is: <br />Total number of rectangles = (Summation of row numbers) * (Summation of column numbers) <br /><br />Here there are 20 rows and 10 columns or vice versa. Hence, total possible rectangles <br />= ( 20 + 19 + 18 + 17 + 16 + .... + 3 + 2 + 1 ) * ( 10 + 9 +8 + 7 + .... + 3 + 2 + 1) <br />= ( 210 ) * (55) <br />= 11550 <br /><br />Hence, total 11,550 different rectangles are possible. <br /><br />If you don't believe it, try formula on some smaller grids like 4x2, 3x2, 3x3 etc...<br />If A+B=C, D-C=A and E-B=C, then what does D+F stands for? Provide your answer in letter terms as well as in number terms.<br />Submitted by : David<br />Answer<br /><br />J or 10 <br /><br />A simple one. <br /><br />Assume that each character represents the number equivalent to the position in the alphabet i.e. A = 1, B = 2, C = 3, D = 4 and so on. Now let's check our assumption. <br /><br />A + B = C i.e. 1 + 2 = 3 <br />D - C = A i.e. 4 - 3 = 1 <br />E - B = C i.e. 5 - 2 = 3 <br /><br />Thus, our assumption was Correct. Hence, D + F = J i.e. 4 + 6 = 10<br />A woman took a certain number of eggs to the market and sold some of them. <br /><br />The next day, through the industry of her hens, the number left over had been doubled, and she sold the same number as the previous day. <br /><br />On the third day the new remainder was tripled, and she sold the same number as before. <br /><br />On the fourth day the remainder was quadrupled, and her sales the same as before. <br /><br />On the fifth day what had been left over were quintupled, yet she sold exactly the same as on all the previous occasions and so disposed of her entire stock. <br /><br />What is the smallest number of eggs she could have taken to market the first day, and how many did she sell daily? Note that the answer is not zero.<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />She took 103 eggs to market on the first day and sold 60 eggs everyday. <br /><br />Let's assume that she had N eggs on the first day and she sold X eggs everyday. Putting down the given information in the table as follow. <br />Days Eggs at the start of the day Eggs Sold Eggs Remaining<br />Day 1 N X N-X<br />Day 2 2N-2X X 2N-3X<br />Day 3 6N-9X X 6N-10X<br />Day 4 24N-40X X 24N-41X<br />Day 5 120N-205X X 120N-206X<br /><br />It is given that she disposed of her entire stock on the fifth day. But from the table above, the number of eggs remaining are (120N-206X). Hence, <br />120N - 206X = 0 <br />120N = 206X <br />60N = 103X <br /><br />The smallest value of N and X must be 103 and 60 respectively. Hence, she took 103 eggs to market on the first day and sold 60 eggs everyday.<br />John lives in "Friends Society" where all the houses are in a row and are numbered sequentially starting from 1. His house number is 109. <br /><br />Jessy lives in the same society. All the house numbers on the left side of Jessy's house add up exactly the same as all the house numbers on the right side of her house. <br /><br />What is the number of Jessy's house? Find the minimal possible answer.<br />Answer<br /><br />There are 288 houses and Jessy's house number is 204. <br /><br />Let's assume that in the "Friends Society" there are total N houses numbered from 1 to N and Jessy's house number is X. <br /><br />Now it is given that all the house numbers on the left side of Jessy's house add up exactly the same as all the house numbers on the right side of her house. Hence, <br />1 + 2 + 3 + ..... + (X-1) = (X+1) + (X+2) + (X+3) + ..... + N <br /><br />Both the sides of the above equations are in A.P. Hence, using A.P. summation formaula, <br /><br />[(X-1)/2][2*(1) + (X-1-1)] = [(N-X)/2][2*(X+1) + (N-X-1)] <br />[X-1][(2) + (X-2)] = [N-X][(2X+2) + (N-X-1)] <br />(X-1)(X) = (N-X)(N+X+1) <br />X2 - X = N2 + NX + N - NX - X2 - X <br />X2 = N2 + N - X2 <br />2X2 = N2 + N <br />X2 = (N2 + N)/2 <br />X2 = N(N+1)/2 <br /><br />Now, using Trial and Error method to find values of N and X such that above equation is satisfied, we get <br />1. N = 8, X = 6 <br />2. N = 49, X = 35 <br />3. N = 288, X = 204 <br />4. N = 1681, X = 1189 <br />5. N = 9800, X = 6930 <br />But we require minimal possible answer and it is given that John's house number is 109. It means that there are atleast 109 houses. Hence, first two are not possible. And the answer is : there are 288 houses and Jessy's house number is 204.<br />Makayla had $1.19 in change. None of the coins was a dollar. <br /><br />Nicole ask her for change for a dollar, but Makayla could not make change. <br /><br />What coins did she have?<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />As it is given that Makayla had $1.19, it means she would have four pennies. Now, the remaining $1.15 in coins must not add up for exactly a dollar. Therefore she would not have 4 quarters or 2 quarters and 5 dimes. But she would have either 1 quarter or 3 quarters. Hence, there are 2 solutions. <br /><br />Solution I <br />1 Quarter, 9 Dimes, 4 Pennies (0.25 + 0.90 + 0.04 = $1.19) <br /><br />Solution II <br />3 Quarters, 4 Dimes, 4 Pennies (0.75 + 0.40 + 0.04 = $1.19)<br />A group of friends went on a holiday to a hill station. It rained for 13 days. But when it rained in the morning, the afternoon was lovely. And when it rained in the afternoon, the day was preceded by clear morning. <br /><br />Altogether there were 11 very nice mornings and 12 very nice afternoons. How many days did their holiday last?<br />Answer<br /><br />The holiday last for 18 days. <br /><br />Let's assume the number of days as follows: <br />Rain in the morning and lovely afternoon = X days <br />Clear morning and rain in the afternoon = Y days <br />No rain in the morning and in the afternoon = Z days <br /><br />Number of days with rain = X + Y = 13 days <br />Number of days with clear mornings = Y + Z = 11 days <br />Number of days with clear afternoons = X + Z = 12 days <br /><br />Solving above 3 equations, we get X = 7, Y = 6 and Z = 5 <br /><br />Hence, total number of days on holiday = 18 days<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00299<br /><br />Substitute digits for the letters to make the following Division true<br /> Y F Y <br /><br /> -----------<br /><br /> A Y | N E L L Y<br /><br /> | N L Y<br /><br /> ----------------<br /><br /> P P L<br /><br /> P N H<br /><br /> ----------<br /><br /> N L Y<br /><br /> N L Y<br /><br /> ----------<br /><br /> 0 0 0<br />Note that the leftmost letter can't be zero in any word. Also, there must be a one-to-one mapping between digits and letters. e.g. if you substitute 3 for the letter N, no other letter can be 3 and all other N in the puzzle must be 3.<br />Submitted by : Calon <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />See the pattern of the Y. AY * Y = NLY i.e. Y is multiplied by Y and the last digit of the answer is also Y. Thus, the value of Y would be 5 or 6. <br /><br />Also, <br />H=0 as L - H = L <br />P = 2N as P - N = N <br />L - Y = P = 2N <br />E - L = p <br /><br />Let's find out the minimum possible values. If N=1, then P=2, Y=5, L=7 and E=9. Note that the value of Y can not be 6 as it makes L=8 and E=10 which is not possible. Hence, Y=5, N=1, P=2, L=7, E=9, H=0 <br /><br />Now, using trial-n-error or rather solving F*AY=PNH, we get F=6 and A=3. <br /><br /> 5 6 5 Y F Y<br /><br /> ----------- -----------<br /><br /> 3 5 | 1 9 7 7 5 A Y | N E L L Y<br /><br /> | 1 7 5 | N L Y<br /><br /> ----------- -----------<br /><br /> 2 2 7 P P L<br /><br /> 2 1 0 P N H<br /><br /> ----------- -----------<br /><br /> 1 7 5 N L Y<br /><br /> 1 7 5 N L Y<br /><br /> ----------- -----------<br /><br /> 0 0 0 0 0 0<br /><br /> Brain Teaser No : 00566<br /><br />Here is the family tree of Mr. RAHUL<br /> RAHUL<br /><br /> |<br /><br /> ---------------------------------------------<br /><br /> | | | |<br /><br /> RATISH YASH OM TRILOK<br /><br /> | | ?<br /><br /> -------- ------------------<br /><br /> | | | | |<br /><br /> AMAR AMIT RAM HARSH ASHOK<br /><br /> | |<br /><br /> ----- -------<br /><br /> | | | | |<br /><br />How many children does Mr. TRILOK have? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />TRILOK have 5 children. <br /><br />Name of the person and number of his children are related by some pattern. <br /><br />Assign each vowel following values. <br />A=0 E=1 I=2 O=3 U=4 <br /><br />The number of children to any person is the sum of the values represented by vowels in his name. <br />RATISH = 0(A) + 2(I) = 2 <br />OM = 3(O) = 3 <br />AMIT = 0(A) + 2(I) = 2 <br />ASHOK = 0(A) + 3(O) = 3 <br />TRILOK = 2(I) + 3(O) = 5 <br /><br />Hence, TRILOK have 5 children.<br /><br />Major Jasbir is forming five-person Special Task Group. The group must contain one leader, two bomb-experts and two soldiers. <br /><br />P, Q and R are possible bomb-experts. R, S and T are possible leaders. U, V and W are possible soldiers. Also, P and R prefers to work with each other in the same team. T prefers to work only if V works. <br /><br />How many different possible Groups, Major Jasbir can make?<br />Answer<br /><br />Major Jasbir can make 8 different possible groups. <br /><br />As 2 bomb-experts to be selected from the given 3 and also P & R prefers to work together, PR must be there in all the possible Groups. Also, T prefers to work only if V works. It doesn't mean that V won't work without T. <br /><br />Hence, possible groups are: <br />PR - S - UV <br />PR - S - VW <br />PR - S - WU <br /><br />PR - T - UV <br />PR - T - VW <br /><br />PQ - R - UV <br />PQ - R - VW <br />PQ - R - WU <br /><br />Hence, there 8 different groups are possible.<br />The secret agent X emailed some code to his head office. They are "RADAR, LEVEL, ROTOR, REDIVIDER, MOTOR". But four of these five words have something in common and one is fake. <br /><br />Can you tell which one is fake? Ignore the fact that four of the code-words are of the same length.<br />Answer<br /><br />The fake code-word is MOTOR. <br /><br />All the code-words except MOTOR are Palindromes.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00287<br /><br />In the village called TALAJA, only three TV channels are available - Moon Plus, Mony and Mee TV. <br /><br />Out of 4000 TV viewers in the village, 1500 watch Moon TV, 2000 watch Mony and 2500 watch Mee TV. <br /><br />Amongst these, 500 viewers watch Moon Plus and Mony, 800 watch Moon Plus and Mee TV, and 1000 watch Mony and Mee TV. <br /><br />How many viewers watch all three channels? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />300 viewers watch all three channels. <br /><br />Let's assume that total X viewers watch all three channels. <br /><br />total viewers who watch only Moon Plus and Mony = 500-X <br />total viewers who watch only Moon Plus and Mee TV = 800-X <br />total viewers who watch only Mony and Mee TV = 1000-X <br /><br />total viewers who watch only Moon Plus <br />= 1500 - (500-X) - (800-X) - X <br />= 200 + X <br /><br />total viewers who watch only Mony <br />= 2000 - (500-X) - (1000-X) - X <br />= 500 + X <br /><br />total viewers who watch only Mee TV <br />= 2500 - (1000-X) - (800-X) - X <br />= 700 + X <br /><br />We know that total viewers are 4000. Summing up all 7 values, <br />X + (500 - X) + (800 - X) + (1000 - X) + (200 + X) + (500 + X) + (700 + X) = 4000 <br />X + 3700 = 4000 <br />X = 300 <br /><br />Hence, total 300 viewers watch all three channels.<br />A man was looking at a portrait. Someone asked him, "Whose picture are you looking at?" <br /><br />He replied, pointing at the portrait: "Brothers and sisters have I none, but this man's son is my father's son." <br /><br />Now whose picture is the man looking at?<br />Answer<br /><br />The man is looking at his FATHER's portrait. <br /><br />"my father's son" is the man himself as he do not have any brothers and sisters. So the statement reduces to "this man's son is myself." Now it is clear that the portrait is of his father.<br />Given the following facts: <br />1. Dinesh is younger than Farukh and older than Gurmit. <br />2. Jatin is younger than Chandu and older than Eshrat. <br />3. Amit is younger than Irfan and older than Chandu. <br />4. Farukh is younger than Bhavin and older than Hemant. <br />5. Irfan is younger than Gurmit and older than Jatin. <br />6. Hemant is older than Gurmit.<br />Who is the Youngest?<br />Answer<br /><br />Eshrat is the youngest. <br /><br />Discard whoever are older than someone. <br /><br />From (1) Gurmit is younger than Dinesh and Farukh. <br />From (5) Jatin is younger than Irfan and Gurmit. <br />From (2) Eshrat is younger than Jatin and Chandu. <br /><br />From above 3 deductions, Eshrat is younger than Dinesh, Farukh, Irfan, Gurmit, Jatin and Chandu. <br /><br />Also, <br />From (3) Chandu is younger than Amit and Irfan. <br />From (4) Hemant is younger than Farukh and Bhavin. <br />From (6) Gurmit is younger than Hemant. <br /><br />From above 3 deductions, Gurmit is younger than Farukh, Bhavin and Hemant. Also, Chandu is younger than Amit and Irfan. But as seen earlier, Eshrat is younger than Gurmit and Chandu. <br /><br />Hence, Eshrat is the youngest.<br />Last Saturday Milan went for the late night show and came late. In the morning family members asked him which movie did he see. He gave different answers to everyone. <br />• He told to his father that he had gone to see MONEY. <br />• According to his mom, he saw either JOHNY or BABLU. <br />• His elder brother came to know that he saw BHABI. <br />• To his sister, he told ROBOT. <br />• And his grandpa heard that he saw BUNNY. <br />Thus, Milan gave six movie names, all five letter words. But he saw some other movie with five letter word. Moreover, each of the six movie names mentioned above has exactly two letters common with the movie he saw. (with the same positions) <br /><br />Can you tell which movie did Milan see?<br />Answer<br /><br />Milan saw BOBBY. <br /><br />The six movie names are - MONEY, JOHNY, BABLU, BHABI, ROBOT and BUNNY. <br /><br />Compare MONEY and JOHNY. They have O common at the second place and Y common at the fifth place. Also, they can't have two different letters each, common with the required movie as the letters in remaining three places are all different. Thus, the required movie must have either O at the second place or Y at the fifth place or both. <br /><br />Similarly, comparing JOHNY and BUNNY - the required movie must have either N at the fourth place or Y at the fifth place or both. Also, comparing MONEY and BUNNY - the required movie must have either N at the third place or Y at the fifth place or both. <br /><br />From the above 3 deduction, either Y is at fifth place or O is at the second place and N is at the third & fourth place. The later combination is not possible as BABLU, BHABI & ROBOT will need at least 3 other letters which makes the required movie 6 letter long. Hence, the required movie must have Y at the fifth place. <br /><br />Now Y is not there in BABLU and BHABI at the fifth place and they have only B common at the first place. Hence, B must be the first letter. <br /><br />As B is at the first place and Y is at the fifth place and every movie has exactly 2 letters common with the required movie. From BUNNY, the required movie do not have U at the second place and N at the third and fourth place. Now looking at JOHNY and MONEY, they must have O common at the second place. <br /><br />Using the same kind of arguments for BABLU, BHABI and ROBOT, we can conclude that Milan saw BOBBY.<br /><br />Jim lies a lot. He tells the truth on only one day in a week. <br /><br />One day he said: "I lie on Mondays and Tuesdays." <br />The next day he said: "Today is either Sunday, Saturday or Thursday." <br />The next day he said: "I lie on Fridays and Wednesdays." <br /><br />On which day of the week does Jim tell the truth?<br />Answer<br /><br />Jim tells the truth on Tuesday. <br /><br />As Jim tells truth only on one day in a week, his statement on day 1 and day 3 both can not be false. Otherwise he tells truth on more than one days in a week. Also, all three statements are mad on three consecutive days, statement made on day 1 and day 3 both can not be true. Thus, either the statement made on day 1 or day 3 is true and other is false. Also, the statement made on day 2 must be false i.e. day 1 is not Saturday, Friday or Wednesday. <br /><br />Let's assume that the statement 1 is true. Then from the statement 3, day 1 must be either Friday or Wednesday. But it is already deduced that day 1 is not Saturday, Friday or Wednesday. <br /><br />Hence, the statement made on day 1 is false and the last statement is true. then from the statement 1, day 3 must be either Monday or Tuesday. But it is already deduced that day 1 can not be Saturday i.e. day 3 can't be Monday. Hence, Jim tells the truth on Tuesday.<br /><br />4 men can dig 4 holes in 4 days. <br /><br />How many hours does it take for 1 man to dig half a hole?<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />There is nothing like "HALF HOLE".<br />Consider a chessboard with a single Rook. A Rook can move any number of square sideways/forward, but not diagonally. <br /><br />What is the minimum number of moves the Rook needs to make, in order to pass over all the squares on the chessboard and return to the original position?<br />Answer<br /><br />16 moves <br /><br />As a Rook can move any number of square sideways/forward, but not diagonally and there are 8 rows and 8 columns on the chessboard; the Rook needs minimum 16 moves to pass over all the squares and return to the original position.<br />A farmer needs 8 gallons of water. He has only three unmared buckets, two 6 gallon and one 11 gallon bucket. <br /><br />How can he collect 8 gallons of water using three unmarked buckets? Provide solution with minimal water wastage.<br />Answer<br /><br />Here is the solution with 10 gallon water wastage. <br />OPERATIONS 6 6 11<br />Fill 6 gallon bucket with water 6 0 0<br />Empty 6 gallon bucket into 11 gallon bucket 0 0 6<br />Fill 6 gallon bucket with water 6 0 6<br />Fill 11 gallon bucket to full using filled 6 gallon bucket. This will leave 1 gallon water in 6 gallon bucket 1 0 11<br />Empty 11 gallon bucket into second 6 gallon bucket. 1 6 5<br />Empty 11 gallon bucket - wastage of 5 gallon water 1 6 0<br />Empty second 6 gallon bucket into 11 gallon bucket 1 0 6<br />Fill seccond 6 gallon bucket with water 1 6 6<br />Fill 11 gallon bucket to full using filled second 6 gallon bucket. This will leave 1 gallon water in second 6 gallon bucket 1 1 11<br />Fill first 6 gallon bucket with 1 gallon water which is in second 6 gallon bucket 2 0 11<br />Empty 11 gallon bucket into second 6 gallon bucket. 2 6 5<br />Empty 11 gallon bucket - wastage of 5 gallon water 2 6 0<br />Fill 11 gallon bucket with water in both the 6 gallon buckets 0 0 11<br />I bought a car with a peculiar 5 digit numbered licence plate which on reversing could still be read. On reversing value is increased by 78633. <br /><br />Whats the original number if all digits are different?<br />Answer<br /><br />Only 0 1 6 8 and 9 can be read upside down. So on rearranging these digits we get the answer as 10968.<br />Jack and Jill are playing cards for a stake of $1 a game. At the end of the evening, Jack has won 3 games and Jill has won $3. How many games did they play?<br />Submitted by : Nathalie Drouin<br />Answer<br /><br />They played total of 9 games. Jack won 3 games and Jill won 6 games. <br /><br />If Jack has won three games and Jill has won $3, she lost a dollar for each loss, therefore she has won 6 and lost 3 to make $3 and he won the other 3 that she lost!<br /><br />Sam and Mala have a conversation. <br />• Sam says I am certainly not over 40 <br />• Mala says I am 38 and you are atleast 5 years older than me <br />• Now Sam says you are atleast 39 <br />All the statements by the two are false. How old are they really?<br />Answer<br /><br />Sam is 41 and Mala is 37. <br /><br />Let's invert the teaser and read it like this : <br />• Sam says I am certainly over 40 <br />• Mala says I am not 38 and you are atmost 4 years older than me <br />• Now Sam says you are atmost 38<br />From first statement it is clear that Sam is over 40. Also, from next 2 statements it is clear that Mala is less then 38. Hence the possibilities are : <br />Sam = 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, ...... <br />Mala = 37, 36, 35, 34, 33, ...... <br /><br />It also says that the difference between their age is maximum 4 years. Hence, there is only one possible pair i.e. 41 and 37, all other combination have differences more then 4. <br /><br />Hence the answer - Sam is 41 and Mala is 37.<br />A person travels on a cycle from home to church on a straight road with wind against him. He took 4 hours to reach there. <br /><br />On the way back to the home, he took 3 hours to reach as wind was in the same direction. <br /><br />If there is no wind, how much time does he take to travel from home to church?<br />Answer<br /><br />Let distance between home and church is D. <br /><br />A person took 4 hours to reach church. So speed while travelling towards church is D/4. <br /><br />Similarly, he took 3 hours to reach home. So speed while coming back is D/3. <br /><br />There is a speed difference of 7*D/12, which is the wind helping person in 1 direction, & slowing him in the other direction. Average the 2 speeds, & you have the speed that person can travel in no wind, which is 7*D/24. <br /><br />Hence, person will take D / (7*D/24) hours to travel distance D which is 24/7 hours. <br /><br />Answer is 3 hours 25 minutes 42 seconds<br />There are N secret agents each know a different piece of secret information. They can telephone each other and exchange all the information they know. After the telephone call, they both know anything that either of them knew before the call. <br /><br />What are the minimum number of telephone calls needed so that all of the them know everything?<br />Answer<br /><br />(2N - 3) telephone calls, for N = 2,3 <br />(2N - 4) telephone calls, for N > 3 <br /><br />Divide the N secret agents into two groups. If N is odd, one group will contain one extra agent. <br /><br />Consider first group: agent 1 will call up agent 2, agent 2 will call up agent 3 and so on. Similarly in second group, agent 1 will call up agent 2, agent 2 will call up agent 3 and so on. After (N - 2) calls, two agents in each the group will know anything that anyone knew in his group, say they are Y1 & Y2 from group 1 and Z1 & Z2 from group 2. <br /><br />Now, Y1 will call up Z1 and Y2 will call up Z2. Hence, in next two calls total of 4 agents will know everything. <br /><br />Now (N - 4) telephone calls are reqiured for remaining (N - 4) secret agents. <br /><br />Total telephone calls require are <br />= (N - 2) + 2 + (N - 4) <br />= 2N - 4 <br /><br />Let\'s take an example. Say there are 4 secret agents W, X, Y & Z. Divide them into two groups of 2 each i.e. (W, X) and (Y, Z). Here, 4 telephone calls are required. <br />1. W will call up X. <br />2. Y will call up Z. <br />3. W, who knows WX will call up Y, who knows YZ. <br />4. X, who knows WX will call up Z, who knows YZ. <br />Take an another example. Say there are 5 secret agents J, K, L, M & N. Divide them into two groups i.e. (J, K) and (L, M, N). Here, 6 telephone calls are required. <br />1. J will call up K. <br />2. L will call up M. <br />3. M will call up N. Now M and N know LMN. <br />4. J, who knows JK will call up M, who knows LMN. <br />5. K, who knows JK will call up N, who knows LMN. <br />6. L will call up to anyone of four. <br />Mrs. F has invited several wives of delegates to the United Nations for an informal luncheon. She plans to seat her 9 guests ina row such that each lady will be able to converse with the person directly to her left and right. She has prepared the following list. <br /><br />Mrs. F speaks English only. <br />Mrs. G speaks English and French. <br />Mrs. H speaks English and Russian. <br />Mrs. J speaks Russian only. <br />Mrs. K speaks English only. <br />Mrs. L speaks French only. <br />Mrs. M speaks French and German. <br />Mrs. N speaks English and German. <br />Mrs. O speaks English only. <br /><br />How many distinct seating arrangements are possible? Give all possible seating arrangements. <br /><br />Note that ABCD and DCBA are the same.<br />Answer<br /><br />126 distinct seating arrangements are possible. <br /><br />Mrs. J and Mrs. H must be together and Mrs. J must be at the end as Mrs. J speaks only Russian and Mrs. H is the only other Russian speaker. <br /><br />Mrs. L speaks only French and there are two others - Mrs. G and Mrs. M - who speak French. Here there are 2 cases. <br />• CASE A : Mrs. L is at the other end <br />If Mrs. L is at the other end, either Mrs. G or Mrs. M must seat next to her.<br />o CASE AA : Mrs. G seats next to Mrs. L <br />Then, Mrs. M must seat next to Mrs. G and Mrs. N must seat next to Mrs. M. This is because Mrs. M speaks French and German, and Mrs. N is the only other German speaker. Thus, the possible seating arrangement is JHxxxNMGL, where x is the English speakers. Mrs. F, Mrs. K and Mrs. O can be arranged in remaining 3 positions in 3! different ways i.e. 6 ways.<br />o CASE AB : Mrs. M seats next to Mrs. L <br />If so, then either Mrs. N or Mrs. G must seat next to Mrs. M<br /> CASE ABA : Mrs. N seats next to Mrs. M <br />Thus, the possible seating arrangement is JHxxxxNML, where x is the English speakers. Mrs. F, Mrs. G, Mrs. K and Mrs. O can be arranged in remaining 4 positions in 4! different ways i.e. 24 ways.<br /> CASE ABB : Mrs. G seats next to Mrs. M <br />Thus, the possible seating arrangement is JHxxxxGML, where x is the English speakers. Mrs. F, Mrs. K, Mrs. N and Mrs. O can be arranged in remaining 4 positions in 4! different ways i.e. 24 ways.<br /><br />• CASE B : Mrs. L does not seat at the end <br />It means that Mrs. G, Mrs. L and Mrs. M must seat together. Also, Mrs. L must seat between Mrs. G and Mrs. M. <br /><br />o CASE BA : Mrs. G seats left and Mrs. M seats right to Mrs. L i.e. GLM <br /><br /> CASE BAA : GLM is at the other end <br />Thus, the possible seating arrangement is JHxxxxGLM, where x is the English speakers. Mrs. F, Mrs. K, Mrs. N and Mrs. O can be arranged in remaining 4 positions in 4! different ways i.e. 24 ways.<br /> CASE BAB : GLM is not at the other end <br />Then Mrs. N must seat next to Mrs. M. Now, we have a group of four GLMN where Mrs. G and Mrs. N speak English. Thus, the possible seating arrangement is JHxxxX, where x is the individual English speakers and X is the group of four females with English speakers at the both ends. Thus, there are 4! different ways i.e. 24 ways. <br /><br />o CASE BB : Mrs. M seats left and Mrs. G seats right to Mrs. L i.e. MLG <br />Then, Mrs. N must seat next to Mrs. M. Now, we have a group of four NMLG where Mrs. G and Mrs. N speak English. Thus, the possible seating arrangement is JHxxxX, where x is the individual English speakers and X is the group of four females with English speakers at the both ends. Thus, there are 4! different ways i.e. 24 ways.<br />Thus, total different possible seating arrangements are : <br />= 6 (case AA) + 24 (case ABA) + 24 (case ABB) + 24 (case BAA) + 24 (case BAB) + 24 (case BB) <br />= 126 seating arrangements <br /><br />Thus, 126 distinct seating arrangements are poosible.<br />What is the smallest number which when divided by 10 leaves a remainder of 9, when divided by 9 leaves a remainder of 8, when divided by 8 leaves a remainder of 7, when divided by 7 leaves a remainder of 6 and so on until when divided by 2 leaves a remainder of 1?<br />Answer<br /><br />The smallest such number is 2519. <br /><br />The easiest way is to find the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. And subtract 1 from it. <br /><br />The LCM of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 is given by 2520. Hence, the required number is 2519<br /><br />Three friends divided some bullets equally. After all of them shot 4 bullets the total number of bullets remaining is equal to the bullets each had after division. Find the original number divided.<br />Answer<br /><br />18 <br /><br />Assume that initial there were 3*X bullets. <br /><br />So they got X bullets each after division. <br /><br />All of them shot 4 bullets. So now they have (X - 4) bullets each. <br /><br />But it is given that,after they shot 4 bullets each, total number of bullets remaining is equal to the bullets each had after division i.e. X <br /><br />Therefore, the equation is <br />3 * (X - 4) = X <br />3 * X - 12 = X <br />2 * X = 12 <br />X = 6 <br /><br />Therefore the total bullets before division is = 3 * X = 18<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00114<br /><br />Everyday in his business a merchant had to weigh amounts from 1 kg to 121 kgs, to the nearest kg. What are the minimum number of different weights required and how heavy should they be? <br /><br />The minimum number is 5 and they should weigh 1, 3, 9, 27 and 81 kgs<br />Replace each letter by a digit. Each letter must be represented by the same digit and no beginning letter of a word can be 0.<br /> <br /><br /> O N E<br /><br /> O N E<br /><br /> O N E<br /><br /> + O N E<br /><br /> -------<br /><br /> T E N<br />Answer<br /><br />Use trial and error. 0 =1, N = 8 ,E = 2, T = 7<br /><br /> 1 8 2<br /><br /> 1 8 2<br /><br /> 1 8 2<br /><br /> + 1 8 2<br /><br /> ------<br /><br /> 7 2 8<br />A man is on a search for Atlantis and comes upon an island where all the inhabitants know whether Atlantis is still around or not. <br /><br />However, all of the inhabitants are either Fairies or Trolls and they all use a spell to appear humanoid so you cannot tell which is which. And the Faries always tell the truth and the Trolls always lie, but there is a slight complication, some of the Fairies have gone insane and always lie and some of the Trolls have also gone insane and always tell the truth. <br /><br />So here is your task: you must ask the first inhabitant that you come to ONE question and from that ONE question you must determine wether Atlantis is still around or not. <br /><br />What is the question that you must ask?<br />Answer<br /><br />There are 2 answers to it: <br /><br />Answer I"Is the statement that you are reliable equivalent to the statement that Atlantis is still around?" <br /><br />Answer II"Do you believe that the Statement that you are a Fairy is equivalent to the statement that Atlantis is still around?"<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00276<br /><br />A frog starts climbing 15 feet wall. Each hour he climbs 3 feet and rests for 30 minutes. During rest, he slips back 2 feet. <br /><br />How many hours does the frog take to reach the top? <br />Answer<br /><br />19 hours <br /><br />A frog climbs 1 foot per 1 1/2 hours as during 30 minutes rest he slips back 2 feet. This way he will climb 12 feet in 18 hours. In next hour he will climb 3 more feet i.e. he will complete 15 feet in 19 hours and will reach the top of the wall.<br />If a bear eats 65 pounds in fish every day EXCEPT every 6th day which it only eats 45 pounds of fish. <br /><br />If the bear continues this, how many pounds of fish will it eat in 200 days?<br />Submitted by : David<br />Answer<br /><br />The bear will eat 12,340 pounds of fish in 200 days. <br /><br />It is given that on every 6th day beareats 45 pounds of fish i.e. on day number 6, 12, 18, 24, .... 192, 198 the bear eats 45 pounds of fish. <br /><br />Total number of 6th days = 200/6 = 33 (the bear eats 45 pounds) <br />Hence, the normal days are = 200 - 33 = 167 (the bear eats 65 pounds) <br /><br />Thus, in 200 days, the bear will eat <br />= (167) * (65) + (33) * (45) <br />= 10855 + 1485 <br />= 12,340 pounds<br />You have 3 points labelled A, B and C. You then have another 3 points labelled 1, 2 and 3. The aim of the puzzle is to connect point A with point 1, 2 and 3. Point B with point 1, 2 and 3 and point C with point 1, 2 and 3. <br /><br />Now while connecting the points you have to follow one rule - the lines cannot cross over each other. <br /> A B C<br /><br /> 1 2 3<br />PS : You can arrange the points in order as long as the lines DO NOT cross over each other.<br />Answer<br /><br />There is no solution to it, if you consider 2 dimensions. It is impossible to join each of points A, B and C with points 1, 2 and 3 without lines crossing each other. <br /><br />There is solution, if you consider 3 dimensions. Consider a circular base and a line perpendicular to it passing from the center. Now take any 3 points along the perimeter of the circular base as points 1, 2 and 3. Similarly take any 3 points along the perpendicular line as points A, B and C. Now it is quite simple to join each of points A, B and C with points 1, 2 and 3 without any of the lines crossing each other. <br /><br />The other possible 3D structure is Pyramid. Take points 1, 2 and 3 as a vertices of the triangular base and points A, B and C along the height of the Pyramid which is perpendicular to the triangular base and passing through the apex.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00477<br /><br />Suppose five bales of hay are weighed two at a time in all possible ways. The weights in pounds are 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 120, and 121. <br /><br />How much does each bale weigh?<br />Submitted by : Travis Lara <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />They weigh 54, 56, 58, 59, 62 pounds. <br /><br />Let's assume that the weight of five bales are B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5 pounds respectively. Also, B1 <= B2 <= B3 <= B4 <= B5 <br /><br />It is given that five bales of hay are weighed two at a time in all possible ways. It means that each of the bale is weighted four times. <br />Thus, <br />4*(B1 + B2 + B3 + B4 + B5) = (110 + 112 + 113 + 114 + 115 + 116 + 117 + 118 + 120 + 121) <br />4*(B1 + B2 + B3 + B4 + B5) = 1156 <br />(B1 + B2 + B3 + B4 + B5) = 289 pounds <br /><br />Now, B1 and B2 must add to 110 as they are the lightest one. <br />B1 + B2 = 110 <br /><br />Similarly, B4 and B5 must add to 121 as they are the heaviest one. <br />B4 + B5 = 121 <br /><br />From above three equation, we get B3 = 58 pounds <br /><br />Also, it is obvious that B1 and B3 will add to 112 - the next possible higher value. Similarly, B3 and B5 will add to 120 - the next possible lower value. <br />B1 + B3 = 112 <br />B3 + B5 = 120 <br /><br />Substituting B3 = 58, we get B1 = 54 and B5 = 62 <br />From 2 & 3 equations, we get B2 = 56 and B4 = 59 <br /><br />Hence, the weight of five bales are 54, 56, 58, 59 and 62 pounds.<br /><br />Pinto says, "The horse is not Black." <br />Sandy says, "The horse is either Brown or Grey." <br />Andy says, "The horse is Brown." <br /><br />At least one is telling truth and at least one is lying. <br /><br />Can you tell the color of the horse?<br />Answer<br /><br />The color of the horse can be any color other than Black and Brown. <br /><br />If the color of the horse is Black - all are lying. <br /><br />If the color of the horse is Brown - all are telling truth. <br /><br />Thus, the horse is neither Black nor Brown. <br /><br />If the color of the horse is Grey - Pinto and Sandy are telling truth whereas Andy is lying. <br /><br />If the color of the horse is other than Black, Brown and Grey - Pinto is telling truth whereas Sandy and Andy are lying. <br /><br />You must have noticed that for the given conditions, Pinto is always telling truth whereas Andy is always lying<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00258<br /><br />Three convicts are brought into the warden's office. He says he can parole one of them and to decide which one he will parole he takes out 5 hats (3 red and 2 white). He stands behind them and places a hat on each one of their heads and puts the other two remaining hats in a drawer. <br /><br />He tells the prisioners they can look at the others hats and if they can tell which hat they have on they will be the one who is paroled. <br /><br />The first man looks at the other two and says, "I don't know." <br /><br />The second man looks at the others hats and says, "I don't know." <br /><br />The third man who is blind says, "Even though I have not the gift of sight I can tell by what the others have said that the color of my hat is..." <br /><br />What color is the blind mans hat and how does he know?<br />Submitted <br />Answer<br /><br />The color of blind man's hat is Red. <br /><br />It is sure that the first man saw either both Red hats or one White hat and one Red hat. There are 6 such possibilities: <br /> 1) R R R<br /><br /> 2) R R W<br /><br /> 3) R W R<br /><br /> 4) W R R<br /><br /> 5) W R W<br /><br /> 6) W W R<br />In all above possibilities, the first man won't be sure of the color of his hat. <br /><br />Now, the second man knows that the first man saw either both Red hats or one White hat and one Red hat. And, he also knows that its one of the above 6 possibilities. (like we know ;)) But he says, "I don't know". That means that (2) and (5) are not the possibilities as in either case he would be sure of the color of his hat (Red) by just looking at the third man's color of hat (White). <br /><br />Now, the blind man knows that there are just 4 possibilities - (1), (3), (4), (6) - and in all, the color of his hat is Red.<br /><br />Submit<br />Answer<br /> <br />Users<br />Answer (48)<br /> <br />BrainVista<br />Answer<br /> <br />Puzzle A<br />Friend<br /> <br />Add to<br />Favourite<br /> <br />Back to<br />Search Result<br /><br /> <br /> Hello sajeesh murali<br /> • my Answers<br /> • my Favourites<br /> • Modify Personal Info<br /> • Subscribe<br /> • Logout<br /><br /> <br /><br /><br /> <br /><br /> <br /><br /> <br /><br /> <br /><br /> <br /> • Jigsaw Puzzle<br /> • Join the Dots<br /> • Marbles Game<br /> • Balls Game<br /> • Towers of Hanoi<br /><br /> <br /> • Think Number<br /> • Find A Day<br /><br /> <br /> <br /><br /><br /> Brain Teaser No <br /> <br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Three Gold (G) coins, three Silver (S) coins and three Copper (C) coins are arranged in a single row as follow:<br /> G S C G S C G S C<br />• Only 2 adjacent unlike coins can be moved at any one time. <br />• The moved coins must be in contact with at least one other coin in line. i.e. no pair of coins is to be moved and placed away from the remaining ones. <br />• No coin pairs can be reversed i.e. a S-C combination must remain in that order in its new positionwhen it is moved.<br />What is the minimum number of moves required to get all the coins in following order?<br /> C C C S S S G G G<br />Show all moves.<br />Answer<br /><br />Minimum number of moves are 8. <br />Move Order of Coins<br />0 G S C G S C G S C <br />1 G S G S C G S C C <br />2 G S C G S C C S G<br />3 G S C G S C C S G<br />4 G S C C S G S C G<br />5 G S C C S C S G G<br />6 G S C C C S S G G<br />7 C C C S S G G S G<br />8 C C C S S S G G G <br />A fly is flying between two trains, each travelling towards each other on the same track at 60 km/h. The fly reaches one engine, reverses itself immediately, and flies back to the other engine, repeating the process each time. <br /><br />The fly is flying at 90 km/h. If the fly flies 180 km before the trains meet, how far apart were the trains initially?<br />Answer<br /><br />Initially, the trains were 240 km apart. <br /><br />The fly is flying at the speed of 90 km/h and covers 180 km. Hence, the fly flies for 2 hours after trains started. <br /><br />It's obvious that trains met 2 hours after they started travelling towards each other. Also, trains were travelling at the speed of 60 km/h. So, each train traveled 120 km before they met. <br /><br />Hence, the trains were 240 km apart initially.<br /><br />What is the minimum number of numbers needed to form every number from 1 to 7,000? <br /><br />Example: To form 4884, you would need 2 4s & 2 8s. 4822 requires a 4, a 8, & 2 2s, but you would not count the numbers again that you had already counted from making 4884.<br />Answer<br /><br />36 <br /><br />You will need 3 of numbers 0, 7, 8 & 9, & 4 of numbers 1-6.<br />A drinks machine offers three selections - Tea, Coffee or Random (Either tea or Coffee) but the machine has been wired up wrongly so that each button does not give what it claims. <br /><br />If each drink costs 50p, how much minimum money do you have to put into the machine to work out which button gives which selection?<br />Submitted<br />Answer<br /><br />You have to put just 50p. <br /><br />Put 50p and push the button for Random. There are only 2 possibilities. It will give either Tea or Coffee. <br />• If it gives Tea, then the button named Random is for Tea. The button named Coffee is for Random selection. And the button named Tea is for Coffee. <br />• If it gives Coffee, then the button named Random is for Coffee. The button named Tea is for Random selection. And the button named Coffee is for Tea.<br />Thus, you can make out which button is for what by putting just 50p and pressing Random selection first.<br />You have 13 balls which all look identical. All the balls are the same weight except for one. Using only a balance scale, can find the odd one out with only 3 weighings? <br /><br />Is it possible to always tell if the odd one out is heavier or lighter than the other balls?<br />Submitted by : Brett Hurrell<br />Answer<br /><br />It is always possible to find odd ball in 3 weighings and in most of the cases it is possible to tell whether the odd ball is heavier or lighter. Only in one case, it is not possible to tell the odd ball is whether heavier or lighter. <br />1. Take 8 balls and weigh 4 against 4. <br />o If both are not equal, goto step 2 <br />o If both are equal, goto step 3 <br /><br />2. One of these 8 balls is the odd one. Name the balls on heavier side of the scale as H1, H2, H3 and H4. Similarly, name the balls on the lighter side of the scale as L1, L2, L3 and L4. Either one of H's is heavier or one of L's is lighter. Weigh (H1, H2, L1) against (H3, H4, X) where X is one ball from the remaining 5 balls in intial weighing. <br />o If both are equal, one of L2, L3, L4 is lighter. Weigh L2 against L3. <br /> If both are equal, L4 is the odd ball and is lighter. <br /> If L2 is light, L2 is the odd ball and is lighter. <br /> If L3 is light, L3 is the odd ball and is lighter. <br /><br />o If (H1, H2, L1) is heavier side on the scale, either H1 or H2 is heavier. Weight H1 against H2 <br /> If both are equal, there is some error. <br /> If H1 is heavy, H1 is the odd ball and is heavier. <br /> If H2 is heavy, H2 is the odd ball and is heavier. <br /><br />o If (H3, H4, X) is heavier side on the scale, either H3 or H4 is heavier or L1 is lighter. Weight H3 against H4 <br /> If both are equal, L1 is the odd ball and is lighter. <br /> If H3 is heavy, H3 is the odd ball and is heavier. <br /> If H4 is heavy, H4 is the odd ball and is heavier. <br /><br />3. One of the remaining 5 balls is the odd one. Name the balls as C1, C2, C3, C4, C5. Weight (C1, C2, C3) against (X1, X2, X3) where X1, X2, X3 are any three balls from the first weighing of 8 balls. <br />o If both are equal, one of remaining 2 balls is the odd i.e. either C4 or C5. Weigh C4 with X1 <br /> If both are equal, C5 is the odd ball. But you can not tell whether it is heavier or lighter. <br /> If C4 is heavy, C4 is the odd ball and is heavier. <br /> If C4 is light, C4 is the odd ball and is lighter. <br /><br />o If (C1, C2, C3) is heavier side, one of C1, C2, C3 is the odd ball and is heavier. Weigh C1 and C2. <br /> If both are equal, C3 is the odd ball and is heavier. <br /> If C1 is heavy, C1 is the odd ball and is heavier. <br /> If C2 is heavy, C2 is the odd ball and is heavier. <br /><br />o If (C1, C2, C3) is lighter side, one of C1, C2, C3 is the odd ball and is lighter. Weigh C1 and C2. <br /> If both are equal, C3 is the odd ball and is heavier. <br /> If C1 is light, C1 is the odd ball and is lighter. <br /> If C2 is light, C2 is the odd ball and is lighter.<br />How many squares are there in a 5 inch by 5 inch square grid? Note that the grid is made up of one inch by one inch squares.<br />Submitted by : Kristin Monroe<br />Answer<br /><br />There are 55 squares in a 5 by 5 grid. <br /><br />There are 25 squares of one grid. <br />There are 16 squares of four grids i.e. 2 by 2 <br />There are 9 squares of nine grids i.e. 3 by 3 <br />There are 4 squares of sixteen grids i.e. 4 by 4 <br />There is 1 square of twenty-five girds i.e. 5 by 5 <br /><br />Hence, there are total 25 + 16 + 9 + 4 + 1 = 55 squares. <br /><br />You must have noticed one thing that total number squares possible of each size is always a perfact square i.e. 25, 16, 9, 4, 1 <br /><br />For a grid of N by N, the possible number of squares are <br />= N2 + (N - 1)2 + (N - 2)2 + (N - 3)2 + ......... + 32 + 22 + 12 <br /><br />For 1 by 1 grid, total squares = 12 = 1 <br />For 2 by 2 grid, total squares = 22 + 12 = 5 <br />For 3 by 3 grid, total squares = 32 + 22 + 12 = 14 <br />For 4 by 4 grid, total squares = 42 + 32 + 22 + 12 = 30 <br />For 5 by 5 grid, total squares = 52 + 42 + 32 + 22 + 12 = 55<br />Five horses ran in the race. <br />• There were no ties. <br />• Sikandar did not come first. <br />• Star was neither first nor last. <br />• Mughal Glory came in one place after Sikandar. <br />• Zozo was not second. <br />• Rangila was two place below Zozo.<br />In what order did the horses finish?<br />Answer<br /><br />It's simple. <br /><br />Let's find the possible places horses can finish. Possibilities are: <br />Sikandar - 2,3,4 (not 5th as Mughal Glory came one place after him) <br />Star - 2,3,4 <br />Mughal Glory - 3,4,5 <br />Zozo - 1,3 (not 4th & 5th as Rangila is two place after him) <br />Rangila - 3,5 <br /><br />So the result is: <br />1 Zozo <br />2 Star <br />3 Rangila <br />4 Sikandar <br />5 Mughal Glory<br /><br />If you added together the number of 2's in each of the following sets of numbers, which set would contain the most 2's: 1-333, 334-666, or 667-999?<br />Answer<br /><br />1-333 <br /><br />The reason why is because 200-299 each begins with a 2!<br /><br />If one person sends the e-mail to two friends, asking each of them to copy the mail and send it to two of their friends, those in turn send it to two of their friends and so on. <br /><br />How many e-mails would have been sent by the time it did 30 sets?<br />Answer<br /><br />2147483646 <br /><br />First person sent the mail to 2 persons. Those 2 sent the mail to 2 persons each, total 4 persons. Now, those 4 person sent mail to total 8 persons, then 8 to 16 persons, 16 to 32 persons and so on.... Hence, it a series of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 upto 30 numbers <br /><br />It is a Geometric series with common ratio 2 and first number is also 2. Summation of such series is given by A * (Rn - 1) / (R - 1) where <br />A = First term <br />R = Common Ratio <br />n = total numbers <br /><br />So total number of times mail sent by the time it did 30 sets <br />= 2 * (230 - 1) / (2 - 1) <br />= 2 * (1073741824 - 1) <br />= 2 * 1073741823 <br />= 2147483646<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00347<br /><br />At the entrance to a members club stands a stranger seeking admission. A friend told him that it's easy to get in. You just have to answer a question corrcetly! Answering wrong, however, will result in being shot! <br /><br />To live a little longer, the man waits in a back alley near the entrance for people to go in. After a while a man comes to the entrance. The door warden asks him: "Twelve?" to which he replies "Six!" and goes in. <br /><br />"That's easy." our friend thinks, but he waits a little longer. <br /><br />Another man comes to the door. "Six?" the door warden asks, to which he replies "Three!" and goes in. <br /><br />"That's too good to be true" our friend thinks, and he was right. Because, when asked "Four?", he answered "Two!" and was found dead in the alley. <br /><br />What was the correct answer?<br />Submitted by : Milind Gadagkar <br />Answer<br /><br />The correct answer was "Four". <br /><br />The answer is the number of letters in the word spoken by the door warden. <br /><br />"Twelve" contains "Six" letters i.e. T, W, E, L, V, E <br />"Six" contains "Three" letters i.e. S, I, X <br />Similarly, "Four" contains "Four" letters i.e. F, O, U, R<br />There is a perfect sphere of diameter 40 cms. resting up against a perfectly straight wall and a perfectly straight floor i.e. the wall and the floor make a perfect right angle. <br /><br />Can a perfect sphere of diameter 7 cms. pass through the space between the big sphere, the wall and the floor? Support your answer with valid arguments. Don't submit just "Yes" or "No". <br />Submit<br />Answer<br /> <br />Users<br />Answer (23)<br /> <br />BrainVista<br />Answer<br /> <br />Puzzle A<br />Friend<br /> <br />Add to<br />Favourite<br /><br /><br /> <br /><br />For the sake of simplicity, consider two-dimension i.e view sphere as a two dimensional circle with diameter 40 cms. <br /><br />From Figure I, (40 cms diameter sphere) <br />OC2 = OD2 + CD2 <br />OC2 = 202 + 202 <br />OC = 28.28427 cms <br /><br />Also, X is the closest point to origin O on the sphere. <br />CX = 20 cms (radius) <br />OX = OC - CX <br />OX = 28.28427 - 20 <br />OX = 8.28427 cms <br /><br />From Figure II, (7 cms diameter sphere) <br />OP2 = OQ2 + PQ2 <br />OP2 = (3.5)2 + (3.5)2 <br />OP = 4.94974 cms <br /><br />Also, Y is the farthest point to origin O on the sphere. <br />PY = 3.5 cms (radius) <br />OY = OP + PY <br />OY = 4.94974 + 3.5 <br />OY = 8.44974 cms <br /><br />Now, as OY > OX i.e. smaller sphere requires more space than the space available. Hence, smaller sphere of 7 cms diameter can not pass through the space between the big sphere, the wall and the floor. <br /><br />The puzzle can be solved by another method. <br />Draw a line tangent to the big sphere at the point X such that X is the closest point to the origin O on sphere. The tanget will cut X and Y axes at A and B respectively such that OA=OB. [See Fig III] From above, OX=8.28427 cms. <br /><br />From the right angle triangle OAB, we can deduct that <br />OA = OB = 11.71572 cms <br />AB = 16.56854 cms <br /><br />Now, the diameter of the inscribed circle of right angle triangle is given by d = a + b - c where a <= b < c <br /><br />The maximum possible diameter of the circle which can pass through the space between the big sphere, the wall and the floor is <br />= OA + OB - AB <br />= 11.71572 + 11.71572 - 16.56854 <br />= 6.86291 cms <br /><br />Hence, the sphere with 7 cms diameter can not pass through the space between the big sphere, the wall and the floor.<br /><br />Submit<br />Answer<br /> <br />Users<br />Answer (23)<br /> <br />BrainVista<br />Answer<br /> <br />Puzzle A<br />Friend<br /> <br />Add<br /><br />Sarika multiplied 414 by certain number and obtained 69958 as the answer. But she found that there is some error in the answer - both the 9s in the answer are wrong and all the other digits are correct. <br /><br />Can you find the correct answer?<br />Answer<br /><br />The correct answer is 60858. <br /><br />If you divide 69958 by 414, you will get 168.98. Hence, assume some three digit number and multiply it by 414 and use 6**58 as the answer. <br /><br />Assume three digit number such that<br /> * * *<br /><br /> 4 1 4<br /><br /> -------------<br /><br /> * * * <br /><br /> * * * 0<br /><br /> * * * 0 0<br /><br /> -------------<br /><br /> 6 * * 5 8<br />It is obvious that the last digit of the assumed number must be 7.<br /> * * 7<br /><br /> 4 1 4<br /><br /> -------------<br /><br /> * * 8 <br /><br /> * * 7 0<br /><br /> * * 8 0 0<br /><br /> -------------<br /><br /> 6 * * 5 8<br />Now, the second last digit of the assumed number must be 4 or 9. Also, the first digit of the assumed number must be 1 as the first digit of the answer is 6. Using trial and error for above two conditions, the answer is<br /> 1 4 7<br /><br /> 4 1 4<br /><br /> -------------<br /><br /> 5 8 8 <br /><br /> 1 4 7 0<br /><br /> 5 8 8 0 0<br /><br /> -------------<br /><br /> 6 0 8 5 8<br />Find the least number which when divided by 35, leaves remainder 25; when divided by 45, leaves remainder 35 and when divided by 55, leaves remainder 45.<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />3455 <br /><br />The answer is LCM of (35, 45, 55) minus 10. <br />LCM of (35, 45, 55) is 3465. <br />Hence, the answer is 3455.<br />The ratio of Boys to Girls is 6:4. 60% of the boys and 40% of the girls take lunch in the canteen. What % of class takes lunch in canteen?<br />Answer<br /><br />Assume there are 6X boys and 4X Girls <br /><br />Total Students taking lunch in canteen <br />= (6X)(60/100) + (4X)(40/100) <br />= 36(X/10) + 16(X/10) <br />= 52(X/10) <br /><br />Total students are = 6X + 4X = 10X <br /><br />% of class taking lunch in canteen <br />= ((52X/10) * 100 ) / 10X <br />= 52 %<br />In the following multiplication, certain digits have been replaced with asterisks (*). Replace all the asterisks such that the problem holds the result.<br /> * * 7<br /><br /> X 3 * *<br /><br /> ----------<br /><br /> * 0 * 3<br /><br /> * 1 *<br /><br /> * 5 *<br /><br /> -------------<br /><br /> * 7 * * 3<br />Answer<br /><br />A simple one. <br /> 1 1 7<br /><br /> X 3 1 9<br /><br /> ----------<br /><br /> 1 0 5 3<br /><br /> 1 1 7<br /><br /> 3 5 1<br /><br /> -------------<br /><br /> 3 7 3 2 3<br />How long would it take you to count 1 billion orally if you could count 200 every minute and were given a day off every four years? <br /><br />Assume that you start counting on 1 January 2001.<br />SubmitteAnswer<br /><br />9 Years, 187 Days, 5 Hours, 20 minutes <br /><br />As you can count 200 per minute, to count 1 billion you require <br />= 1,000,000,000/200 minutes <br />= 5,000,000 minutes <br />= 83,333.3333 hours <br />= 3,472.2222 days <br />= 9.512937 years <br />= 9 Years, 187 Days, 5 Hours, 20 minutes <br /><br />Note that a day off every four year will be a Leap day. Hence, no need to consider leap year.<br />dFive students - Akash, Chintan, Jignesh, Mukund and Venky - appeared for an exam. There were total five questions - two multiple choice (a, b or c) and three true/false questions. They answered five questions each and answered as follow.<br /> I II III IV V <br /><br /> --------------------------------------------------<br /><br /> Chintan c b True True False <br /><br /> Akash c c True True True <br /><br /> Jignesh a c False True True <br /><br /> Mukund b a True True False <br /><br /> Venky b b True False True <br /><br /> --------------------------------------------------<br />Also, no two students got the same number of correct answers. <br /><br />Can you tell which are the correct answers? What are their individual score?<br />Answer<br /><br />The correct answers are b, a, True, False and False. Also, the scores are Jignesh (0), Akash (1), Chintan (2), Venky (3) and Mukund (4). <br /><br />As no two students got the same number of correct answers, the total number of correct answers must be either 15 (1+2+3+4+5) or 10 (0+1+2+3+4). <br /><br />Let's find out the maximum number of correct answers possible from the answers given by them. <br />For Question I = 2 (b or c) <br />For Question II = 2 (b or c) <br />For Question III = 4 (True) <br />For Question IV = 4 (True) <br />For Question V = 3 (True) <br /><br />Thus, the maximum number of correct answers possible are 15 (2+2+4+4+3) which means that Akash would have given all correct answers as only he answered True for questions III, IV and V. But then Chintan and Jignesh would have exactly 3 correct answers. And also, Mukund and Venky would have 2 correct answers. So no one got all five correct. One can also arrive at this conclusion by trial-and-error, but that would be bit lengthy. <br /><br />Now, it is clear that total number of correct answers are 10 (0+1+2+3+4). Questions III and IV both can not be False. If so, total number of correct answers would not be 10. So the student who got all wrong can not be Chintan, Akash and Mukund. <br /><br />If Venky got all wrong, then Chintan, Jignesh and Mukund each would have atleast 2 correct answers. It means that Akash would have to be the student with only one correct answer and the correct answers for questions I and II would be a and a respectively. But then the total number of correct answers would be 1 (a) + 1 (a) + 1 (False) + 4 (True) + 2 (Flase) = 9. <br /><br />Thus, Jignesh is the student with all wrong answers. The correct answers are b, a, True, False and False. Also, the scores are Jignesh (0), Akash (1), Chintan (2), Venky (3) and Mukund (4).<br /><br />Eleven boys and girls wait to take their seats in the same row in a movie theater. There are exactly 11 seats in the row. <br /><br />They decided that after the first person sits down, the next person has to sit next to the first. The third sits next to one of the first two and so on until all eleven are seated. In other words, no person can take a seat that separates him/her from at least one other person. <br /><br />How many different ways can this be accomplished? Note that the first person can choose any of the 11 seats.<br />Answer<br /><br />There are 1024 different ways. <br /><br />This is the type of Brain Teaser that can be solved using the method of induction. <br /><br />If there is just a one person and one seat, that person has only one option. <br /><br />If there are two persons and two seats, it can be accomplished in 2 different ways. <br /><br />If there are three persons and three seats, it can be accomplished in 4 different ways. Remember that no person can take a seat that separates him/her from at least one other person. <br /><br />Similarly, four persons and four seats produce 8 different ways. And five persons with five seats produce 16 different ways. <br /><br />It can be seen that with each additional person and seat, the different ways increase by the power of two. For six persons with six seats, there are 32 different ways. <br /><br />For any number N, the different possible ways are 2(N-1) <br /><br />Thus, for 11 persons and 11 seats, total different ways are 210 i.e. 1024<br />The secret agent X emailed a code word to his head office. They are "AIM DUE OAT TIE MOD". But four of these five words are fake and only one contains the information. <br /><br />The agent X also mailed a sentence as a clue - if I tell you any one character of the code word, you would be able to tell the number of vowels in the code word. <br /><br />Can you tell which is the code word?<br /><br />Answer<br /><br />The code word is TIE. <br /><br />If you were told any one character of MOD, then you would not be able to determine whether the number of vowels are one or two. e.g. if you were told M, there are two words with M - AIM with 2 vowels and MOD with 1 vowel. So you would not be able to say the number of vowels. Same arguments can be given for characters O and D. <br /><br />Hence, the word with any one of M, O or D is not a code word i.e. AIM, DUE, OAT and MOD are not the code word. Thus, TIE is the code word. <br />T : two words - TIE and OAT, both with 2 vowels <br />I : two words - TIE and AIM, both with 2 vowels <br />E : two words - TIE and DUE, both with 2 vowels.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00361<br /><br />Four men - Abraham, Bobby, Clinton and Denial - are standing in a straight line. <br />1. One man is fair, handsome and unscarred. <br />2. Two men who are not fair, are each standing next to Abraham. <br />3. Bobby is the only man standing next to exactly one handsome man. <br />4. Clinton is the only man not standing next to exactly one scarred man.<br />Who is fair, handsome and unscarred? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Clinton is fair, handsome and unscarred. <br /><br />From (2), both the men standing next to Abraham are not fair. Also, exactly one man is fair, handsom and unscarred. Hence, there are two cases: <br /><br />Case 1 :: ? (N, ?, ?) : Abraham (Y, Y, N) : ? (N, ?, ?) : ? (?, ?, ?) <br />Case 2 :: ? (N, ?, ?) : Abraham (?, ?, ?) : ? (N, ?, ?) : ? (Y, Y, N) <br /><br />Note the representation - Name (Fair, Handsome, Scarred). "Y" stands for Yes and "N" stabds for No. Abraham (Y, Y, N) means Abraham is Fair, Handsome and Unscarred. <br /><br />It is clear that either Abraham or the man at the extreme right is fair, handsome and unscarred. <br /><br />From (4), it is deduced that Clinton is standing next to unscarred man and each of the other men standing next to exactly one scarred man. <br /><br />Case 1 :: Clinton (N, ?, N) : Abraham (Y, Y, N) : ? (N, ?, Y) : ? (?, ?, Y) <br />Case 2 :: ? (N, ?, Y) : Abraham (?, ?, Y) : ? (N, ?, N) : Clinton (Y, Y, N) <br /><br />From (3), Bobby is the only man standing next to exactly one handsome man. But in Case 1, Clinton is standing next to exactly one handsome man. Hence, Case 1 is not possible and Case 2 is the correct one. <br /><br />Case 2 :: ? (N, ?, Y) : Abraham (?, ?, Y) : ? (N, ?, N) : Clinton (Y, Y, N) <br /><br />Again from (3) and (4), there are 2 possibilities as shown below. <br /><br />Case 2a :: Denial (N, N, Y) : Abraham (?, N, Y) : Bobby (N, N, N) : Clinton (Y, Y, N) <br />Case 2b :: Bobby (N, N, Y) : Abraham (?, Y, Y) : Denial (N, N, N) : Clinton (Y, Y, N) <br /><br />Thus, Clinton is fair, handsome and unscarred. Also, Abraham may be either fair or not fair.<br />An orange colored glass has Orange juice and white colored glass has Apple juice both of equal volumes. 50ml of the orange juice is taken and poured into the white glass. After that similarly, 50ml from the white glass is poured into the orange glass. <br /><br />Of the two quantities, the amount of apple juice in the orange glass and the amount of orange juice in the white glass, which one is greater and by how much?<br />Answer<br /><br />The two quantities are equal. <br /><br />Solve it by taking example. Let's assume that both glasses contain 450 ml of juice each. <br /><br />Now, 50ml of the orange juice is taken and poured into the White glass. Hence, orange colored glass contains 400 ml of Orange juice and white glass contains 450 ml of Apple juice and 50 ml of Orange juice i.e. total of 500 ml from white glass contains 450 ml of Apple juice and 50 ml of Orange juice. It means that every 50 ml from white glass contains 45 ml of Apple juice and 5 ml of Orange juice. <br /><br />Similary, 50 ml of juice from white glass is poured into orange glass. Now this 50 ml is not a pure apple juice. It contains 45 ml of Apple juice and 5 ml of Orange juice. <br /><br />Hence, Orange glass contains 405 ml of Orange juice and 45 ml of Apple juice. Similary, white glass contains 405 ml of Apple juice and 45 ml of Orange juice. <br /> Orange Glass White Glass<br /> Orange Juice Apple Juice Orange Juice Apple Juice<br />Initially 450 ml 0 ml 0 ml 450 ml<br />50 ml from Orange Glass is poured into White Glass 400 ml 0 ml 50 ml 450 ml<br />50 ml from White Glass is poured into Orange Glass 405 ml 45 ml 45 ml 405 ml<br /><br />Now it is clear that the amount of apple juice in the orange glass and the amount of orange juice in the white glass are the same. <br /><br />P.S. Here we assumed 450 ml as initial quantity in both the glasses just for simplicity. You can try the same by assuming any other number. But the answer is the same.<br /> Brain Teaser No : 00433<br /><br />Annie, Bunnie, Candy and Dina visited Edy on 14th February. <br />1. The time of each visit was as follows: <br />- Annie at 8:00 <br />- Bunnie at 9:00 <br />- Candy at 10:00 <br />- Dina at 11:00 <br />Each time mentioned above may be either AM or PM. <br />2. Candy did not visit Edy between Bunnie and Dina. <br />3. At least one female visited Edy between Annie and Bunnie. <br />4. Annie did not visit Edy before both Candy and Dina.<br />Can you tell at what time did they individually visit Edy? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />Bunnie (9:00AM) - Dina (11:00AM) - Annie (8:00PM) - Candy (10:00PM) <br /><br />From the given data, it is clear that at least one female visited Edy in the morning and at least one female visited Edy in the evening. Also, from (4), Annie did not visit Edy first. It means that Annie visited Edy at 8:00 PM <br /><br />From (3), Bunnie must have visited Edy at 9:00 AM. Also, either Candy or Dina or both visited Edy in the morning. <br /><br />But from (2), only Dina must have visited Edy in the morning at 11:00 AM and hence, Candy visited Edy at 10:00 PM. <br /><br />The order of visits must be: <br />Bunnie (9:00AM) - Dina (11:00AM) - Annie (8:00PM) - Candy (10:00PM)<br /><br />In training for a competition, you find that swimming downstream (with the current) in a river, you can swim 2 miles in 40 minutes, & upstream (against the current), you can swim 2 miles in 60 minutes. <br /><br />How long would it take you to swim a mile in still water?<br />Answer<br /><br />You are able to swim downstream at 3 miles an hour, & upstream at 2 miles an hour. There is a difference of 1 mile an hour, which is the river helping you in 1 direction, & slowing you in the other direction. <br /><br />Average the 2 rates, & you have the rate that you can swim in still water, which is 2.5 miles an hour. <br /><br />You can thus swim a mile in still water in 24 minutes.<br />Father's age is three years more than three times the son's age. After three years, father's age will be ten years more than twice the son's age. <br /><br />What is the father's present age?<br />Answer<br /><br />Let son's present age is X years. <br />Hence, father's present age is (3X + 3) years. <br /><br />After 3 years, son's age will be (X + 3) years. <br />and father's age will be (3X + 6) years. <br /><br />But given that after 3 years father's age will be ten years more than twice the son's age. <br />(3X + 6) = 2 * (X + 3) + 10 <br />3X + 6 = 2X + 16 <br />X = 10 <br /><br />Therefore, father's present age is 33 years.<br /><br />Submit<br />Answer<br /> <br />Users<br />Answer (17)<br /> <br />Brai<br /><br /> <br />Brain Teaser No : 00570<br />• A is the father of two children - B and D who are of different sexes. <br />• C is B's spouse. <br />• E is the same sex as D. <br />• B and C have the two children - F who is the same sex as B and G who is the same sex as C. <br />• E's mother, H who is married to L, is the sister of D's mother, M. <br />• E and E's spouse, I have two children - J and K who are the same sex as I.<br />Note that no persons have married more than once. Also, there are more number of females than males. Can you tell how many females are there? <br /><br />Answer<br /><br />There are 7 females and 6 males. <br /><br />Assume that there are four sexes - male, female, X and Y. Prepare the following tree based on the data given :<br /><br /> sister<br /><br /> L(m) - H(f) -------------------- M(f) - A(m)<br /><br /> | |<br /><br /> | |<br /><br /> E(x) - I(y) D(x) B(y) - C(x)<br /><br /> | |<br /><br /> | |<br /><br /> J(y) K(y) F(y) G(x)<br /><br />It is clear that there are altogether 13 persons - 2 males, 2 females, 4 Xs and 5 Ys. <br /><br />It is given that there are more number of females than male. Hence, all Y must represent female. Thus, there are 7 females and 6 males.<br />A positive integer that, when added to 1000 gives a sum which is greater than when multiplied by 1000. <br /><br />Find the positive integer.<br />Answer<br /><br />The positive integer is 1. <br /><br />Sum of 1 and 1000 = 1 + 1000 = 1001 <br />Multiplication of 1 and 1000 = 1 * 1000 = 1000 <br /><br />Thus, sum of 1 and 1000 is greater than the multiplication of 1 and 1000.<br />Mr. D'souza has bought four cars - Merc, Honda, Ford, Zen - as presents for his sons' birthdays, all of which are next week. Given the following information, what will each son get? <br /><br />Alan will not get the Honda unless Barry gets the Merc and Denzil gets the Ford. Barry will not get the Ford unless Carl gets the Zen and Alan gets the Merc. Denzil will not get the Zen unless Alan gets the Honda and Barry gets the Merc. Alan will not get the Merc unless Carl gets the Zen and Denzil gets the Ford. Barry will not get the Merc unless Alan gets the Zen and Denzil gets the Ford. Alan will not get the Zen unless Barry gets the Honda and Carl gets the Merc. Carl will not get the Zen unless Barry gets the Honda and Alan gets the Ford. Alan will not get the Ford unless Barry gets the Zen and Denzil gets the Honda. Carl will not get the Merc unless Denzil gets the Honda.<br />Answer<br /><br />Let's put given 9 information in a table. The person in Bold Font will not get the corresponding car unless the persons in Normal Font get the corresponding cars. Also, the person will Italics will get the remaining car. <br /> Merc Honda Ford Zen<br />1 Barry Alan Denzil Carl<br />2 Alan Denzil Barry Carl<br />3 Barry Alan Carl Denzil<br />4 Alan Barry Denzil Carl<br />5 Barry Carl Denzil Alan<br />6 Carl Barry Denzil Alan<br />7 Denzil Barry Alan Carl<br />8 Carl Denzil Alan Barry<br />9 Carl Denzil ? ?<br /><br />Now, let's assume that Alan gets the Merc. Then from (4), Barry gets the Honda, Denzil gets the Ford and Carl gets the Zen. But from (7), Carl will not get the Zen unless Barry gets the Honda and Alan gets the Ford. Thus, it contradicts the original assumption. Hence, Alan will not get the Merc. <br /><br />Let's assume that Alan gets the Honda. Then from (1), Barry gets the Merc, Denzil gets the Ford and Carl gets the Zen. But from (5) or from (7), it contradicts the original assumption. Hence, Alan will not get the Honda. <br /><br />Let's assume that Alan gets the Ford. Then from (8), Carl gets the Merc, Denzil gets the Ford and Barry gets the Zen - which does not contradict any of the statement. <br /><br />Similaly, you can assume that Alan gets the Zen. (which is contradictory to (9)) <br /><br />Hence, Alan gets the Ford, Barry gets the Zen, Carl gets the Merc and Denzil gets the Honda.<br />Yesterday in a party, I asked Mr. Shah his birthday. With a mischievous glint in his eyes he replied. "The day before yesterday I was 83 years old and next year I will be 86." <br /><br />Can you figure out what is the Date of Birth of Mr. Shah? Assume that the current year is 2000.<br />Answer<br /><br />Mr. Shah's date of birth is 31 December, 1915 <br /><br />Today is 1 January, 2000. The day before yesterday was 30 December, 1999 and Mr. Shah was 83 on that day. Today i.e. 1 January, 2000 - he is 84. On 31 December 2000, he will be 85 and next year i.e. 31 December, 2001 - he will be 86. Hence, the date of birth is 31 December, 1915. <br /><br />Many people do think of Leap year and date of birth as 29th February as 2000 is the Leap year and there is difference of 3 years in Mr. Shah's age. But that is not the answer.<br /><br /> Brain Teaser No : 00800<br /><br />There are 4 mathematicians - Brahma, Sachin, Prashant and Nakul - having lunch in a hotel. Suddenly, Brahma thinks of 2 integer numbers greater than 1 and says, "The sum of the numbers is..." and he whispers the sum to Sachin. Then he says, "The product of the numbers is..." and he whispers the product to Prashant. After that following conversation takes place : <br /><br />Sachin : Prashant, I don't think that we know the numbers. <br />Prashant : Aha!, now I know the numbers. <br />Sachin : Oh, now I also know the numbers. <br />Nakul : Now, I also know the numbers. <br /><br />What are the numbers? Explain your answer.<br />Submitted <br />Answer<br /><br />The numbers are 4 and 13. <br /><br />As Sachin is initially confident that they (i.e. he and Prashant) don't know the numbers, we can conclude that - <br />1) The sum must not be expressible as sum of two primes, otherwise Sachin could not have been sure in advance that Prashant did not know the numbers. <br />2) The product cannot be less than 12, otherwise there would only be one choice and Prashant would have figured that out also. <br /><br />Such possible sum are - 11, 17, 23, 27, 29, 35, 37, 41, 47, 51, 53, 57, 59, 65, 67, 71, 77, 79, 83, 87, 89, 93, 95, 97, 101, 107, 113, 117, 119, 121, 123, 125, 127, 131, 135, 137, 143, 145, 147, 149, 155, 157, 161, 163, 167, 171, 173, 177, 179, 185, 187, 189, 191, 197, .... <br /><br />Let's examine them one by one. <br /><br />If the sum of two numbers is 11, Sachin will think that the numbers would be (2,9), (3,8), (4,7) or (5,6). <br /><br />Sachin : "As 11 is not expressible as sum of two primes, Prashant can't know the numbers." <br /><br />Here, the product would be 18(2*9), 24(3*8), 28(4*7) or 30(5*6). In all the cases except for product 30, Prashant would know the numbers. <br /><br />- if product of two numbers is 18: <br />Prashant : "Since the product is 18, the sum could be either 11(2,9) or 9(3,6). But if the sum was 9, Sachin would have deduced that I might know the numbers as (2,7) is the possible prime numbers pair. Hence, the numbers must be 2 and 9." (OR in otherwords, 9 is not in the Possible Sum List) <br /><br />- if product of two numbers is 24: <br />Prashant : "Since the product is 24, the sum could be either 14(2,12), 11(3,8) or 10(4,6). But 14 and 10 are not in the Possible Sum List. Hence, the numbers must be 3 and 8." <br /><br />- if product of two numbers is 28: <br />Prashant : "Since the product is 28, the sum could be either 16(2,14) or 11(4,7). But 16 is not in the Possible Sum List. Hence, the numbers must be 4 and 7." <br /><br />- if product of two numbers is 30: <br />Prashant : "Since the product is 30, the sum could be either 17(2,15), 13(3,10) or 11(5,6). But 13 is not in the Possible Sum List. Hence, the numbers must be either (2,15) or (5,6)." Here, Prashant won't be sure of the numbers. <br /><br />Hence, Prashant will be sure of the numbers if product is either 18, 24 or 28. <br /><br />Sachin : "Since Prashant knows the numbers, they must be either (3,8), (4,7) or (5,6)." But he won't be sure. Hence, the sum is not 11. <br /><br />Summerising data for sum 11: <br />Possible Sum PRODUCT Possible Sum<br />2+9 18 2+9=11 (possible)<br />3+6=9<br />3+8 24 2+12=14<br />3+8=11 (possible)<br />4+6=10<br />4+7 28 2+12=14<br />3+8=11 (possible)<br />4+6=10<br />5+6 30 2+15=17 (possible)<br />3+10=13<br />5+6=11 (possible)<br /><br /><br />Following the same procedure for 17: <br />Possible Sum PRODUCT Possible Sum<br />2+15 30 2+15=17 (possible)<br />3+10= 13<br />5+6=11 (possible)<br />3+14 42 2+21=23 (possible)<br />3+14=17 (possible)<br />6+7=13<br />4+13 52 2+26=28<br />4+13=17 (possible)<br />5+12 60 2+30=32<br />3+20=23 (possible)<br />4+15=19<br />5+12=17 (possible)<br />6+10=16<br />6+11 66 2+33=35 (possible)<br />3+22=25<br />6+11=17 (possible)<br />7+10 70 2+35=37 (possible)<br />5+14=19<br />7+10=17 (possible)<br />8+9 72 2+36=38<br />3+24=27 (possible)<br />4+18=22<br />6+12=18<br />8+9=17 (possible)<br /><br /><br />Here, Prashant will be sure of the numbers if the product is 52. <br /><br />Sachin : "Since Prashant knows the numbers, they must be (4,13)." <br /><br />For all other numbers in the Possible Sum List, Prashant might be sure of the numbers but Sachin won't. <br /><br /><br />Here is the step by step explaination: <br /><br />Sachin : "As the sum is 17, two numbers can be either (2,15), (3,14), (4,13), (5,12), (6,11), (7,10) or (8,9). Also, as none of them is a prime numbers pair, Prashant won't be knowing numbers either." <br /><br />Prashant : "Since Sachin is sure that both of us don't know the numbers, the sum must be one of the Possible Sum List. Further, as the product is 52, two numbers can be either (2,26) or (4,13). But if they were (2,26), Sachin would not have been sure in advance that I don't know the numbers as 28 (2+26) is not in the Possible Sum List. Hence, two numbers are 4 and 13." <br /><br />Sachin : "As Prashant now knows both the numbers, out of all possible products - 30(2,15), 42(3,14), 52(4,13), 60(5,12), 66(6,11), 70(7,10), 72(8,9) - there is one product for which list of all possible sum contains ONLY ONE sum from the Possible Sum List. And also, no such two lists exist. [see table above for 17] Hence, two numbers are 4 and 13." <br /><br />Nakul figured out both the numbers just as we did by observing the conversation between Sachin and Prashant. <br /><br />It is interesting to note that there are no other such two numbers. We checked all the possible sums till 500 !!!<br />Substitute digits for the letters to make the following subtraction problem true.<br /> S A N T A<br /><br /> - C L A U S<br /><br /> -----------------<br /><br /> X M A S<br />Note that the leftmost letter can't be zero in any word. Also, there must be a one-to-one mapping between digits and letters. e.g. if you substitute 3 for the letter M, no other letter can be 3 and all other M in the puzzle must be 3.<br />Answer<br /><br />One of the simplest brain teaser as there are total 26 possible answers. <br /><br />It is obvious that S=C+1. Since A-S=S, it is clear that A=2*S or 2*s-10. Also, L and X are interchangeable. <br />SANTA - CLAUS = XMAS<br />24034 - 16492 = 7542<br />24034 - 17492 = 6542<br />24074 - 15432 = 8642<br />24074 - 18432 = 5642<br />24534 - 16492 = 8042<br />24534 - 18492 = 6042<br />24794 - 16452 = 8342<br />24794 - 18452 = 6342<br />24804 - 15462 = 9342<br />24804 - 19462 = 5342<br />24974 - 16432 = 8542<br />24974 - 18432 = 6542<br />36806 - 27643 = 9163<br />36806 - 29643 = 7163<br />36156 - 27693 = 8463<br />36156 - 28693 = 7463<br />62132 - 54206 = 7926<br />62132 - 57206 = 4926<br />62172 - 53246 = 8926<br />62172 - 58246 = 3926<br />62402 - 53276 = 9126<br />62402 - 59276 = 3126<br />62712 - 53286 = 9426<br />62712 - 59286 = 3426<br />62932 - 58206 = 4726<br />62932 - 54206 = 8726FRESHERhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/03154154368670178574noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-2158258402527566027.post-4301408965259414892007-08-19T08:15:00.002-07:002007-08-19T08:17:18.774-07:00useful guide for freshersBringing smiles on your face…<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /> <br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /> USEFUL INFORMATIONS FOR JOB HUNTERS<br /> Version 1.0<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /> Prepared by,<br /> Hemanth.B & Team<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /> May 2005<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /> <br /> <br /><br /><br /> <br />TABLE OF CONTENTS<br /><br />1. General faq 3<br />1.1 How is the IT field? 3<br />1.2 Do we need to study any mainframe/ testing/ .NET, etc? 3<br />1.3 Some of the easy ways to get call from the mnc’s 3<br />1.4 How do we prepare resume? 3<br />1.5 How do we apply? 4<br />1.6 How do we subscribe to receive yahoo group mails? 4<br />1.7 Where do we get company model question papers? 4<br />1.8 What are the books we have to prepare before we go for test/ interview? 5<br />1.9 Where do we get the details about companies and details? 5<br />1.10 Am I suitable for IT field? 5<br />1.11 Employee reference for MNC’s 5<br />2. Company test patterns 5<br />2.1 How to prepare for Infosys? 5<br />2.2 How to prepare for TCS? 6<br />3. Useful websites 6<br />3.1 Company question paper sites 6<br />3.2 Technical document sites 7<br />3.3 Puzzle sites 7<br />4. INTERVIEW TIPS 10<br />5.1 Common interview questions 10<br />5.2 Job Interviewing Do's and Don'ts 14<br />5. SAMPLE RESUME (ASCII FORMAT RESUME) 17<br />6.1 Sample cover letter – Fresher 17<br />6.2 Sample cover letter – Experience 17<br />6.3 Sample resume – Fresher 17<br />6.4 Sample resume - Experience 20<br />6. DO FIGHT WITH JOB HUNTING 24<br />7. Motivating words 25<br />9. At any cost don’t let your hope down, we are here to support you 28<br /><br />1. GENERAL FAQ<br />1.1 How is the IT field?<br />""Market is good or bad, we should get a good job"", we are in need of a good job which should be pertinent to our qualification. Always fresher should keep this mentality. Market is really very good. We need not worry about market status. Keep on trying till you get a good job. Do fight with your job hunting. Surely you will win.<br />1.2 Do we need to study any mainframe/ testing/ .NET, etc?<br />For fresher, absolutely no need for computer courses. More practice in Quantitative analysis , C , C++ is more than sufficient to clear the software test papers also the recruiters do not expect professional experience from the fresh graduates. A good guidance is hundred times better than a computer course.<br />If you are graduated before 2004 and if you feel that you don’t have sufficient knowledge in any of the software languages, try to join some computer courses like testing/ mainframe/ .NET, meanwhile u can try similar projects at your lab or home so that you can include it as a work experience even though you are not employed anywhere. This is a tip given by the expertise because in many of the interviews, the candidate will not be asked about the work experience rather he will be asked technically.<br />1.3 Some of the easy ways to get call from the mnc’s<br />There are some Yahoo Groups which provide fresher job vacancies and also about the latest trends and scope for the fresher in IT Field. Here are some of the groups which provide fresher information.<br />If possible please create a new id so that u can get just about job information and also use the same id when you participate in job forums which are conducted online nowadays. <br />One more point, Every Wednesday, follow "Economic Times or Times of India"(Bangalore openings) and "The Hindu"(Chennai openings) without fail. There you can find more opportunities. Try to get past one year Economic Times and Hindu papers from library. Collect all the jobs related ids. (Including experience also)<br />Apply to all the ids. You will be regularly getting interview calls from companies.<br />1.4 How do we prepare resume?<br />Freshers: Companies like Infosys, TCS and Wipro expects your percentage from 10th onwards, so it is better include all your curriculum (10th, 12th, all Degree) percentage in your resume. Resumes should be scanable it should be simple and easy to get information within a single look. It should not contain unwanted information. <br />Experience: You resume should have the following details, apart from the basic details.<br />1. Company name<br />2. Project name<br />3. Project duration<br />4. Client<br />5. Team size<br />6. Role<br />7. Project description<br />8. Activities (We have to mention our project activities)<br />9. Platform<br />You can get sample resume formats from section 6 of this document. If you want sample MS-Word format resume, contact any of our NEST Career Guidance member.<br /><br />1.5 How do we apply?<br />If you get any openings specific to your skill set, follow as indicted in the advertisement.<br /><br />If you are applying for multiple companies, without advertisements or for positions not specific to your skill sets,<br />1. Prepare a generalized cover letter, ascii format resume(plain text format resume) and Word format resume<br />2. Paste your covering letter followed by the plaintext resume in the compose box of your mail<br />3. Attach your word format resume.<br />4. Subject should be like, “Resume for Software Engineer (C, C++, JAVA and VC++)”<br />5. Type your id in “TO’ field and bulk of ids in “BCC” field, do apply.<br />1.6 Where do we get company model question papers?<br />If you get a call letter for written test, from any companies then go to the following site...<br /><br />http://www.freewebs.com/hemanthb2005/company.htm<br /><br /><br />Collect the previous question papers and prepare well. Never miss to go to that site before you go for Interview/Test. There may be a chance to get the same question papers.<br />1.7 What are the books we have to prepare before we go for test/ interview?<br />Aptitude:<br />Arithmetic Reasoning - R.S.Agarwal<br />Barron's GRE Guide.<br />Shakuntala Devi, George summer puzzle books<br /><br />Technical Books:<br />For freshers, C and C++ is enough to get a job.<br />Let us C, C++, Exploring C - YASHAVANT P. KANETKAR<br />Turbo C++ - Robert lafore (A very good guide to get basic idea about C++ and OOPS)<br />Complete Reference – C, C++<br /><br />1.8 Am I suitable for IT field?<br />Anyone who has completed a graduation from an affiliated university is suitable for IT field. IT field does not expect any specialization from your graduation but it expect good problem solving, logical thinking and good communication skills. This can be achieved along with your curriculum subjects by spending an hour per day. R.S. Agarwal is good subject oriented book for preparing aptitude. Any MBA entrance book is suitable to prepare logical reasoning etc. In fact anyone who is not technically strong but having logical thinking skills is very much suitable for this field. It does not mean that technical people are not suitable.<br />1.9 Employee reference for MNC’s<br />If anyone need reference to attend written test or interview or forwarding resume kindly contact any of our career guidance team members. Our career guidance team maintains the spool of reference and provides you when the need arises.<br /><br /><br />2. COMPANY TEST PATTERNS<br />2.1 How to prepare for Infosys?<br />There is nothing to worry about the Infosys written test. It is easy if you keep your mind cool. There will be 10 questions in aptitude test, each of different marks & without multiple choices. Duration is 1 hr & you have to get at least 7-8 correct to get short-listed. You had to put down the procedure also in the paper. These puzzles are similar to the one in Shakuntala & George Summers. Attempt all questions, as there is no negative marking. No problem if we guess also. Mostly there will be questions on time & distance, probability, puzzles (George Summers), watch questions (related to time), escalator problem, completion of series & profit-loss questions. <br />Verbal is very easy. There will be 45 multiple-choice questions to be answered in 30 min. Attempt all questions. Mostly there will be completion of sentences (20 Q), correction of sentences (10Q) reading comprehension (5Q), synonyms & antonyms (10Q).<br /> Short listing is mainly based on aptitude not on verbal. Concentrate more on aptitude. We can do very silly mistakes there. So be cool.<br /> Regarding interview, firstly it's not a technical interview. It is purely HR. It will be around 20-30 min. They will even ask 2-3 puzzles. They are easy. If we don't answer any of them also there is no problem. You should be confident whether it is right or wrong. If you are through the written test then you will be almost through the interview. They almost select everyone in the interview. So concentrate more on the written test.<br />2.2 How to prepare for TCS?<br />There were 3 main sections verbal, aptitude and reasoning. Generally any company will not change the question paper for a year. So, you people can give importance to 2004 Question Papers. You can collect the sample QP from the about websites. We can see QP from 1995 onwards. Preparing all those papers is enough to get placement. There will be section cut off. Aptitude any one can clear. But In verbal section only we can beat others.<br />Don’t miss to prepare all the verbal section from 1995 onwards. The choices given to synonym and antonym part will be changed. But the question may be the same one. So, Open "MS WORD" and collect synonym and antonyms for all the words found in all the QP.<br />Regarding interview:<br />They check only the confidential level of the candidate. They never expect you to answer for each and every question. All they need to check is how bold you are, how much confidence you have on you. Always don’t expect questions from Areas of Interest. Always have a pleasant smile in your face and keep yourself very cool. That is more important than anything. They may sometime ask very basic questions like what is the version of WINDOWS you have worked on? But answers for them are very much important. For non-computer students the interview will be very simple. They need not worry that they don’t know much technically.<br /> Then HR interview, you should be very careful here. They may ask very tricky questions. Think twice before answering to these questions. The general questions in HR interview will be, why do you want to join TCS? What do you want to become after 3 years? Why TCS should take you in? <br />Be confident and be cool, which is enough to clear TCS interview.<br /><br />3. USEFUL WEBSITES<br />3.1 Technical document sites<br />http://www.codeguru.com(c, c++, vc++ AND .NET)<br />http://www.onesmartclick.com/programming/programming.html (All)<br />http://www.vyomworld.com (All)<br />http://www.acetheinterview.com/qanda/ (All)<br />http://www.techinterviews.com/ (All)<br />http://www.fredosaurus.com/notes-cpp/index.html (C++)<br />http://www.parashift.com/c++-faq-lite/ (C++)<br />http://cslibrary.stanford.edu/ (All)<br />http://williamstallings.com/Extras/OS-Notes/notes.html (OS)<br />http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~solomon/cs537/notes.html (OS)<br />http://www.winprog.org/tutorial/ (Windows)<br />http://ciips.ee.uwa.edu.au/~morris/Year2/PLDS210/ds_ToC.html (Data Structure)<br />http://hebb.cis.uoguelph.ca/~dave/343/Lectures/testing.html (Testing)<br />http://pweb.netcom.com/~tjensen/ptr/pointers.htm (Pointers)<br />http://www.intelinfo.com/Critchie (very good site)<br />http://www.cs.umd.edu/~mount/420/ (Java)<br />http://www.nist.gov/dads/ (All)<br />http://www.intelinfo.com/free_java_training.html (Java)<br />http://www.math.umd.edu/~lify/hotlink.html (All)<br />http://www.holub.com/goodies/rules.html (All)<br />http://www.apl.jhu.edu/~hall/java/ (Java, good one)<br />http://www.ibiblio.org/winsock/winsock-1.1/winsock.html (Win socket)<br />http://www.hk8.org/old%5Fweb/ (good one)<br />http://www.cs.cf.ac.uk/Dave/C/CE.html(C and UNIX)<br />http://www.scit.wlv.ac.uk/~jphb/cbook/html/(C)<br />http://devcentral.iticentral.com/ (All)<br />http://www.informit.com/ (All)<br />http://www.thefreecountry.com/ (All, Very good one)<br />http://www.tcfb.com/freetechbooks/ (All)<br />http://www.ibiblio.org/javafaq/javafaq.html (Java)<br />http://www.afu.com/javafaq.html (Java)<br />http://www.apl.jhu.edu/~hall/java/FAQs-and-Tutorials.html (Java)<br />http://www.comeaucomputing.com/techtalk/(C and C++)<br />http://www.memorymanagement.org (excellent)<br />3.2 Puzzle sites<br />http://puzzle.dse.nl/index_us.html<br />http://www.chlond.demon.co.uk/academic/puzzles.html<br />http://thinks.com/webguide/mathpuzzles.htm<br />http://www.eduplace.com/math/brain/<br />http://www.brainbashers.com/<br />http://barryispuzzled.com/<br />http://www.braingle.com/<br /><br /><br />4. INTERVIEW TIPS<br />4.1 Common interview questions<br />1. Tell me about yourself<br />The most often asked question in interviews. You need to have a short statement prepared in your mind. Be careful that it does not sound rehearsed. Limit it to work-related items unless instructed otherwise. Talk about things you have done and jobs you have held that relate to the position you are interviewing for. Start with the item farthest back and work up to the present.<br /><br />2. Why did you leave your last job?<br />Stay positive regardless of the circumstances. Never refer to a major problem with management and never speak ill of supervisors, co-workers or the organization. I f you do, you will be the one looking bad. Keep smiling and talk about leaving for a positive reason such as an opportunity, a chance to do something special or other forward-looking reasons.<br /><br />3. What experience do you have in this field?<br />Speak about specifics that relate to the position you are applying for. If you do not have specific experience, get as close as you can.<br /><br />4. Do you consider yourself successful?<br />You should always answer yes and briefly explain why. A good explanation is that you have set goals, and you have met some and are on track to achieve the others.<br /><br />5. What do co-workers say about you?<br />Be prepared with a quote or two from co-workers. Either a specific statement or a paraphrase will work. Jill Clark, a co-worker at Smith Company, always said I was the hardest workers she had ever known. It is as powerful as Jill having said it at the interview herself.<br /><br />6. What do you know about this organization?<br />This question is one reason to do some research on the organization before the interview. Find out where they have been and where they are going. What are the current issues and who are the major players?<br /><br />7. What have you done to improve your knowledge in the last year?<br />Try to include improvement activities that relate to the job. A wide variety of activities can be mentioned as positive self-improvement. Have some good ones handy to mention.<br /><br />8. Are you applying for other jobs?<br />Be honest but do not spend a lot of time in this area. Keep the focus on this job and what you can do for this organization. Anything else is a distraction.<br /><br />9. Why do you want to work for this organization?<br />This may take some thought and certainly, should be based on the research you have done on the organization. Sincerity is extremely important here and will easily be used. Relate it to your long-term career goals.<br /><br />10. Do you know anyone who works for us?<br />Be aware of the policy on relatives working for the organization. This can affect your answer even though they asked about friends not relatives. Be careful to mention a friend only if they are well thought of.<br /><br />11. What kind of salary do you need?<br />A loaded question. A nasty little game that you will probably lose if you answer first. So, do not answer it. Instead, say something like, that's a tough question. Can you tell me the range for this position? In most cases, the interviewer, taken off guard, will tell you. If not, say that it can depend on the details of the job. Then give a wide range.<br /><br />12. Are you a team player?<br />You are, of course, a team player. Be sure to have examples ready. Specifics that show you often perform for the good of the team rather than for yourself is good evidence of your team attitude. Do not brag; just say it in a matter-of-fact tone? This is a key point.<br /><br />13. How long would you expect to work for us if hired?<br />Specifics here are not good. Something like this should work: I'd like it to be a long time. Or As long as we both feel I'm doing a good job.<br /><br />14. Have you ever had to fire anyone? How did you feel about that?<br />This is serious. Do not make light of it or in any way seem like you like to fire people. At the same time, you will do it when it is the right thing to do. When it comes to the organization versus the individual who has created a harmful situation, you will protect the organization. Remember firing is not the same as layoff or reduction in force.<br /><br />15. What is your philosophy towards work?<br />The interviewer is not looking for a long or flowery dissertation here. Do you have strong feelings that the job gets done? Yes. That's the type of answer were that works best here. Short and positive, showing a benefit to the organization.<br /><br />16. If you had enough money to retire right now, would you?<br />Answer yes if you would. But since you need to work, this is the type of work you prefer. Do not say yes if you do not mean it.<br /><br />17. Have you ever been asked to leave a position?<br />If you have not, say no. If you have, be honest, brief and avoid saying negative things about the people or organization involved.<br /><br />18. Explain how you would be an asset to this organization?<br />You should be anxious for this question. It gives you a chance to highlight your best points as they relate to the position being discussed. Give a little advance thought to this relationship.<br /><br />19. Why should we hire you?<br />Point out how your assets meet what the organization needs. Do not mention any other candidates to make a comparison.<br /><br />20. Tell me about a suggestion you have made?<br />Have a good one ready. Be sure and use a suggestion that was accepted and was then considered successful. One related to the type of work applied for is a real plus.<br /><br />21. What irritates you about co-workers?<br />This is a trap question. Think real hard but fail to come up with anything that irritates you. A short statement that you seem to get along with folks is great.<br /><br />22. What is your greatest strength?<br />Numerous answers are good, just stay positive. A few good examples: Your ability to prioritize, Your problem-solving skills, Your ability to work under pressure, Your ability to focus on projects, Your professional expertise, Your leadership skills, Your positive attitude<br /><br />23. Tell me about your dream job.<br />Stay away from a specific job. You cannot win. If you say the job you are contending for is it, you strain credibility. If you say another job is it, you plant the suspicion that you will be dissatisfied with this position if hired. The best is to stay genetic and say something like: A job where I love the work, like the people, can contribute and can't wait to get to work.<br /><br />24. Why do you think you would do well at this job?<br />Give several reasons and include skills, experience and interest.<br /><br />25. What are you looking for in a job?<br />See answer # 23<br /><br />26. What kind of person would you refuse to work with?<br />Do not be trivial. It would take disloyalty to the organization, violence or lawbreaking to get you to object. Minor objections will label you as a whiner.<br /><br />27. What is more important to you: the money or the work?<br />Money is always important, but the work is the most important. There is no better answer.<br /><br />28. What would your previous supervisor say your strongest point is?<br />There are numerous good possibilities: Loyalty, Energy, Positive attitude, Leadership, Team player, Expertise, Initiative, Patience, Hard work, Creativity, Problem solver<br /><br />29. Tell me about a problem you had with a supervisor?<br />Biggest trap of all. This is a test to see if you will speak ill of your boss. If you fall for it and tell about a problem with a former boss, you may well below the interview right there. Stay positive and develop a poor memory about any trouble with a supervisor.<br /><br />30. What has disappointed you about a job?<br />Don't get trivial or negative. Safe areas are few but can include: Not enough of a challenge. You were laid off in a reduction Company did not win a contract, which would have given you more responsibility.<br /><br />31. Tell me about your ability to work under pressure?<br />You may say that you thrive under certain types of pressure. Give an example that relates to the type of position applied for.<br /><br />32. Do your skills match this job or another job more closely?<br />Probably this one. Do not give fuel to the suspicion that you may want another job more than this one.<br /><br />33. What motivates you to do your best on the job?<br />This is a personal trait that only you can say, but good examples are: Challenge, Achievement and Recognition.<br /><br />34. Are you willing to work overtime? Nights? Weekends?<br />This is up to you. Be totally honest.<br /><br />35. How would you know you were successful on this job? <br />Several ways are good measures: You set high standards for yourself and meet them. Your outcomes are a success. Your boss tells you that you are successful.<br /><br />36. Would you be willing to relocate if required?<br />You should be clear on this with your family prior to the interview if you think there is a chance it may come up. Do not say yes just to get the job if the real answer is no. This can create a lot of problems later on in your career. Be honest at this point and save yourself future grief.<br /><br />37. Are you willing to put the interests of the organization ahead of your own?<br />This is a straight loyalty and dedication question. Do not worry about the deep ethical and philosophical implications. Just say yes.<br /><br />38. Describe your management style.<br />Try to avoid labels. Some of the more common labels, like progressive, salesman or consensus, can have several meanings or descriptions depending on which management expert you listen to. The situational style is safe, because it says you will manage according to the situation, instead of one size fits all.<br /><br />39. What have you learned from mistakes on the job?<br />Here you have to come up with something or you strain credibility. Make it small, well-intentioned mistake with a positive lesson learned. An example would be working too far ahead of colleagues on a project and thus throwing coordination off.<br /><br />40. Do you have any blind spots?<br />Trick question. If you know about blind spots, they are no longer blind spots. Do not reveal any personal areas of concern here. Let them do their own discovery on your bad points. Do not hand it to them.<br /><br />41. If you were hiring a person for this job, what would you look for?<br />Be careful to mention traits that are needed and that you have.<br /><br />42. Do you think you are overqualified for this position?<br />Regardless of your qualifications, state that you are very well qualified for the position.<br /><br />43. How do you propose to compensate for your lack of experience?<br />First, if you have experience that the interviewer does not know about, bring that up: Then, point out (if true) that you are a hard working quick learner.<br /><br />44. What qualities do you look for in a boss?<br />Be generic and positive. Safe qualities are knowledgeable, a sense of humor, fair, loyal to subordinates and holder of high standards. All bosses think they have these traits.<br /><br />45. Tell me about a time when you helped resolve a dispute between others?<br />Pick a specific incident. Concentrate on your problem solving technique and not the dispute you settled.<br /><br />46. What position do you prefer on a team working on a project?<br />Be honest. If you are comfortable in different roles, point that out.<br /><br />47. Describe your work ethic.<br />Emphasize benefits to the organization. Things like, determination to get the job done and work hard but enjoy your work are good.<br /><br />48. What has been your biggest professional disappointment?<br />Be sure that you refer to something that was beyond your control. Show acceptance and no negative feelings.<br /><br />49. Tell me about the most fun you have had on the job.<br />Talk about having fun by accomplishing something for the organization.<br /><br />50. Do you have any questions for me?<br />Always have some questions prepared. Questions prepared where you will be an asset to the organization are good. How soon will I be able to be productive? And what type of projects will I be able to assist on? are examples. <br /><br />4.2 Job Interviewing Do's and Don'ts<br />Here are the keys to successful job interviewing. Follow these simple rules and you should achieve success in this important phase of job-hunting.<br /><br />• Do take a practice run to the location where you are having the interview -- or be sure you know exactly where it is and how long it takes to get there.<br /><br />• Do your research and know the type of job interview you will be encountering. (See types of job interviews.) And do prepare and practice for the interview, but don't memorize or over-rehearse your answers. (See our some of the best collections of interview questions.)<br /><br />• Do dress the part for the job, the company and the industry. And do err on the side of conservatism. If you're not sure, you should consider reading our article, when Job-Hunting: Dress for Success.<br /><br />• Do plan to arrive about 10 minutes early. Late arrival for a job interview is never excusable. If you are running late, do phone the company.<br /><br />• Do greet the receptionist or assistant with courtesy and respect. This is where you make your first impression.<br /><br />• Don't chew gum during the interview.<br /><br />• If presented with a job application, do fill it out neatly, completely, and accurately.<br /><br />• Do bring extra resumes to the interview. (Even better, if you have a job skills portfolio, do bring that with you to the interview.)<br /><br />• Don't rely on your application or resume to do the selling for you. No matter how qualified you are for the position, you will need to sell yourself to the interviewer.<br /><br />• Do greet the interviewer(s) by title (Ms., Mr., and Dr.) and last name if you are sure of the pronunciation. (If you're not sure, do ask the receptionist about the pronunciation before going into the interview.<br /><br />• Do shake hands firmly. Don't have a limp or clammy handshake!<br /><br />• Do wait until you are offered a chair before sitting. And do remember body language and posture: sit upright and look alert and interested at all times. Don't fidget or slouch.<br /><br />• Don't tell jokes during the interview.<br /><br />• Do make good eye contact with your interviewer(s).<br /><br />• Do show enthusiasm in the position and the company.<br /><br />• Don't smoke, even if the interviewer does and offers you a cigarette. And don't smoke beforehand so that you smell like smoke. And do brush your teeth, use mouthwash, or have a breath mint before the interview.<br /><br />• Do avoid using poor language, slang, and pause words (such as "like," "uh” and "um").<br /><br />• Don't be soft-spoken. A forceful voice projects confidence.<br /><br />• Do have a high confidence and energy level, but don't be overly aggressive.<br /><br />• Don't act as though you would take any job or are desperate for employment.<br /><br />• Do avoid controversial topics.<br /><br />• Don't say anything negative about former colleagues, supervisors, or employers.<br /><br />• Do make sure that your good points come across to the interviewer in a factual, sincere manner.<br /><br />• Don't ever lie. Answer questions truthfully, frankly and succinctly. And don't over-answer questions.<br /><br />• Do stress your achievements. And don't offer any negative information about yourself.<br /><br />• Don't answer questions with a simple "yes" or "no." Explain whenever possible. Describe those things about yourself that showcase your talents, skills, and determination. Give examples.<br /><br />• Do show off the research you have done on the company and industry when responding to questions. (See our Guide to Researching Companies.)<br /><br />• Don't bring up or discuss personal issues or family problems.<br /><br />• Do remember that the interview is also an important time for you to evaluate the interviewer and the company she represents.<br /><br />• Don't respond to an unexpected question with an extended pause or by saying something like, "boy, that's a good question." And do repeat the question out loud or ask for the question to be repeated to give you a little more time to think about an answer. Also, a short pause before responding is okay.<br /><br />• Do always conduct yourself as if you are determined to get the job you are discussing. Never close the door on an opportunity until you are sure about it.<br /><br />• Don't answer cell phone calls during the interview, and do turn off (or set to silent ring) your cell phone and/or pager.<br /><br />• Do show what you can do for the company rather than what the company can do for you.<br /><br />• Don't inquire about salary, vacations, bonuses, retirement, or other benefits until after you've received an offer. Be prepared for a question about your salary requirements, but do try and delay salary talk until you have an offer. (You might consider visiting our salary tutorial for more tips and strategies.)<br /><br />• Do ask intelligent questions about the job, company, or industry. Don't ever not ask any questions -- it shows a lack of interest.<br /><br />• Do close the interview by telling the interviewer(s) that you want the job and asking about the next step in the process. (Some experts even say you should close the interview by asking for the job.)<br /><br />• Do try and get business cards from each person you interviewed with -- or at least the correct spelling of their first and last names. And don't make assumptions about simple names -- was it Jon or John -- get the spelling.<br /><br />• Do immediately take down notes after the interview concludes so you don't forget crucial details.<br /><br /><br />5. SAMPLE RESUME (ASCII FORMAT RESUME)<br />If you want sample MS-Word format resume, contact any of our NEST Career Guidance member.<br />5.1 Sample cover letter – Fresher <br />Hi, <br /> I have completed my MSC (CS, S/W) at Madurai Kamaraj University with 83.89% and looking for a challenging job in IT field. I have clear Knowledge about C, C++, VC++ and OOPS. I have attached my CV for your kind perusal. Please do the necessary. <br /> Regards, <br /> S.Vijayalakshmi<br /><br />5.2 Sample cover letter – Experience<br />Hi,<br /> I am a software Engineer with around 2 years of experience in C, C++ and VC++ and looking for a suitable job change. Please do the necessary.<br />Regards,<br />Bharathi N. <br /><br />5.3 Sample resume – Fresher<br /> <br />S.VIJAYALAKSHMI <br />C/o, Mrs Bharathi. <br />Arjun Illam, <br />4/116, Kambar street, <br />Karambakkam, <br />Porur, <br />Chennai - 116. <br />Phone : 9841315180 <br />Mail id: vijicpp03@yahoo.com<br /> vijicpp@hotmail.com<br /> <br />OBJECTIVE : <br /> To work in a challenging and creative environment and effectively contribute towards the goals of the organization. <br /><br />AREAS OF INTEREST : <br />Data Structures <br />Networking Concepts<br />OOPS <br /><br />EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION : <br />2001-2003 M. Sc., Computer Science with 83.9%,<br /> Department of Computer Science, <br /> Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai <br /><br />1998-2001 B. Sc., Computer Science with 73.9%, <br /> Department of Computer Science, <br /> N.S.College of Arts & Science, Theni <br /><br />1998 Higher Secondary Course with 77%, <br /> N.S.G.Higher Secondary School, Theni <br /><br />1996 S. S. L. C., with 85%, <br /> N.S.G.Higher Secondary School, Theni <br /><br />TECHNICAL SKILLS: <br />Languages : C, C++ <br />GUI Tools : VC++ 6.0, VB 6.0 <br />Web Tools : HTML, ASP, VB Script <br />Databases : Oracle8.0, MS-Access, dbase<br />Operating system : Windows 9x, SCO UNIX, MS-DOS 6.2<br /><br />PROJECTS: <br /><br />1) TELNET CLIENT CONSOLE APPLICATION <br /> Language : VC++ 6.0 <br /> Server Platform : Linux or UNIX <br /> Client Platform : Windows <br /> Team Size : Single <br /> Duration : 4 months <br /> Client : HCL Peripherals <br /> Description : <br /> Enables to login in to a Remote server having UNIX platforms. Also handles User authentication, File Management, Remote command Processing, Node Management and Chatting.<br /><br />2) IMAGE PROCESSING <br /> Language : VB 6.0 <br /> Platform : Windows <br /> Team Size : Single <br /> Duration : 2 months <br /> Description : <br /> Compress and decompress the image by traversing through kolam, Produces grey scale, mirror, negative, invert images and also effect of torchlight on the image.<br /><br />3) MAIL SERVER AND FILE TRANSFER <br /> Language : C <br /> Platform : UNIX <br /> Protocol : UDP <br /> Team Size : Single <br /> Duration : 1.5 months <br /> Description : <br /> Adds new users, Maintains user information and handles mail transfer. Transfers file in case of requests from users. <br /><br />PERSONAL SKILLS: <br /><br />* Excellent problem solving skills and a self starter <br />* Takes initiative and works independently or as part of a group. <br />* Well organized and easily meets deadlines. <br /><br />EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES: <br />Essay Writing, Quiz, Poem Writing, Public speaking, Story Writing and Dramatics. <br /><br />PERSONAL PROFILE: <br /> Name of Father : Mr. L.Sankaranarayanan <br /> Date of Birth : May 7, 1981 <br /> Languages known : English, Tamil, and Telugu <br /> Marital Status : Unmarried <br /> Hobbies : Playing chess, listening to Music, Verse writing & Puzzle Solving. <br /><br /><br />5.4 Sample resume - Experience<br /><br />Bharathi N <br />#844,35th Main, 11th Cross, <br />J.P.Nagar, I Phase, <br />Bangalore-78. <br />India. <br />E-mail: bharathicpp@yahoo.com <br />Phone: 98440-61400<br /><br />PROFESSIONAL SUMMARY: <br />* Strong in Object Oriented Concepts, Design and Programming. <br />* Two plus years of experience in IT industry. <br />* Solid experience in OOPS (C++)<br />* Clear knowledge about Data structures.<br />* The entire professional career is being made out of continuous achievements. <br />* The client appreciation was received on various project works.<br /><br />EDUCATIONAL DETAILS: <br />Bachelor of Engineering in Computer Science Engineering. <br />Vijayanagar Engineering College, Bellary. <br />Gulbarga University, India. <br />Passed out in August 2000. <br />Percentage of marks: 74.2%. <br /><br />ACADEMIC RECORDS: <br />B.E. - 2000 - 74.2% <br />P.U.C. - 1996 - 71.9% <br />S.S.L.C. - 1994 - 72.2% <br /><br />EMPLOYMENT SUMMARY: <br />* Working as Software Engineer in MACMILLAN INDIA LTD, Bangalore. (www.macmillan.com)<br />(From Sep’2000 to till date) <br /><br />TECHNICAL SKILLS: <br />* C <br />* C++ <br />* Java <br />* HTML <br />* Pl/Sql <br />* Oracle 8.0 <br />* Visual C++ 6.0 <br />* Strong in OOPS Concepts <br />* Windows NT, Windows 9X and Windows 2000 <br /><br />PROJECT SUMMARY: <br /><br />PROJECT #1 <br />PROJECT NAME: Agni<br />DURATION: Apr 2002 – Till date<br />CLIENT: Macmillan, India <br />TEAM SIZE: 2 <br />ROLE: Team member <br /><br />DESCRIPTION: <br />* This is a conversion tool for GML (Generalized Markup Language).<br />* Translates GML to Latex. <br />* Basic entities are replaced with the corresponding latex code. <br />* Accents are replaced accordingly. <br />* GML tags are replaced with the corresponding latex code. <br />* Creates error log file containing all the missed tags, entities and accents.<br /><br />ACTIVITIES: <br />* Requirements gathering from the client. <br />* Involved in analysis modeling using Standard notations. <br />* Identification of classes, attributes and methods for major components under development <br />* Development of UI Components and Database designing. <br />* Task allocation, monitoring and review of the tasks done by the team members (leading a team of 3) <br />* Complete quality awareness coordinator for the project by ensuring the internal/external reviews and final inspections <br /><br />PLATFORM: <br />* C++ <br />* Visual C++ <br />* Windows 2000<br /><br />PROJECT #2 <br />PROJECT NAME: TeX Automation <br />DURATION: Oct 2001 – Mar 2002<br />CLIENT: Macmillan, India <br />TEAM SIZE: 2 <br />ROLE: Team Member <br /><br />DESCRIPTION: <br />* This tool is generalized one which can convert any type of file to the required format. <br />* Reads the contents of a file. <br />* Front matter structuring, mathematical formatting, Sections restructuring, Tables alignment and cross references generation are the main modules of this project. <br />* Cleaning module removes all the unnecessary tags. <br />* All the unwanted input style files to be deleted. <br /><br />ACTIVITIES: <br />* Requirement analysis, Data collection and System study. <br />* Analysis of TeX File format. <br />* Low level and High level Designing. <br />* Coding and Testing. <br />* Test case preparation and Documentation of Application workflow. <br /><br />PLATFORM: <br />* C<br />* C++ <br />* Windows NT <br /><br />PROJECT #3 <br />PROJECT NAME: Computer Adaptive Test <br />DURATION: Apr 2001 – Sep 2001 <br />CLIENT: Macmillan, India <br />TEAM SIZE: 3 <br />ROLE: Team Member <br /><br />DESCRIPTION: <br />* The GUI was designed with MFC. <br />* The difficulty of each question changes according to answer given by the Candidate. <br />* The questions start with the lowest difficulty level and keeps increasing if the user keeps giving <br />right answers. <br />* The difficulty level starts decreasing once the user gives wrong answers. <br /><br />ACTIVITIES: <br />* Involved in Designing Use Case Diagrams, Class Diagrams and Sequence Diagrams <br />* Coding and Testing. <br />* Analysis of future modification. <br /><br />PLATFORM: <br />* C++ <br />* Visual C++ <br />* Oracle<br />* Windows 2000 <br /><br />PROJECT #4 <br />PROJECT NAME: QC Check Tool for AIP LaTeX<br />DURATION: Sep 2000 – Mar 2001 <br />CLIENT: Macmillan, India <br />TEAM SIZE: 2 <br />ROLE: Team Member <br /><br />DESCRIPTION: <br />* Reads the contents of LaTex file. <br />* Parses the contents. <br />* Validates the syntax and the order in which the text should appear. <br />* Creates and writes the errors to an error log. <br />* Corrects some of the syntax errors in the file and makes a log of that as well.<br /><br />ACTIVITIES: <br />* Testing case preparation. Unit testing and Module testing. <br />* Entire functionality testing. <br />* Debugging the code. <br />* Analysis of future modification and Data collection <br /><br />PLATFORM: <br />* C<br />* C++ <br />* Windows NT<br /><br />PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIP: <br />Active Member of IEEE from 1995 onwards. <br /><br />EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES: <br />Poem Writing, Story Writing, Dramatics, Chess, Tennis. <br /><br />PERSONAL DETAILS: <br />Father's Name : N.Umamaheswara Reddy <br />Date of Birth : 25-05-1979. <br />Sex: Female. <br />Marital Status: Single. <br />Nationality: Indian. <br />Permanent Address: Venkateswara Nilayam, <br />Near B.N.Temple, Gandhi Nagar, <br />Bellary-583103 <br />Karnataka <br />India. <br />E-Mail: bharathicpp@yahoo.com<br /><br /><br />6. DO FIGHT WITH JOB HUNTING<br />Hi all,<br /> <br /> With God’s grace I am in Covansys now. I got Covansys Peoplesoft's IDC (India Devt Centre) in Bglr. My test was on Dec 17th and Feb 4th was my interview (at that time I was in HCL). then after one week they informed me that due to some pblms we stopped all the recruitment and well let u soon. From that time I was waiting and finally when I got their call. My life after I passed MCA in March 2003 as follows....<br /> <br />The lists of companies are<br /> <br />1. Wipro Technologies (After my BSC) - cleared the test, Group discussion failed<br />2. Optibiz Technologies (on April 2003): Cleared in test, Cleared in Interview, Rejected the offer [2 lacs have to pay]<br />3. Newjen software Technologies (July 03) - failed in Test.<br />4. ABN Amro bank: Cleared the test, Failed in the interview<br />5. SRM Softwares: cleared in test, interview, Rejected the offer [salary only 3000/- for 18 months]<br />6. Cams: Cleared in Test, Technical interview, HR interview, Worked for 13 days and quit [BPO jobs]<br />7. E-Serve International - Cleared in test, Cleared in Tech-interview, Failed in HR interview [BPO jobs]<br />8. TCS - failed in the test.<br />9. Carritor (IT solutions) - failed in the test.<br />10. Hexaware - cleared the test, Group discussion failed <br />11. Syntel (Cochin): failed in the test<br />12. TVS INFOTECH: rejected the offer because of no salary and a probation of 6 months or more<br />13. Covansys (Dec03 - Aug04): Cleared the test on DEC 17th, Tech+HR interview on 4th of Feb, Got offer letter on 25th of Aug 04 === Presently Working<br />14. Laserword: Cleared the test, failed in the technical interview.<br />15. Syntel (chennai): failed in the test<br />16. HCL BPO: Cleared test, cleared GD (3 parts), Cleared Interview === Joined JAN 19th (Resigned when I got the Covansys Offer)<br />17. Satyam: Cleared Test, failed in the GD<br />18. Infosys: Failed in the test<br />19. CTS: Failed in the test<br />20. Wipro Technologies: Cleared test, failed in the technical interview<br />21. Barry-Whelmer: Failed in the test.<br />22. CTS (June 03): Cleared test, failed in the HR interview<br />23. Wipro Technologies (July 04): Failed in the test.<br /><br />I think many of us will be wondering is there any person who wrote this much exams to get through and I have learned lot of things in this one and a half Year (Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, sep, Oct, Nov, Dec, Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, June, July, Aug) job hunting experience in Chennai and 2 days in Bangalore.<br /> <br />* In the above list, for all I applied Directly through Web, no Employee reference<br /> <br />Actually the thing is Your Attitude only can help you to get a job and help you to achieve anything in the world.(Attitude towards life, people, job... etc)<br /> <br />Be a +ve thinker, Have confident on yourself. Try try... again try...<br /> <br />My Personal Records:<br />1. Sent more than 21000 Soft copies of my Resume through Internet<br />2. Used more than 270 Hard copies of my Resume<br /><br />7. MOTIVATING WORDS<br />Tell yourself you are a great individual and believe in your self, for if you don't believe in your self, no one else will believe in you. Create your own life and then go out and live it.<br /> <br />The law of averages tells us you must achieve more, if you are trying more. More, more and more. The more self-confidence you have the less you will be affected by temporary setbacks (never final, always temporary) and short-term disappointments. The more self-confidence you have the likely it is that you will live a life full of achievement, riches, satisfaction and pure bliss.<br /> <br />MY FRIEND, YOU ARE EXTRAORDINARY!! The odds are greater than 50 crore to 1 against their ever being anyone with the unique combination of talents, skills, and abilities that you possess. You are unique, never forget my friend. The unbelievable achievements that you are capable of, no one knows, not even your self. <br /> <br />Exploit your strengths and starve your weaknesses. Yes, of course there is more to it than this but not much more. "WE ARE WHAT WE THINK ABOUT!" YOU MUST! You must make up your mind to look at you honestly and make future decisions based on your uniqueness. NOW! TODAY! THIS VERY MOMENT is time to realize how extraordinary you are.<br /> <br />Albert Einstein used his brain.<br />Napoleon used his power.<br />Thomas Edison used his brain.<br /> <br />Thatz why they reached that position. Use your brain my friend. You can reach a unbelievable position. You can.<br /> <br />The psychologist Abraham Maslow says the story of the human race is the story of men and women selling themselves short. The great majority of people tend to compare themselves unfavorably with others. They dwell on there own weaknesses and limitations and they usually end up with far less then they are really capable of. Instead of taking control of their life and enjoying high levels of self-esteem, self-respect and personal pride, the average person just gets by from day to day. GOD put you here on this glorious earth to do more than "just get by." If self-confidence and the self-esteem that goes with it is so desirable, why is it so few people have enough self-confidence to live the lives that are possible for them?<br /> <br />From time to time, (rarely) we have seen people with naturally high levels of self-confidence. These people have gone on to achieve extraordinary things. In studying the lives of these super-achievers we have found that "some" of them started out with high levels of self-confidence, which they learned from there parents, quite fortunately, in early childhood. But, most of them started out like most of us with down deep feelings of inferiority and inadequacy. Because of criticism and lack of love and other mistakes parents made in early childhood, we grow up with little self-esteem and feel less than others. <br /> <br />The starting point in developing a high level of self-confidence and in reality becoming an EXCELLENT human being is to think through and to decide upon your valves. For example, what is really, really important to you? How do you define values? Having defined a clear set of values, not vague, not unsure, but clear, concise, values will cause you to develop the convictions and enthusiasm necessary for self-confidence. Your starting point toward higher self-confidence and personal greatness is to clarify your values for yourself. Ask yourself what you truly believe in! (?) What do you stand for? What will you not stand for? What would you pay for? Work for? or even DIE FOR????<br /> <br />Make your own list and remember, unshakeable self-confidence comes from unshakeable commitment to your values. When deep down inside yourself you know you will never violate your highest principles you experience a deep sense of "personal power" and confidence that empowers you to deal with life openly and honestly and with complete self-confidence in almost every human situation.<br /> <br />Did you know that Edison failed over 9000 (that's thousand) times before perfecting the light bulb! How many of us would have thrown in the "proverbial" towel at 20 failures, 150 failures or at the 8000th failure. After Edison had invented and produced the light-bulb a reporter asked him how it felt to fail over 9000 times. Edison replied, "I was glad I found 9000 ways not to invent the light bulb! From this point forward Edison went on to receive 1,093 patents, more than any other person in U.S. history. <br /> <br />Read as many books, and magazines that are positive inspirational and motivational as you possibly can. Study the lives of the people who have a positive message to share with all of us, and especially in the given field you have chosen to be great at.<br /> <br />Nothing in life that is worthy is ever too hard to achieve, if you have the courage to try it and you have the faith to believe. Faith is a force that is greater than knowledge or power or skill.<br /> <br />"The secret of success in life is for u to be ready for your opportunity when it comes." <br />"Success comes in cans, not cannot." <br />"There are no secrets to success. It is the result of preparation, hard work, learning from failure." <br />"Self-trust is the first secret of success." <br />"Success is going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm." <br />"We can succeed at almost anything for which we have unlimited enthusiasm."<br /> <br />Dear friend, you should get Strength to battle with difficulties and overcome them. You should get Patience enough to toil until some good is accomplished. You should hope enough to remove all anxious fears concerning the future.<br /> <br />Emotional decisions come from the heart, thinking ones from the brain. You should not take any emotional decisions. This is the age we all take only emotional decisions. Ask your brain always, it will tell you, what is correct and wrong.<br /> <br />To have a positive day keep the following in mind:<br />1. Every problem has a solution. <br />2. Failures always lead to learning something you can use later. <br />3. Many times you must take a step back before u take two steps forward. <br />4. After a crisis is always an opportunity. <br />5. You control your thoughts and feelings. <br />6. You make the choices that determine your fate.<br /> <br />Michael Jordan wordings. (He is famous US basket ball player.)<br /> <br />1. I have missed more than 9000 shots in my career. I have lost almost 300 games. 26 times, I have been trusted to take the game winning shot and missed. I have failed over and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed.<br /> <br />2. I can accept failure, but I can't accept not trying. <br /> <br />3. I have always believed that if you put in the work, the results will come. I don't do things half-heartedly. Because I know if I do, then I can expect half-hearted results. <br /> <br />4. If you are trying to achieve, there will be roadblocks. I have had them; everybody has had them.<br /><br />5. Obstacles don't have to stop you. If you run into a wall, don't turn around and give up. Figure out how to climb it, go through it, or work around it. <br /><br />AT ANY COST DON’T LET YOUR HOPE DOWN, WE ARE HERE TO SUPPORT YOU<br />Always keep in mind that ‘what do you want right now?' 'What is lacking behind YOU to get that?' 'What has to be done to get as early as possible?' <br />To overcome all the above mentioned questions, always there is only one thing with you...That is 'Continuous hard work without loosing rays of hope'....You should not lose your hope even you didn't get job after a month or two months or even a year(Just for sake I am telling this)...But no one will do that...You should not stop initiation (whatever you have to do to get job) or approach towards getting job from your side ...You just have to keep on trying to achieve whatever you want?...I am sure you will do that because you are in that situation and also I can support you to the extend I can...See if you think you can always you can...Isn't it?...<br /> Don't loose your hope and always have positive attitude in your mind...Think always about getting job and do something related to that (which can add value to get a job. we will also help you what you need to do. Nothing should be there in your mind apart from getting job.<br /><br />For example,<br />If you walking along the road suppose you are seeing an advertisement during that time even that is not related to yours but you should be able to notice or something has to be triggered on your mind regarding your job...Because opportunities can come in any way, you should aware and should not miss that one...It won't come again...To really understand this I can tell you N number of examples even from my friends circle and from my own experience also...You don't attend courses by paying 30 to 50 thousand.....This is I am telling you from my own experience...Because even I didn't know how to type in computer keyboard also I didn't attend for any courses when I got selected into TCS...You don't have to worry about technical knowledge for a fresher....The company which hires you will give you lots of training in software. Just you have to prepare to clear the written test and interview to get into the company.FRESHERhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/03154154368670178574noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-2158258402527566027.post-44799860899184620852007-08-19T08:15:00.001-07:002007-08-19T08:15:43.599-07:00Oracle SQL FAQTopics<br />• What is SQL and where does it come from? <br />• What are the difference between DDL, DML and DCL commands? <br />• How does one escape characters when building SQL queries? <br />• How does one eliminate duplicate rows from a table? <br />• How does one generate primary key values for a table? <br />• How does one get the time difference between two date columns? <br />• How does one add a day/hour/minute/second to a date value? <br />• How does one count different data values in a column? <br />• How does one count/sum RANGES of data values in a column? <br />• Can one retrieve only the Nth row from a table? <br />• Can one retrieve only rows X to Y from a table? <br />• How does one select EVERY Nth row from a table? <br />• How does one select the TOP N rows from a table? <br />• How does one code a tree-structured query? <br />• How does one code a matrix report in SQL? <br />• How does one implement IF-THEN-ELSE in a select statement? <br />• How can one dump/ examine the exact content of a database column? <br />• Can one drop a column from a table? <br />• Can one rename a column in a table? <br />• How can I change my Oracle password? <br />• How does one find the next value of a sequence? <br />• Workaround for snapshots on tables with LONG columns<br /> <br />________________________________________<br />What is SQL and where does it come from?<br />Structured Query Language (SQL) is a language that provides an interface to relational database systems. SQL was developed by IBM in the 1970s for use in System R, and is a de facto standard, as well as an ISO and ANSI standard. SQL is often pronounced SEQUEL. <br />In common usage SQL also encompasses DML (Data Manipulation Language), for INSERTs, UPDATEs, DELETEs and DDL (Data Definition Language), used for creating and modifying tables and other database structures. <br />The development of SQL is governed by standards. A major revision to the SQL standard was completed in 1992, called SQL2. SQL3 support object extensions and are (partially?) implemented in Oracle8 and 9. <br /><br />________________________________________<br />What are the difference between DDL, DML and DCL commands?<br />DDL is Data Definition Language statements. Some examples: <br />• CREATE - to create objects in the database <br />• ALTER - alters the structure of the database <br />• DROP - delete objects from the database <br />• TRUNCATE - remove all records from a table, including all spaces allocated for the records are removed <br />• COMMENT - add comments to the data dictionary <br />• GRANT - gives user's access privileges to database <br />• REVOKE - withdraw access privileges given with the GRANT command <br />DML is Data Manipulation Language statements. Some examples: <br />• SELECT - retrieve data from the a database <br />• INSERT - insert data into a table <br />• UPDATE - updates existing data within a table <br />• DELETE - deletes all records from a table, the space for the records remain <br />• CALL - call a PL/SQL or Java subprogram <br />• EXPLAIN PLAN - explain access path to data <br />• LOCK TABLE - control concurrency <br />DCL is Data Control Language statements. Some examples: <br />• COMMIT - save work done <br />• SAVEPOINT - identify a point in a transaction to which you can later roll back <br />• ROLLBACK - restore database to original since the last COMMIT <br />• SET TRANSACTION - Change transaction options like what rollback segment to use <br /><br />________________________________________<br />How does one escape special characters when building SQL queries?<br />The LIKE keyword allows for string searches. The '_' wild card character is used to match exactly one character, '%' is used to match zero or more occurrences of any characters. These characters can be escaped in SQL. Example: <br /> SELECT name FROM emp WHERE id LIKE '%\_%' ESCAPE '\';<br />Use two quotes for every one displayed. Example:<br /> SELECT 'Franks''s Oracle site' FROM DUAL;<br /> SELECT 'A ''quoted'' word.' FROM DUAL;<br /> SELECT 'A ''''double quoted'''' word.' FROM DUAL; <br /><br />________________________________________<br />How does one eliminate duplicates rows from a table?<br />Choose one of the following queries to identify or remove duplicate rows from a table leaving only unique records in the table: <br />Method 1: <br /> SQL> DELETE FROM table_name A WHERE ROWID > (<br /> 2 SELECT min(rowid) FROM table_name B<br /> 3 WHERE A.key_values = B.key_values);<br />Method 2: <br /> SQL> create table table_name2 as select distinct * from table_name1;<br /> SQL> drop table_name1;<br /> SQL> rename table_name2 to table_name1;<br /> SQL> -- Remember to recreate all indexes, constraints, triggers, etc on table... <br />Method 3: (thanks to Dennis Gurnick) <br /> SQL> delete from my_table t1<br /> SQL> where exists (select 'x' from my_table t2<br /> SQL> where t2.key_value1 = t1.key_value1<br /> SQL> and t2.key_value2 = t1.key_value2<br /> SQL> and t2.rowid > t1.rowid);<br />Note: One can eliminate N^2 unnecessary operations by creating an index on the joined fields in the inner loop (no need to loop through the entire table on each pass by a record). This will speed-up the deletion process. <br />Note 2: If you are comparing NOT-NULL columns, use the NVL function. Remember that NULL is not equal to NULL. This should not be a problem as all key columns should be NOT NULL by definition. <br /><br />________________________________________<br />How does one generate primary key values for a table?<br />Create your table with a NOT NULL column (say SEQNO). This column can now be populated with unique values: <br /> SQL> UPDATE table_name SET seqno = ROWNUM;<br />or use a sequences generator: <br /> SQL> CREATE SEQUENCE sequence_name START WITH 1 INCREMENT BY 1;<br /> SQL> UPDATE table_name SET seqno = sequence_name.NEXTVAL;<br />Finally, create a unique index on this column. <br /><br />________________________________________<br />How does one get the time difference between two date columns?<br />Look at this example query: <br /> select floor(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)<br /> || ' HOURS ' ||<br /> floor((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) -<br /> floor(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600)/60)<br /> || ' MINUTES ' ||<br /> round((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) -<br /> floor(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600 -<br /> (floor((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) -<br /> floor(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600)/60)*60)))<br /> || ' SECS ' time_difference<br /> from ...<br />If you don't want to go through the floor and ceiling math, try this method (contributed by Erik Wile): <br /> select to_char(to_date('00:00:00','HH24:MI:SS') +<br /> (date1 - date2), 'HH24:MI:SS') time_difference<br /> from ...<br />Note that this query only uses the time portion of the date and ignores the date itself. It will thus never return a value bigger than 23:59:59. <br /><br />________________________________________<br />How does one add a day/hour/minute/second to a date value?<br />The SYSDATE pseudo-column shows the current system date and time. Adding 1 to SYSDATE will advance the date by 1 day. Use fractions to add hours, minutes or seconds to the date. Look at these examples: <br /> SQL> select sysdate, sysdate+1/24, sysdate +1/1440, sysdate + 1/86400 from dual;<br /> <br /> SYSDATE SYSDATE+1/24 SYSDATE+1/1440 SYSDATE+1/86400<br /> -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- --------------------<br /> 03-Jul-2002 08:32:12 03-Jul-2002 09:32:12 03-Jul-2002 08:33:12 03-Jul-2002 08:32:13<br />The following format is frequently used with Oracle Replication: <br /> select sysdate NOW, sysdate+30/(24*60*60) NOW_PLUS_30_SECS from dual;<br /><br /> NOW NOW_PLUS_30_SECS<br /> -------------------- --------------------<br /> 03-JUL-2002 16:47:23 03-JUL-2002 16:47:53<br /><br />________________________________________<br />How does one count different data values in a column?<br />Use this simple query to count the number of data values in a column: <br /> select my_table_column, count(*)<br /> from my_table<br /> group by my_table_column;<br />A more sophisticated example... <br /> select dept, sum( decode(sex,'M',1,0)) MALE,<br /> sum( decode(sex,'F',1,0)) FEMALE,<br /> count(decode(sex,'M',1,'F',1)) TOTAL<br /> from my_emp_table<br /> group by dept;<br /><br />________________________________________<br />How does one count/sum RANGES of data values in a column?<br />A value x will be between values y and z if GREATEST(x, y) = LEAST(x, z). Look at this example: <br /> select f2,<br /> sum(decode(greatest(f1,59), least(f1,100), 1, 0)) "Range 60-100",<br /> sum(decode(greatest(f1,30), least(f1, 59), 1, 0)) "Range 30-59",<br /> sum(decode(greatest(f1, 0), least(f1, 29), 1, 0)) "Range 00-29"<br /> from my_table<br /> group by f2;<br />For equal size ranges it might be easier to calculate it with DECODE(TRUNC(value/range), 0, rate_0, 1, rate_1, ...). Eg. <br /> select ename "Name", sal "Salary",<br /> decode( trunc(f2/1000, 0), 0, 0.0,<br /> 1, 0.1,<br /> 2, 0.2,<br /> 3, 0.31) "Tax rate"<br /> from my_table;<br /><br />________________________________________<br />Can one retrieve only the Nth row from a table?<br />Shaik Khaleel provided this solution to select the Nth row from a table: <br /> SELECT * FROM ( <br /> SELECT ENAME,ROWNUM RN FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM < 101 ) <br /> WHERE RN = 100;<br />Note: Note: In this first it select only one more than the required row, then it selects the required one. Its far better than using MINUS operation. <br />Ravi Pachalla provided this solution: <br /> SELECT f1 FROM t1<br /> WHERE rowid = (<br /> SELECT rowid FROM t1<br /> WHERE rownum <= 10<br /> MINUS<br /> SELECT rowid FROM t1<br /> WHERE rownum < 10);<br />Alternatively...<br /> SELECT * FROM emp WHERE rownum=1 AND rowid NOT IN<br /> (SELECT rowid FROM emp WHERE rownum < 10);<br />Please note, there is no explicit row order in a relational database. However, this query is quite fun and may even help in the odd situation. <br /><br />________________________________________<br />Can one retrieve only rows X to Y from a table?<br />Shaik Khaleel provided this solution to the problem: <br /> SELECT * FROM ( <br /> SELECT ENAME,ROWNUM RN FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM < 101 <br /> ) WHERE RN between 91 and 100 ;<br />Note: the 101 is just one greater than the maximum row of the required rows (means x= 90, y=100, so the inner values is y+1). <br />Another solution is to use the MINUS operation. For example, to display rows 5 to 7, construct a query like this: <br /> SELECT *<br /> FROM tableX<br /> WHERE rowid in (<br /> SELECT rowid FROM tableX<br /> WHERE rownum <= 7<br /> MINUS<br /> SELECT rowid FROM tableX<br /> WHERE rownum < 5);<br />Please note, there is no explicit row order in a relational database. However, this query is quite fun and may even help in the odd situation. <br />• . <br />________________________________________<br />How does one select EVERY Nth row from a table?<br />One can easily select all even, odd, or Nth rows from a table using SQL queries like this: <br />Method 1: Using a subquery <br /> SELECT *<br /> FROM emp<br /> WHERE (ROWID,0) IN (SELECT ROWID, MOD(ROWNUM,4)<br /> FROM emp);<br />Method 2: Use dynamic views (available from Oracle7.2): <br /> SELECT *<br /> FROM ( SELECT rownum rn, empno, ename<br /> FROM emp<br /> ) temp<br /> WHERE MOD(temp.ROWNUM,4) = 0;<br />Please note, there is no explicit row order in a relational database. However, these queries are quite fun and may even help in the odd situation. <br /><br />________________________________________<br />How does one select the TOP N rows from a table?<br />Form Oracle8i one can have an inner-query with an ORDER BY clause. Look at this example: <br /> SELECT *<br /> FROM (SELECT * FROM my_table ORDER BY col_name_1 DESC)<br /> WHERE ROWNUM < 10;<br />Use this workaround with prior releases: <br /> SELECT *<br /> FROM my_table a<br /> WHERE 10 >= (SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT maxcol)<br /> FROM my_table b<br /> WHERE b.maxcol >= a.maxcol)<br /> ORDER BY maxcol DESC;<br /><br />________________________________________<br />How does one code a tree-structured query?<br />Tree-structured queries are definitely non-relational (enough to kill Codd and make him roll in his grave). Also, this feature is not often found in other database offerings. <br />The SCOTT/TIGER database schema contains a table EMP with a self-referencing relation (EMPNO and MGR columns). This table is perfect for tesing and demonstrating tree-structured queries as the MGR column contains the employee number of the "current" employee's boss. <br />The LEVEL pseudo-column is an indication of how deep in the tree one is. Oracle can handle queries with a depth of up to 255 levels. Look at this example: <br /> select LEVEL, EMPNO, ENAME, MGR<br /> from EMP<br /> connect by prior EMPNO = MGR<br /> start with MGR is NULL;<br />One can produce an indented report by using the level number to substring or lpad() a series of spaces, and concatenate that to the string. Look at this example: <br /> select lpad(' ', LEVEL * 2) || ENAME ........<br />One uses the "start with" clause to specify the start of the tree. More than one record can match the starting condition. One disadvantage of having a "connect by prior" clause is that you cannot perform a join to other tables. The "connect by prior" clause is rarely implemented in the other database offerings. Trying to do this programmatically is difficult as one has to do the top level query first, then, for each of the records open a cursor to look for child nodes. <br />One way of working around this is to use PL/SQL, open the driving cursor with the "connect by prior" statement, and the select matching records from other tables on a row-by-row basis, inserting the results into a temporary table for later retrieval. <br /><br />________________________________________<br />How does one code a matrix report in SQL?<br />Look at this example query with sample output: <br /> SELECT *<br /> FROM (SELECT job,<br /> sum(decode(deptno,10,sal)) DEPT10,<br /> sum(decode(deptno,20,sal)) DEPT20,<br /> sum(decode(deptno,30,sal)) DEPT30,<br /> sum(decode(deptno,40,sal)) DEPT40<br /> FROM scott.emp<br /> GROUP BY job)<br /> ORDER BY 1;<br /><br /> JOB DEPT10 DEPT20 DEPT30 DEPT40<br /> --------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------<br /> ANALYST 6000<br /> CLERK 1300 1900 950<br /> MANAGER 2450 2975 2850<br /> PRESIDENT 5000<br /> SALESMAN 5600<br /><br />________________________________________<br />How does one implement IF-THEN-ELSE in a select statement?<br />The Oracle decode function acts like a procedural statement inside an SQL statement to return different values or columns based on the values of other columns in the select statement. <br />Some examples: <br /> select decode(sex, 'M', 'Male', 'F', 'Female', 'Unknown')<br /> from employees;<br /><br /> select a, b, decode( abs(a-b), a-b, 'a > b',<br /> 0, 'a = b',<br /> 'a < b') from tableX;<br /><br /> select decode( GREATEST(A,B), A, 'A is greater OR EQUAL than B', 'B is greater than A')...<br /> <br /> select decode( GREATEST(A,B), <br /> A, decode(A, B, 'A NOT GREATER THAN B', 'A GREATER THAN B'), <br /> 'A NOT GREATER THAN B')...<br />Note: The decode function is not ANSI SQL and is rarely implemented in other RDBMS offerings. It is one of the good things about Oracle, but use it sparingly if portability is required. <br />From Oracle 8i one can also use CASE statements in SQL. Look at this example: <br /> SELECT ename, CASE WHEN sal>1000 THEN 'Over paid' ELSE 'Under paid' END<br /> FROM emp;<br />• . <br />________________________________________<br />How can one dump/ examine the exact content of a database column?<br /> SELECT DUMP(col1)<br /> FROM tab1<br /> WHERE cond1 = val1;<br /><br /> DUMP(COL1)<br /> -------------------------------------<br /> Typ=96 Len=4: 65,66,67,32<br />For this example the type is 96, indicating CHAR, and the last byte in the column is 32, which is the ASCII code for a space. This tells us that this column is blank-padded. <br />• . <br />________________________________________<br />Can one drop a column from a table?<br />From Oracle8i one can DROP a column from a table. Look at this sample script, demonstrating the ALTER TABLE table_name DROP COLUMN column_name; command. <br />Other workarounds: <br />1. SQL> update t1 set column_to_drop = NULL;<br /> SQL> rename t1 to t1_base;<br /> SQL> create view t1 as select <specific columns> from t1_base;<br /><br />2. SQL> create table t2 as select <specific columns> from t1;<br /> SQL> drop table t1;<br /> SQL> rename t2 to t1;<br /><br />________________________________________<br />Can one rename a column in a table?<br />No, this is listed as Enhancement Request 163519. Some workarounds: <br />1. -- Use a view with correct column names...<br /> rename t1 to t1_base;<br /> create view t1 <column list with new name> as select * from t1_base;<br /><br />2. -- Recreate the table with correct column names...<br /> create table t2 <column list with new name> as select * from t1;<br /> drop table t1;<br /> rename t2 to t1;<br /><br />3. -- Add a column with a new name and drop an old column...<br /> alter table t1 add ( newcolame datatype ); <br /> update t1 set newcolname=oldcolname;<br /> alter table t1 drop column oldcolname;<br /><br />________________________________________<br />How can I change my Oracle password?<br />Issue the following SQL command: ALTER USER <username> IDENTIFIED BY <new_password><br />/ <br />From Oracle8 you can just type "password" from SQL*Plus, or if you need to change another user's password, type "password user_name". <br /><br />________________________________________<br />How does one find the next value of a sequence?<br />Perform an "ALTER SEQUENCE ... NOCACHE" to unload the unused cached sequence numbers from the Oracle library cache. This way, no cached numbers will be lost. If you then select from the USER_SEQUENCES dictionary view, you will see the correct high water mark value that would be returned for the next NEXTVALL call. Afterwards, perform an "ALTER SEQUENCE ... CACHE" to restore caching. <br />You can use the above technique to prevent sequence number loss before a SHUTDOWN ABORT, or any other operation that would cause gaps in sequence values. <br /><br />________________________________________<br />Workaround for snapshots on tables with LONG columns<br />You can use the SQL*Plus COPY command instead of snapshots if you need to copy LONG and LONG RAW variables from one location to another. Eg: <br />COPY TO SCOTT/TIGER@REMOTE -<br />CREATE IMAGE_TABLE USING -<br /> SELECT IMAGE_NO, IMAGE -<br /> FROM IMAGES;<br />Note: If you run Oracle8, convert your LONGs to LOBs, as it can be replicated. <br /><br />________________________________________FRESHERhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/03154154368670178574noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-2158258402527566027.post-28885665844852714272007-08-19T02:38:00.000-07:002007-08-19T02:39:37.842-07:00SOME WEBSITES FOR FRESHERShttp://www.freshersworld.com/<br />http://www.yuvajobs.com/<br />http://www.123oye.com/<br />http://www.jobsviewer.com/<br />http://www.jobsassist.com/<br />http://corp.naukri.com/<br />http://www.chetanafresherjobs.com/<br />http://freshers.in/<br />http://www.careerkhazana.com/<br />http://www.freshershome.com/<br />http://www.freshersindia.com/<br />http://placementpapers.net/<br />http://www.dhruvaraj.com/<br />http://www.sureshkumar.net/<br />http://www.fresherjobs.in/<br />http://jobs.geekinterview.com/Freshers<br />http://www.indianfreshers.com/<br />http://job.rediff.com/<br />http://www.efreshers.com/<br />http://www.timesjobs.com/<br />http://www.jobs4freshers.com/<br />http://www.freshersdreams.co.in/<br />http://www.clickjobs.com/<br />http://www.jobsahead.com/FRESHERhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/03154154368670178574noreply@blogger.com2tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-2158258402527566027.post-85057340699737708622007-08-18T09:19:00.001-07:002007-08-18T09:19:39.252-07:00APTITUDEAptitude Questions<br />1.One of the following is my secret word:AIM DUE MOD OAT TIE.With the list in front of you, if I were to tell you any one of my secret word, then you would be able to tell me the number of vowels in my secret word.Which is my secret word?<br />Ans.TIE<br /><br />2.In the following figure:A B C<br />D<br />E F G<br />H<br />I<br />Each of the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 is:<br />a)Represented by a different letter in the figure above.<br />b)Positioned in the figure above so that each of A + B + C,C + D +E,E + F + G, and G + H + I is equal to 13.<br />Which digit does E represent?<br /><br />Ans.E is 4<br />3.One of Mr. Horton,his wife,their son,and Mr. Horton's mother is a doctor and another is a lawyer.<br />a)If the doctor is younger than the lawyer, then the doctor and the lawyer are not blood relatives.<br />b)If the doctor is a woman, then the doctor and the lawyer are blood relatives.<br />c)If the lawyer is a man, then the doctor is a man.<br />Whose occupation you know?<br /><br />Ans.Mr. Horton:he is the doctor.<br />4.Here is a picture of two cubes:<br /><br /><br /><br />a)The two cubes are exactly alike.<br />b)The hidden faces indicated by the dots have the same alphabet on them.<br />Which alphabet-q, r, w, or k is on the faces indicated by the dots?<br /><br />Ans.q<br /><br /><br />5.In the following figure:<br />A D<br />B G E<br />C F<br />Each of the seven digits from 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 is:<br />a)Represented by a different letter in the figure above.<br />b)Positioned in the figure above so that A*B*C,B*G*E, and D*E*F are equal.<br />Which digit does G represent?<br /><br />Ans.G represents the digit 2.<br />6.Mr. and Mrs. Aye and Mr. and Mrs. Bee competed in a chess tournament.Of the three games played:<br />a)In only the first game werethe two players married to each other.<br />b)The men won two games and the women won one game.<br />c)The Ayes won more games than the Bees.<br />d)Anyone who lost game did not play the subsequent game.<br />Who did not lose a game?<br /><br />Ans.Mrs.Bee did not lose a game.<br />7.Three piles of chips--pile I consists one chip, pile II consists of chips, and pile III consists of three chips--are to be used in game played by Anita and Brinda.The game requires:<br />a)That each player in turn take only one chip or all chips from just one pile.<br />b)That the player who has to take the last chip loses.<br />c)That Anita now have her turn.<br />From which pile should Anita draw in order to win?<br /><br />Ans.Pile II<br />8.Of Abdul, Binoy, and Chandini:<br />a)Each member belongs to the Tee family whose members always tell the truth or to the El family whose members always lie.<br />b)Abdul says ''Either I belong or Binoy belongs to a different family from the other two."<br />Whose family do you name of?<br /><br />Ans.Binoy's family--El.<br />9.In a class composed of x girls and y boys what part of the class is composed of girls<br /><br />A.y/(x + y)<br />B.x/xy<br />C.x/(x + y)<br />D.y/xy<br /><br />Ans.C<br /><br /><br />10.What is the maximum number of half-pint bottles of cream that can be filled with a 4-gallon can of cream(2 pt.=1 qt. and 4 qt.=1 gal)<br /><br />A.16<br />B.24<br />C.30<br />D.64<br /><br />Ans.D<br /><br /><br />11.If the operation,^ is defined by the equation x ^ y = 2x + y,what is the value of a in 2 ^ a = a ^ 3<br /><br />A.0<br />B.1<br />C.-1<br />D.4<br /><br />Ans.B<br /><br /><br />12.A coffee shop blends 2 kinds of coffee,putting in 2 parts of a 33p. a gm. grade to 1 part of a 24p. a gm.If the mixture is changed to 1 part of the 33p. a gm. to 2 parts of the less expensive grade,how much will the shop save in blending 100 gms.<br /><br />A.Rs.90<br />B.Rs.1.00<br />C.Rs.3.00<br />D.Rs.8.00<br /><br />Ans.C<br /><br /><br />13.There are 200 questions on a 3 hr examination.Among these questions are 50 mathematics problems.It is suggested that twice as much time be spent on each maths problem as for each other question.How many minutes should be spent on mathematics problems<br /><br />A.36<br />B.72<br />C.60<br />D.100<br /><br />Ans.B<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />14.In a group of 15,7 have studied Latin, 8 have studied Greek, and 3 have not studied either.How many of these studied both Latin and Greek<br /><br />A.0<br />B.3<br />C.4<br />D.5<br /><br />Ans.B<br /><br /><br />15.If 13 = 13w/(1-w) ,then (2w)2 =<br /><br />A.1/4<br />B.1/2<br />C.1<br />D.2<br /><br />Ans.C<br /><br /><br />16. If a and b are positive integers and (a-b)/3.5 = 4/7, then <br />(A) b < a<br />(B) b > a<br />(C) b = a<br />(D) b >= a<br />Ans. A<br /><br /><br />17. In june a baseball team that played 60 games had won 30% of its game played. After a phenomenal winning streak this team raised its average to 50% .How many games must the team have won in a row to attain this average?<br />A. 12<br />B. 20<br />C. 24<br />D. 30<br />Ans. C<br /><br /><br />18. M men agree to purchase a gift for Rs. D. If three men drop out how much more will each have to contribute towards the purchase of the gift/<br />A. D/(M-3)<br />B. MD/3<br />C. M/(D-3)<br />D. 3D/(M2-3M) <br />Ans. D<br /><br /><br />19. A company contracts to paint 3 houses. Mr.Brown can paint a house in 6 days while Mr.Black would take 8 days and Mr.Blue 12 days. After 8 days Mr.Brown goes on vacation and Mr. Black begins to work for a period of 6 days. How many days will it take Mr.Blue to complete the contract?<br />A. 7<br />B. 8<br />C. 11<br />D. 12<br /><br />Ans.C<br /><br />20. 2 hours after a freight train leaves Delhi a passenger train leaves the same station travelling in the same direction at an average speed of 16 km/hr. After travelling 4 hrs the passenger train overtakes the freight train. The average speed of the freight train was?<br />A. 30<br />B. 40<br />C.58<br />D. 60<br />Ans. B<br /><br />21. If 9x-3y=12 and 3x-5y=7 then 6x-2y = ?<br />A.-5<br />B. 4<br />C. 2<br />D. 8<br />Ans. D<br />22. There are 5 red shoes, 4 green shoes. If one draw randomly a shoe what is the probability of getting a red shoe <br /><br />Ans 5c1/ 9c1<br /><br /><br />23. What is the selling price of a car? If the cost of the car is Rs.60 and a profit of 10% over selling price is earned<br /><br />Ans: Rs 66/-<br /><br /><br /><br />24. 1/3 of girls , 1/2 of boys go to canteen .What factor and total number of classmates go to canteen. <br /><br />Ans: Cannot be determined.<br /><br /><br />25. The price of a product is reduced by 30% . By what percentage should it be increased to make it 100% <br /><br />Ans: 42.857%<br /><br /><br />26. There is a square of side 6cm . A circle is inscribed inside the square. Find the ratio of the area of circle to square. <br />Ans. 11/14 <br />27. There are two candles of equal lengths and of different thickness. The thicker one lasts of six hours. The thinner 2 hours less than the thicker one. Ramesh lights the two candles at the same time. When he went to bed he saw the thicker one is twice the length of the thinner one. How long ago did Ramesh light the two candles .<br /><br />Ans: 3 hours. <br />28. If M/N = 6/5,then 3M+2N = ? <br />29. If p/q = 5/4 , then 2p+q= ? <br />30. If PQRST is a parallelogram what it the ratio of triangle PQS & parallelogram PQRST .<br />Ans: 1:2 <br />31. The cost of an item is Rs 12.60. If the profit is 10% over selling price what is the selling price ?<br />Ans: Rs 13.86/- <br />32. There are 6 red shoes & 4 green shoes . If two of red shoes are drawn what is the probability of getting red shoes <br />Ans: 6c2/10c2<br />33. To 15 lts of water containing 20% alcohol, we add 5 lts of pure water. What is % alcohol. <br />Ans : 15% <br />34. A worker is paid Rs.20/- for a full days work. He works 1,1/3,2/3,1/8.3/4 days in a week. What is the total amount paid for that worker ?<br />Ans : 57.50 <br />35. If the value of x lies between 0 & 1 which of the following is the largest? <br />(a) x <br />(b) x2<br />(c) -x<br />(d) 1/x<br /><br />Ans : (d) <br />36. If the total distance of a journey is 120 km .If one goes by 60 kmph and comes back at 40kmph what is the average speed during the journey? <br />Ans: 48kmph<br />37. A school has 30% students from Maharashtra .Out of these 20% are Bombey students. Find the total percentage of Bombay?<br />Ans: 6%<br />38. An equilateral triangle of sides 3 inch each is given. How many equilateral triangles of side 1 inch can be formed from it?<br />Ans: 9<br />39. If A/B = 3/5,then 15A = ?<br />Ans : 9B<br />40. Each side of a rectangle is increased by 100% .By what percentage does the area increase?<br />Ans : 300%<br />41. Perimeter of the back wheel = 9 feet, front wheel = 7 feet on a certain distance, the front wheel gets 10 revolutions more than the back wheel .What is the distance?<br />Ans : 315 feet.<br />42. Perimeter of front wheel =30, back wheel = 20. If front wheel revolves 240 times. How many revolutions will the back wheel take?<br />Ans: 360 times<br />43. 20% of a 6 litre solution and 60% of 4 litre solution are mixed. What percentage of the mixture of solution<br />Ans: 36%<br />44City A's population is 68000, decreasing at a rate of 80 people per year. City B having population 42000 is increasing at a rate of 120 people per year. In how many years both the cities will have same population?<br />Ans: 130 years<br />45Two cars are 15 kms apart. One is turning at a speed of 50kmph and the other at 40kmph . How much time will it take for the two cars to meet?<br />Ans: 3/2 hours<br />46A person wants to buy 3 paise and 5 paise stamps costing exactly one rupee. If he buys which of the following number of stamps he won't able to buy 3 paise stamps.<br />Ans: 9<br />47There are 12 boys and 15 girls, How many different dancing groups can be formed with 2 boys and 3 girls.<br />48Which of the following fractions is less than 1/3<br />(a) 22/62 <br />(b) 15/46<br />(c) 2/3<br />(d) 1<br />Ans: (b)<br />49There are two circles, one circle is inscribed and another circle is circumscribed over a square. What is the ratio of area of inner to outer circle?<br />Ans: 1 : 2<br />50Three types of tea the a,b,c costs Rs. 95/kg,100/kg and70/kg respectively.<br />How many kgs of each should be blended to produce 100 kg of mixture worth Rs.90/kg,<br />given that the quntities of band c are equal<br />a)70,15,15 <br />b)50,25,25 <br />c)60,20,20 <br />d)40,30,30 <br />Ans. (b)<br />51. in a class, except 18 all are above 50 years.<br />15 are below 50 years of age. How many people are there<br />(a) 30 <br />(b) 33 <br />(c) 36 <br />(d) none of these.<br />Ans. (d)<br />52. If a boat is moving in upstream with velocity of 14 km/hr and goes downstream with a velocity of 40 km/hr, then what is the speed of the stream ?<br /><br />(a) 13 km/hr<br />(b) 26 km/hr<br />(c) 34 km/hr<br />(d) none of these<br />Ans. A<br />53. Find the value of ( 0.75 * 0.75 * 0.75 - 0.001 ) / ( 0.75 * 0.75 - 0.075 + 0.01)<br /><br />(a) 0.845<br />(b) 1.908<br />(c) 2.312<br />(d) 0.001<br />Ans. A<br />54. A can have a piece of work done in 8 days, B can work three times faster than the A, C can work five times faster than A. How many days will they take to do the work together ?<br /><br />(a) 3 days<br />(b) 8/9 days<br />(c) 4 days<br />(d) can't say<br />Ans. B<br />55. A car travels a certain distance taking 7 hrs in forward journey, during the return journey increased speed 12km/hr takes the times 5 hrs.What is the distance travelled<br /><br />(a) 210 kms<br />(b) 30 kms<br />(c) 20 kms<br />(c) none of these<br />Ans. B<br />56. Instead of multiplying a number by 7, the number is divided by 7. What is the percentage of error obtained ?<br />57. Find (7x + 4y ) / (x-2y) if x/2y = 3/2 ?<br /><br />(a) 6<br />(b) 8<br />(c) 7<br />(d) data insufficient<br />Ans. C<br />58. A man buys 12 lts of liquid which contains 20% of the liquid and the rest is water. He then mixes it with 10 lts of another mixture with 30% of liquid.What is the % of water in the new mixture?<br />59. If a man buys 1 lt of milk for Rs.12 and mixes it with 20% water and sells it for Rs.15, then what is the percentage of gain?<br />60. Pipe A can fill a tank in 30 mins and Pipe B can fill it in 28 mins.If 3/4th of the tank is filled by Pipe B alone and both are opened, how much time is required by both the pipes to fill the tank completely ?<br />61. If on an item a company gives 25% discount, they earn 25% profit. If they now give 10% discount then what is the profit percentage.<br />(a) 40%<br />(b) 55%<br />(c) 35%<br />(d) 30%<br />Ans. D<br />62. A certain number of men can finish a piece of work in 10 days. If however there were 10 men less it will take 10 days more for the work to be finished. How many men were there originally?<br /><br />(a) 110 men<br />(b) 130 men<br />(c) 100 men<br />(d) none of these<br />Ans. A<br />63. In simple interest what sum amounts of Rs.1120/- in 4 years and Rs.1200/- in 5 years ?<br />(a) Rs. 500<br />(b) Rs. 600<br />(c) Rs. 800<br />(d) Rs. 900<br />Ans. C<br />64. If a sum of money compound annually amounts of thrice itself in 3 years. In how many years <br />will it become 9 times itself.<br /><br />(a) 6<br />(b) 8<br />(c) 10<br />(d) 12<br />Ans A<br />65. Two trains move in the same direction at 50 kmph and 32 kmph respectively. A man in the slower train <br />observes the 15 seconds elapse before the faster train completely passes by him.<br />What is the length of faster train ?<br /><br />(a) 100m<br />(b) 75m<br />(c) 120m<br />(d) 50m<br />Ans B<br />66. How many mashes are there in 1 squrare meter of wire gauge if each mesh<br />is 8mm long and 5mm wide ?<br /><br />(a) 2500<br />(b) 25000<br />(c) 250<br />(d) 250000<br />Ans B<br />67. x% of y is y% of ?<br />(a) x/y<br />(b) 2y<br />(c) x<br />(d) can't be determined<br />Ans. C<br />68. The price of sugar increases by 20%, by what % should a housewife reduce the consumption of sugar so that expenditure on sugar can be same as before ?<br />(a) 15%<br />(b) 16.66%<br />(c) 12%<br />(d) 9%<br />Ans B<br />69. A man spends half of his salary on household expenses, 1/4th for rent, 1/5th for travel expenses, the man deposits the rest in a bank. If his monthly deposits in the bank amount 50, what is his monthly salary ?<br />(a) Rs.500<br />(b) Rs.1500<br />(c) Rs.1000<br />(d) Rs. 900<br />Ans C<br />70. The population of a city increases @ 4% p.a. There is an additional annual increase of 4% of the population due to the influx of job seekers, find the % increase in population after 2 years ? <br />71. The ratio of the number of boys and girls in a school is 3:2 Out of these 10% the boys and 25% of girls are scholarship holders. % of students who are not scholarship holders.?<br />72. 15 men take 21 days of 8 hrs. each to do a piece of work. How many days of 6 hrs. each would it take for 21 women if 3 women do as much work as 2 men?<br />(a) 30<br />(b) 20<br />(c) 19<br />(d) 29<br />Ans. A<br />73. A cylinder is 6 cms in diameter and 6 cms in height. If spheres of the same size are made from the material obtained, what is the diameter of each sphere?<br />(a) 5 cms<br />(b) 2 cms<br />(c) 3 cms<br />(d) 4 cms<br />Ans C<br />74. A rectangular plank (2)1/2 meters wide can be placed so that it is on either side of the diagonal of a square shown below.(Figure is not available)What is the area of the plank?<br />Ans :7*(2)1/2<br />75. The difference b/w the compound interest payble half yearly and the simple interest on a <br />certain sum lent out at 10% p.a for 1 year is Rs 25. What is the sum?<br />(a) Rs. 15000<br />(b) Rs. 12000<br />(c) Rs. 10000<br />(d) none of these<br />Ans C<br />76. What is the smallest number by which 2880 must be divided in order to make it into a <br />perfect square ?<br /><br />(a) 3<br />(b) 4<br />(c) 5 <br />(d) 6 <br />Ans. C<br />77. A father is 30 years older than his son however he will be only thrice as old as the son after 5 years<br />what is father's present age ?<br /><br />(a) 40 yrs<br />(b) 30 yrs<br />(c) 50 yrs<br />(d) none of these<br />Ans. A<br />78. An article sold at a profit of 20% if both the cost price and selling price would be Rs.20/- the profit would be 10% more. What is the cost price of that article?<br />29. If an item costs Rs.3 in '99 and Rs.203 in '00.What is the % increase in price?<br /><br />(a) 200/3 %<br />(b) 200/6 %<br />(c) 100%<br />(d) none of these<br />Ans. A<br />80. 5 men or 8 women do equal amount of work in a day. a job requires 3 men and 5 women to finish the job in 10 days how many woman are required to finish the job in 14 days.<br /><br />a) 10<br />b) 7 <br />c) 6 <br />d) 12<br />Ans 7<br />81. A simple interest amount of rs 5000 for six month is rs 200. what is the anual rate of interest?<br /><br />a) 10%<br />b) 6% <br />c) 8%<br />d) 9% <br />Ans 8%<br />82. In objective test a correct ans score 4 marks and on a wrong ans 2 marks are ---. a student score 480 marks from 150 question. how many ans were correct?<br />a) 120<br />b) 130<br />c) 110<br />d) 150<br />Ans130.<br />83. An artical sold at amount of 50% the net sale price is rs 425 .what is the list price of the artical?<br /><br />a) 500<br />b) 488<br />c) 480 <br />d) 510 <br />Ans 500<br />84. A man leaves office daily at 7pm A driver with car comes from his home to pick him from office and bring back home <br />One day he gets free at 5:30 and instead of waiting for driver he starts walking towards home.<br />In the way he meets the car and returns home on car He reaches home 20 minutes earlier than usual.<br />In how much time does the man reach home usually??<br />Ans. 1hr 20min<br />85. A works thrice as much as B. If A takes 60 days less than B to do a work then find the number of days it would take to complete the work if both work together?<br />Ans. 22½days<br />86. How many 1's are there in the binary form of 8*1024 + 3*64 + 3<br />Ans. 4<br />87. In a digital circuit which was to implement (A B) + (A)XOR(B), the designer implements (A B) (A)XOR(B) <br />What is the probability of error in it ?<br />88. A boy has Rs 2. He wins or loses Re 1 at a time If he wins he gets Re 1 and if he loses the game he loses Re 1.<br />He can loose only 5 times. He is out of the game if he earns Rs 5.<br />Find the number of ways in which this is possible?<br />Ans. 16<br />89. If there are 1024*1280 pixels on a screen and each pixel can have around 16 million colors<br />Find the memory required for this?<br />Ans. 4MB<br />90. On a particular day A and B decide that they would either speak the truth or will lie. <br />C asks A whether he is speaking truth or lying?<br />He answers and B listens to what he said. C then asks B what A has said B says "A says that he is a liar" <br />What is B speaking ?<br />(a) Truth<br />(b) Lie<br />(c) Truth when A lies<br />(d) Cannot be determined<br />Ans. (b)<br />91. What is the angle between the two hands of a clock when time is 8:30<br />Ans. 75(approx)<br />92. A student is ranked 13th from right and 8th from left. How many students are there in totality ?<br />93. A man walks east and turns right and then from there to his left and then 45degrees to<br />his right.In which direction did he go<br /><br />Ans. North west<br />94. A student gets 70% in one subject, 80% in the other. To get an overall of 75% how much should get in third subject.<br />95. A man shows his friend a woman sitting in a park and says that she the daughter of my grandmother's only son.<br />What is the relation between the two<br /><br />Ans. Daughter<br /><br />96. How many squares with sides 1/2 inch long are needed to cover a rectangle that is 4 ft long and 6 ft wide<br />(a) 24<br />(b) 96<br />(c) 3456<br />(d) 13824<br />(e) 14266<br />97. If a=2/3b , b=2/3c, and c=2/3d what part of d is b/<br />(a) 8/27<br />(b) 4/9<br />(c) 2/3<br />(d) 75%<br />(e) 4/3<br />Ans. (b)<br />2598Successive discounts of 20% and 15% are equal to a single discount of <br />(a) 30%<br />(b) 32% <br />(c) 34% <br />(d) 35% <br />(e) 36<br />Ans. (b)<br />99. The petrol tank of an automobile can hold g liters.If a liters was removed when the tank was full, what part of the full tank was removed?<br />(a)g-a<br />(b)g/a<br />(c) a/g<br />(d) (g-a)/a<br />(e) (g-a)/g<br />Ans. (c)<br />100. If x/y=4 and y is not '0' what % of x is 2x-y<br /><br />(a)150%<br />(b)175%<br />(c)200%<br />(d)250%<br /><br />Ans. (b)<br /><br />PART – 2<br /><br />Aptitude Questions<br />1.If 2x-y=4 then 6x-3y=?<br />(a)15<br />(b)12<br />(c)18<br />(d)10<br /><br />Ans. (b)<br />2.If x=y=2z and xyz=256 then what is the value of x?<br /><br />(a)12<br />(b)8<br />(c)16<br />(d)6<br /><br />Ans. (b)<br />3. (1/10)18 - (1/10)20 = ?<br />(a) 99/1020<br />(b) 99/10<br />(c) 0.9<br />(d) none of these<br />Ans. (a)<br />4.Pipe A can fill in 20 minutes and Pipe B in 30 mins and Pipe C can empty the same in 40 mins.If all of them work together, find the time taken to fill the tank<br />(a) 17 1/7 mins<br />(b) 20 mins<br />(c) 8 mins<br />(d) none of these<br />Ans. (a)<br />5. Thirty men take 20 days to complete a job working 9 hours a day.How many hour a day should 40 men work to complete the job?<br />(a) 8 hrs<br />(b) 7 1/2 hrs<br />(c) 7 hrs<br />(d) 9 hrs<br />Ans. (b)<br />6. Find the smallest number in a GP whose sum is 38 and product 1728<br />(a) 12<br />(b) 20<br />(c) 8<br />(d) none of these<br />Ans. (c)<br />7. A boat travels 20 kms upstream in 6 hrs and 18 kms downstream in 4 hrs.Find the speed of the boat in still water and the speed of the water current?<br />(a) 1/2 kmph<br />(b) 7/12 kmph<br />(c) 5 kmph<br />(d) none of these<br />Ans. (b)<br />8. A goat is tied to one corner of a square plot of side 12m by a rope 7m long.Find the area it can graze?<br />(a) 38.5 sq.m<br />(b) 155 sq.m<br />(c) 144 sq.m<br />(d) 19.25 sq.m<br />Ans. (a)<br />9. Mr. Shah decided to walk down the escalator of a tube station. He found that if he walks down 26 steps, he requires 30 seconds to reach the bottom. However, if he steps down 34 stairs he would only require 18 seconds to get to the bottom. If the time is measured from the moment the top step begins to descend to the time he steps off the last step at the bottom, find out the height of the stair way in steps?<br />Ans.46 steps.<br />10. The average age of 10 members of a committee is the same as it was 4 years ago, because an old member has been replaced by a young member. Find how much younger is the new member ?<br />Ans.40 years.<br />11. Three containers A, B and C have volumes a, b, and c respectively; and container A is full of water while the other two are empty. If from container A water is poured into container B which becomes 1/3 full, and into container C which becomes 1/2 full, how much water is left in container A?<br />12. ABCE is an isosceles trapezoid and ACDE is a rectangle. AB = 10 and EC = 20. What is the length of AE?<br />Ans. AE = 10.<br />13. In the given figure, PA and PB are tangents to the circle at A and B respectively and the chord BC is parallel to tangent PA. If AC = 6 cm, and length of the tangent AP is 9 cm, then what is the length of the chord BC?<br />Ans. BC = 4 cm.<br />15 Three cards are drawn at random from an ordinary pack of cards. Find the probability that they will consist of a king, a queen and an ace.<br />Ans. 64/2210.<br />16. A number of cats got together and decided to kill between them 999919 mice. Every cat killed an equal number of mice. Each cat killed more mice than there were cats. How many cats do you think there were ?<br />Ans. 991.<br />17. If Log2 x - 5 Log x + 6 = 0, then what would the value / values of x be? <br />Ans. x = e2 or e3.<br />18. The square of a two digit number is divided by half the number. After 36 is added to the quotient, this sum is then divided by 2. The digits of the resulting number are the same as those in the original number, but they are in reverse order. The ten's place of the original number is equal to twice the difference between its digits. What is the number?<br />Ans. 46<br />19.Can you tender a one rupee note in such a manner that there shall be total 50 coins but none of them would be 2 paise coins.?<br />Ans. 45 one paisa coins, 2 five paise coins, 2 ten paise coins, and 1 twenty-five paise coins.<br />20.A monkey starts climbing up a tree 20ft. tall. Each hour, it hops 3ft. and slips back 2ft. How much time would it take the monkey to reach the top?<br />Ans.18 hours.<br />21. What is the missing number in this series? 8 2 14 6 11 ? 14 6 18 12<br />Ans. 9<br />22. A certain type of mixture is prepared by mixing brand A at Rs.9 a kg. with brand B at Rs.4 a kg. If the mixture is worth Rs.7 a kg., how many kgs. of brand A are needed to make 40kgs. of the mixture?<br />Ans. Brand A needed is 24kgs.<br />23. A wizard named Nepo says "I am only three times my son's age. My father is 40 years more than twice my age. Together the three of us are a mere 1240 years old." How old is Nepo?<br />Ans. 360 years old.<br />24. One dog tells the other that there are two dogs in front of me. The other one also shouts that he too had two behind him. How many are they?<br />Ans. Three.<br />25. A man ate 100 bananas in five days, each day eating 6 more than the previous day. How many bananas did he eat on the first day?<br />Ans. Eight.<br />26. If it takes five minutes to boil one egg, how long will it take to boil four eggs? <br />Ans. Five minutes. <br />27. The minute hand of a clock overtakes the hour hand at intervals of 64 minutes of correct time. How much a day does the clock gain or lose?<br />Ans. 32 8/11 minutes.<br />28. Solve for x and y: 1/x - 1/y = 1/3, 1/x2 + 1/y2 = 5/9.<br />Ans. x = 3/2 or -3 and y = 3 or -3/2.<br />29. Daal is now being sold at Rs. 20 a kg. During last month its rate was Rs. 16 per kg. By how much percent should a family reduce its consumption so as to keep the expenditure fixed? <br />Ans. 20 %.<br />30. Find the least value of 3x + 4y if x2y3 = 6. <br />Ans. 10.<br />31. Can you find out what day of the week was January 12, 1979?<br />Ans. Friday.<br />32. A garrison of 3300 men has provisions for 32 days, when given at a rate of 850 grams per head. At the end of 7 days a reinforcement arrives and it was found that now the provisions will last 8 days less, when given at the rate of 825 grams per head. How, many more men can it feed?<br />Ans. 1700 men.<br />33. From 5 different green balls, four different blue balls and three different red balls, how many combinations of balls can be chosen taking at least one green and one blue ball?<br />Ans. 3720.<br />34. Three pipes, A, B, & C are attached to a tank. A & B can fill it in 20 & 30 minutes respectively while C can empty it in 15 minutes. If A, B & C are kept open successively for 1 minute each, how soon will the tank be filled?<br />Ans. 167 minutes.<br />35. A person walking 5/6 of his usual rate is 40 minutes late. What is his usual time? Ans. 3 hours 20 minutes.<br /><br />36.For a motorist there are three ways going from City A to City C. By way of bridge the distance is 20 miles and toll is $0.75. A tunnel between the two cities is a distance of 10 miles and toll is $1.00 for the vehicle and driver and $0.10 for each passenger. A two-lane highway without toll goes east for 30 miles to city B and then 20 miles in a northwest direction to City C. <br /><br /><br />1. Which is the shortest route from B to C<br /><br />(a) Directly on toll free highway to City C<br />(b) The bridge <br />(c) The Tunnel<br />(d) The bridge or the tunnel<br />(e) The bridge only if traffic is heavy on the toll free highway<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />2. The most economical way of going from City A to City B, in terms of toll and distance is to use the<br /><br />(a) tunnel<br />(b) bridge<br />(c) bridge or tunnel<br />(d) toll free highway<br />(e) bridge and highway<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />3. Jim usually drives alone from City C to City A every working day. His firm deducts a percentage of employee pay for lateness. Which factor would most influence his choice of the bridge or the tunnel ?<br /><br />(a) Whether his wife goes with him<br />(b) scenic beauty on the route<br />(c) Traffic conditions on the road, bridge and tunnel<br />(d) saving $0.25 in tolls<br />(e) price of gasoline consumed in covering additional 10 miles on the bridge<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />4. In choosing between the use of the bridge and the tunnel the chief factor(s) would be:<br />I. Traffic and road conditions<br />II. Number of passengers in the car<br />III. Location of one's homes in the center or outskirts of one of the cities<br />IV. Desire to save $0.25<br /><br />(a) I only<br />(b) II only<br />(c) II and III only<br />(d) III and IV only<br />(e) I and II only<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />37.The letters A, B, C, D, E, F and G, not necessarily in that order, stand for seven consecutive integers from 1 to 10<br />D is 3 less than A<br />B is the middle term<br />F is as much less than B as C is greater than D<br />G is greater than F<br /><br />1. The fifth integer is<br />(a) A<br />(b) C<br />(c) D<br />(d) E<br />(e) F<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />2. A is as much greater than F as which integer is less than G<br />(a) A<br />(b) B<br />(c) C<br />(d) D<br />(e) E<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />3. If A = 7, the sum of E and G is<br />(a) 8<br />(b) 10<br />(c) 12<br />(d) 14<br />(e) 16<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br />4. A - F = ?<br />(a) 1<br />(b) 2<br />(c) 3<br />(d) 4<br />(e) Cannot be determined<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />5. An integer T is as much greater than C as C is greater than E. T can be written as A + E. What is D?<br />(a) 2<br />(b) 3<br />(c) 4<br />(d) 5<br />(e) Cannot be determined<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />6. The greatest possible value of C is how much greater than the smallest possible value of D?<br />(a) 2<br />(b) 3<br />(c) 4<br />(d) 5<br />(e) 6<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br /><br />38.<br />1. All G's are H's<br />2. All G's are J's or K's<br />3. All J's and K's are G's<br />4. All L's are K's<br />5. All N's are M's<br />6. No M's are G's<br /><br /><br />1. If no P's are K's, which of the following must be true?<br /><br />(a) All P's are J's<br />(b) No P is a G<br />(c) No P is an H<br />(d) If any P is an H it is a G<br />(e) If any P is a G it is a J<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />2. Which of the following can be logically deduced from the conditions stated?<br /><br />(a) No M's are H's<br />(b) No M's that are not N's are H's<br />(c) No H's are M's<br />(d) Some M's are H's<br />(e) All M's are H's<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />3. Which of the following is inconsistent with one or more of the conditions?<br /><br />(a) All H's are G's<br />(b) All H's that are not G's are M's<br />(c) Some H's are both M's and G's<br />(d) No M's are H's<br />(e) All M's are H's<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />4. The statement "No L's are J's" is<br />I. Logically deducible from the conditions stated<br />II. Consistent with but not deducible from the conditions stated<br />III. Deducible from the stated conditions together with the additional statement "No J's are K's"<br /><br />(a) I only<br />(b) II only<br />(c) III only<br />(d) II and III only<br />(e) Neither I, II nor III<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br /><br />39.In country X, democratic, conservative and justice parties have fought three civil wars in twenty years. TO restore stability an agreement is reached to rotate the top offices President, Prime Minister and Army Chief among the parties so that each party controls one and only one office at all times. The three top office holders must each have two deputies, one from each of the other parties. Each deputy must choose a staff composed of equally members of his or her chiefs party and member of the third party. <br /><br />1. When Justice party holds one of the top offices, which of the following cannot be true<br /><br />(a) Some of the staff members within that office are justice party members<br />(b) Some of the staff members within that office are democratic party members<br />(c) Two of the deputies within the other offices are justice party members<br />(d) Two of the deputies within the other offices are conservative party members<br />(e) Some of the staff members within the other offices are justice party members.<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />2. When the democratic party holds presidency, the staff of the prime minister's deputies are composed <br />I. One-fourth of democratic party members<br />II. One-half of justice party members and one-fourth of conservative party members<br />III. One-half of conservative party members and one-fourth of justice party members.<br /><br />(a) I only<br />(b) I and II only<br />(c) II or III but not both<br />(d) I and II or I and III<br />(e) None of these<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />3. Which of the following is allowable under the rules as stated:<br /><br />(a) More than half of the staff within a given office belonging to a single party<br />(b) Half of the staff within a given office belonging to a single party<br />(c) Any person having a member of the same party as his or her immediate superior<br />(d) Half the total number of staff members in all three offices belonging to a single party<br />(e) Half the staff members in a given office belonging to parties different from the party of the top office holder in that office.<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br />4. The office of the Army Chief passes from Conservative to Justice party. Which of the following must be fired.<br /><br />(a) The democratic deputy and all staff members belonging to Justice party<br />(b) Justice party deputy and all his or hers staff members<br />(c) Justice party deputy and half of his Conservative staff members in the chief of staff office<br />(d) The Conservative deputy and all of his or her staff members belonging to Conservative party<br />(e) No deputies and all staff members belonging to conservative parties.<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br /><br /><br />40.In recommendations to the board of trustees a tuition increase of $500 per year, the president of the university said "There were no student demonstrations over the previous increases of $300 last year and $200 the year before". If the president's statement is accurate then which of the following can be validly inferred from the information given:<br />I. Most students in previous years felt that the increases were justified because of increased operating costs.<br />II. Student apathy was responsible for the failure of students to protest the previous tuition increases.<br />III. Students are not likely to demonstrate over new tuition increases.<br /><br />(a) I only<br />(b) II only<br />(c) I or II but not both<br />(d) I, II and III<br />(e) None<br /><br />Ans. (a)<br /><br />41. The office staff of XYZ corporation presently consists of three bookeepers--A, B, C and 5 secretaries D, E, F, G, H. The management is planning to open a new office in another city using 2 bookeepers and 3 secretaries of the present staff . To do so they plan to seperate certain individuals who don't function well together. The following guidelines were established to set up the new office<br />I. Bookeepers A and C are constantly finding fault with one another and should not be sent together to the new office as a team<br />II. C and E function well alone but not as a team , they should be seperated<br />III. D and G have not been on speaking terms and shouldn't go together<br />IV Since D and F have been competing for promotion they shouldn't be a team<br />1.If A is to be moved as one of the bookeepers,which of the following cannot be a possible working unit.<br /><br />A.ABDEH<br />B.ABDGH<br />C.ABEFH<br />D.ABEGH<br /><br />Ans.B<br /><br /><br />2.If C and F are moved to the new office,how many combinations are possible<br /><br />A.1<br />B.2<br />C.3<br />D.4<br /><br />Ans.A<br /><br /><br />3.If C is sent to the new office,which member of the staff cannot go with C<br /><br />A.B<br />B.D<br />C.F<br />D.G<br /><br />Ans.B<br /><br /><br />4.Under the guidelines developed,which of the following must go to the new office<br /><br />A.B<br />B.D<br />C.E<br />D.G<br /><br />Ans.A<br /><br /><br />5.If D goes to the new office,which of the following is/are true<br /><br />I.C cannot go<br />II.A cannot go<br />III.H must also go<br /><br />A.I only<br />B.II only<br />C.I and II only<br />D.I and III only<br /><br />Ans.D<br /><br /><br />42.After months of talent searching for an administrative assistant to the president of the college the field of applicants has been narrowed down to 5--A, B, C, D, E .It was announced that the finalist would be chosen after a series of all-day group personal interviews were held.The examining committee agreed upon the following procedure<br /><br />I.The interviews will be held once a week<br />II.3 candidates will appear at any all-day interview session<br />III.Each candidate will appear at least once<br />IV.If it becomes necessary to call applicants for additonal interviews, no more 1 such applicant should be asked to appear the next week<br />V.Because of a detail in the written applications,it was agreed that whenever candidate B appears, A should also be present.<br />VI.Because of travel difficulties it was agreed that C will appear for only 1 interview.<br />1.At the first interview the following candidates appear A,B,D.Which of the follwing combinations can be called for the interview to be held next week.<br /><br />A.BCD<br />B.CDE<br />C.ABE<br />D.ABC<br /><br />Ans.B<br /><br /><br />2.Which of the following is a possible sequence of combinations for interviews in 2 successive weeks<br /><br />A.ABC;BDE<br />B.ABD;ABE<br />C.ADE;ABC<br />D.BDE;ACD<br /><br />Ans.C<br /><br /><br />3.If A ,B and D appear for the interview and D is called for additional interview the following week,which 2 candidates may be asked to appear with D?<br /><br />I. A<br />II B<br />III.C<br />IV.E<br />A.I and II<br />B.I and III only <br />C.II and III only<br />D.III and IV only<br /><br />Ans.D<br /><br /><br />4.Which of the following correctly state(s) the procedure followed by the search committee<br /><br />I.After the second interview all applicants have appeared at least once<br />II.The committee sees each applicant a second time<br />III.If a third session,it is possible for all applicants to appear at least twice<br /><br />A.I only<br />B.II only<br />C.III only<br />D.Both I and II<br /><br />Ans.A<br /><br /><br />43. A certain city is served by subway lines A,B and C and numbers 1 2 and 3<br />When it snows , morning service on B is delayed<br />When it rains or snows , service on A, 2 and 3 are delayed both in the morning and afternoon <br />When temp. falls below 30 degrees farenheit afternoon service is cancelled in either the A line or the 3 line,<br />but not both.<br />When the temperature rises over 90 degrees farenheit, the afternoon service is cancelled in either the line C or the<br />3 line but not both.<br />When the service on the A line is delayed or cancelled, service on the C line which connects the A line, is delayed.<br />When service on the 3 line is cancelled, service on the B line which connects the 3 line is delayed.<br />Q1. On Jan 10th, with the temperature at 15 degree farenheit, it snows all day. On how many lines will service be<br />affected, including both morning and afternoon.<br />(A) 2<br />(B) 3<br />(C) 4<br />(D) 5 <br />Ans. D<br /><br />Q2. On Aug 15th with the temperature at 97 degrees farenheit it begins to rain at 1 PM. What is the minimum number<br />of lines on which service will be affected?<br />(A) 2<br />(B) 3<br />(C) 4<br />(D) 5 <br />Ans. C<br /><br />Q3. On which of the following occasions would service be on the greatest number of lines disrupted.<br />(A) A snowy afternoon with the temperature at 45 degree farenheit<br />(B) A snowy morning with the temperature at 45 degree farenheit<br />(C) A rainy afternoon with the temperature at 45 degree farenheit<br />(D) A rainy afternoon with the temperature at 95 degree farenheit<br />Ans. B<br /><br />44. In a certain society, there are two marriage groups, red and brown. No marriage is permitted within a group. On marriage, males become part of their wives groups; women remain in their own group. Children belong to the same group as their parents. Widowers and divorced males revert to the group of their birth. Marriage to more than one person at the same time and marriage to a direct descendant are forbidden<br />Q1. A brown female could have had<br />I. A grandfather born Red<br />II. A grandmother born Red<br />III Two grandfathers born Brown<br />(A) I only<br />(B) III only<br />(C) I, II and III<br />(D) I and II only<br />Ans. D<br /><br />Q2. A male born into the brown group may have <br />(A) An uncle in either group<br />(B) A brown daughter<br />(C) A brown son<br />(D) A son-in-law born into red group <br />Ans. A<br /><br />Q3. Which of the following is not permitted under the rules as stated.<br />(A) A brown male marrying his father's sister<br />(B) A red female marrying her mother's brother<br />(C) A widower marrying his wife's sister<br />(D) A widow marrying her divorced daughter's ex-husband <br />Ans. B<br /><br />Q4. If widowers and divorced males retained their group they had upon marrying which of the following would be permissible ( Assume that no previous marriage occurred)<br />(A) A woman marrying her dead sister's husband<br />(B) A woman marrying her divorced daughter's ex-husband<br />(C) A widower marrying his brother's daughter<br />(D) A woman marrying her mother's brother who is a widower.<br />Ans. D <br /><br />Q5. I. All G's are H's<br />II. All G's are J's or K's<br />III All J's and K's are G's<br />IV All L's are K's<br />V All N's are M's<br />VI No M's are G's<br />45. There are six steps that lead from the first to the second floor. No two people can be on the same step<br />Mr. A is two steps below Mr. C<br />Mr. B is a step next to Mr. D<br />Only one step is vacant ( No one standing on that step )<br />Denote the first step by step 1 and second step by step 2 etc. <br />1. If Mr. A is on the first step, Which of the following is true? <br />(a) Mr. B is on the second step<br />(b) Mr. C is on the fourth step.<br />(c) A person Mr. E, could be on the third step<br />(d) Mr. D is on higher step than Mr. C. <br />Ans: (d)<br />2. If Mr. E was on the third step & Mr. B was on a higher step than Mr. E which step must be vacant <br />(a) step 1 <br />(b) step 2 <br />(c) step 4 <br />(d) step 5<br />(e) step 6 <br />Ans: (a) <br />3. If Mr. B was on step 1, which step could A be on? <br />(a) 2&e only<br />(b) 3&5 only <br />(c) 3&4 only <br />(d) 4&5 only <br />(e) 2&4 only <br />Ans: (c)<br />4. If there were two steps between the step that A was standing and the step that B was standing on, and A was on a higher step than D , A must be on step <br />(a) 2 <br />(b) 3 <br />(c) 4 <br />(d) 5 <br />(e) 6 <br />Ans: (c) <br /><br />5. Which of the following is false <br /><br />i. B&D can be both on odd-numbered steps in one configuration<br />ii. In a particular configuration A and C must either both an odd numbered steps or both an even-numbered steps<br />iii. A person E can be on a step next to the vacant step. <br />(a) i only <br />(b) ii only <br />(c) iii only<br />(d) both i and iii<br />Ans: (c) <br /><br />46. Six swimmers A, B, C, D, E, F compete in a race. The outcome is as follows. <br />i. B does not win.<br />ii. Only two swimmers separate E & D<br />iii. A is behind D & E<br />iv. B is ahead of E , with one swimmer intervening<br />v. F is a head of D <br />1. Who stood fifth in the race ?<br />(a) A <br />(b) B <br />(c) C <br />(d) D <br />(e) E <br />Ans: (e) <br />2. How many swimmers seperate A and F ?<br />(a) 1 <br />(b) 2 <br />(c) 3 <br />(d) 4 <br />(e) cannot be determined <br />Ans: (d)<br />3. The swimmer between C & E is<br />(a) none <br />(b) F <br />(c) D <br />(d) B <br />(e) A <br />Ans: (a)<br /><br /><br />4. If the end of the race, swimmer D is disqualified by the Judges then swimmer B finishes in which place <br />(a) 1<br />(b) 2 <br />(c) 3 <br />(d) 4 <br />(e) 5 <br />Ans: (b) <br />47. Five houses lettered A,B,C,D, & E are built in a row next to each other. The houses are lined up in the order A,B,C,D, & E. Each of the five houses has a colored chimney. The roof and chimney of each housemust be painted as follows.<br />i. The roof must be painted either green,red ,or yellow.<br />ii. The chimney must be painted either white, black, or red.<br />iii. No house may have the same color chimney as the color of roof.<br />iv. No house may use any of the same colors that the every next house uses.<br />v. House E has a green roof.<br />vi. House B has a red roof and a black chimney <br />1. Which of the following is true ? <br />(a) At least two houses have black chimney.<br />(b) At least two houses have red roofs.<br />(c) At least two houses have white chimneys<br />(d) At least two houses have green roofs<br />(e) At least two houses have yellow roofs <br />Ans: (c) <br />2. Which must be false ? <br />(a) House A has a yellow roof <br />(b) House A & C have different color chimney<br />(c) House D has a black chimney<br />(d) House E has a white chimney<br />(e) House B&D have the same color roof. <br />Ans: (b) <br />3. If house C has a yellow roof. Which must be true. <br />(a) House E has a white chimney<br />(b) House E has a black chimney<br />(c) House E has a red chimney<br />(d) House D has a red chimney<br />(e) House C has a black chimney <br />Ans: (a) <br />4. Which possible combinations of roof & chimney can house <br />I. A red roof 7 a black chimney<br />II. A yellow roof & a red chimney<br />III. A yellow roof & a black chimney<br /><br />(a) I only <br />(b) II only <br />(c) III only <br />(d) I & II only <br />(e) I&II&III <br />Ans: (e)<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />48. Find x+2y<br />(i). x+y=10<br />(ii). 2x+4y=20<br />Ans: (b)<br /><br /><br />49. Is angle BAC is a right angle <br />(i) AB=2BC<br />(2) BC=1.5AC<br />Ans: (e)<br />50. Is x greater than y<br />(i) x=2k<br />(ii) k=2y <br />Ans: (e)<br />PART – 3<br /><br />Aptitude Questions<br />Solve the following and check with the answers given at the end.<br /><br />1. It was calculated that 75 men could complete a piece of work in 20 days. When work was scheduled to commence, it was found necessary to send 25 men to another project. How much longer will it take to complete the work?<br /><br />2. A student divided a number by 2/3 when he required to multiply by 3/2. Calculate the percentage of error in his result.<br /><br />3. A dishonest shopkeeper professes to sell pulses at the cost price, but he uses a false weight of 950gm. for a kg. His gain is …%.<br /><br />4. A software engineer has the capability of thinking 100 lines of code in five minutes and can type 100 lines of code in 10 minutes. He takes a break for five minutes after every ten minutes. How many lines of codes will he complete typing after an hour?<br /><br />5. A man was engaged on a job for 30 days on the condition that he would get a wage of Rs. 10 for the day he works, but he have to pay a fine of Rs. 2 for each day of his absence. If he gets Rs. 216 at the end, he was absent for work for ... days.<br /><br />6. A contractor agreeing to finish a work in 150 days, employed 75 men each working 8 hours daily. After 90 days, only 2/7 of the work was completed. Increasing the number of men by ________ each working now for 10 hours daily, the work can be completed in time.<br /><br />7. what is a percent of b divided by b percent of a?<br />(a) a (b) b (c) 1 (d) 10 (d) 100<br /><br />8. A man bought a horse and a cart. If he sold the horse at 10 % loss and the cart at 20 % gain, he would not lose anything; but if he sold the horse at 5% loss and the cart at 5% gain, he would lose Rs. 10 in the bargain. The amount paid by him was Rs._______ for the horse and Rs.________ for the cart.<br /><br />9. A tennis marker is trying to put together a team of four players for a tennis tournament out of seven available. males - a, b and c; females – m, n, o and p. All players are of equal ability and there must be at least two males in the team. For a team of four, all players must be able to play with each other under the following restrictions:<br />b should not play with m,<br />c should not play with p, and<br />a should not play with o.<br />Which of the following statements must be false?<br />1. b and p cannot be selected together<br />2. c and o cannot be selected together<br />3. c and n cannot be selected together.<br /><br />10-12. The following figure depicts three views of a cube. Based on this, answer questions 10-12.<br /><br />6 5 4 <br /><br />1 22 3 6 <br /><br /><br /><br />10. The number on the face opposite to the face carrying 1 is _______ .<br /><br />11. The number on the faces adjacent to the face marked 5 are _______ .<br /><br />12. Which of the following pairs does not correctly give the numbers on the opposite faces.<br />(1) 6,5 (2) 4,1 (3) 1,3 (4) 4,2<br /><br />13. Five farmers have 7, 9, 11, 13 & 14 apple trees, respectively in their orchards. Last year, each of them discovered that every tree in their own orchard bore exactly the same number of apples. Further, if the third farmer gives one apple to the first, and the fifth gives three to each of the second and the fourth, they would all have exactly the same number of apples. What were the yields per tree in the orchards of the third and fourth farmers?<br /><br />14. Five boys were climbing a hill. J was following H. R was just ahead of G. K was between G & H. They were climbing up in a column. Who was the second?<br /><br />15-18 John is undecided which of the four novels to buy. He is considering a spy <br />thriller, a Murder mystery, a Gothic romance and a science fiction novel. The books are written by Rothko, Gorky, Burchfield and Hopper, not necessary in that order, and published by Heron, Piegon, Blueja and sparrow, not necessary in that order.<br />(1) The book by Rothko is published by Sparrow.<br />(2) The Spy thriller is published by Heron.<br />(3) The science fiction novel is by Burchfield and is not published by Blueja.<br />(4)The Gothic romance is by Hopper.<br /><br />15. Pigeon publishes ____________.<br /><br />16. The novel by Gorky ________________.<br /><br />17. John purchases books by the authors whose names come first and third in alphabetical order. He does not buy the books ______.<br /><br />18. On the basis of the first paragraph and statement (2), (3) and (4) only, it is possible to deduce that<br />1. Rothko wrote the murder mystery or the spy thriller<br />2. Sparrow published the murder mystery or the spy thriller<br />3. The book by Burchfield is published by Sparrow. <br /><br />19. If a light flashes every 6 seconds, how many times will it flash in ¾ of an hour?<br /><br />20. If point P is on line segment AB, then which of the following is always true?<br />(1) AP = PB (2) AP > PB (3) PB > AP (4) AB > AP (5) AB > AP + PB<br /><br />21. All men are vertebrates. Some mammals are vertebrates. Which of the following conclusions drawn from the above statement is correct.<br />All men are mammals<br />All mammals are men<br />Some vertebrates are mammals.<br />None<br /><br />22. Which of the following statements drawn from the given statements are correct?<br />Given:<br />All watches sold in that shop are of high standard. Some of the HMT watches are sold in that shop.<br />a) All watches of high standard were manufactured by HMT.<br />b) Some of the HMT watches are of high standard.<br />c) None of the HMT watches is of high standard.<br />d) Some of the HMT watches of high standard are sold in that shop.<br /><br />23-27.<br />1. Ashland is north of East Liverpool and west of Coshocton.<br />2. Bowling green is north of Ashland and west of Fredericktown.<br />3. Dover is south and east of Ashland.<br />4. East Liverpool is north of Fredericktown and east of Dover.<br />5. Fredericktown is north of Dover and west of Ashland.<br />6. Coshocton is south of Fredericktown and west of Dover.<br /><br />23. Which of the towns mentioned is furthest of the north – west<br />(a) Ashland (b) Bowling green (c) Coshocton <br />(d) East Liverpool (e) Fredericktown<br /><br />24. Which of the following must be both north and east of Fredericktown?<br />(a) Ashland (b) Coshocton (c) East Liverpool<br />I a only II b only III c only IV a & b V a & c<br /><br />25. Which of the following towns must be situated both south and west of at least one other town?<br />A. Ashland only<br />B. Ashland and Fredericktown<br />C. Dover and Fredericktown<br />D. Dover, Coshocton and Fredericktown<br />E. Coshocton, Dover and East Liverpool.<br /><br />26. Which of the following statements, if true, would make the information in the numbered statements more specific?<br />(a) Coshocton is north of Dover.<br />(b) East Liverpool is north of Dover<br />(c) Ashland is east of Bowling green.<br />(d) Coshocton is east of Fredericktown<br />(e) Bowling green is north of Fredericktown<br /><br />27. Which of the numbered statements gives information that can be deduced from one or more of the other statements?<br />(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (E) 6 <br /><br />28. Eight friends Harsha, Fakis, Balaji, Eswar, Dhinesh, Chandra, Geetha, and Ahmed are sitting in a circle facing the center. Balaji is sitting between Geetha and Dhinesh. Harsha is third to the left of Balaji and second to the right of Ahmed. Chandra is sitting between Ahmed and Geetha and Balaji and Eshwar are not sitting opposite to each other. Who is third to the left of Dhinesh?<br /><br />29. If every alternative letter starting from B of the English alphabet is written in small letter, rest all are written in capital letters, how the month “ September” be written. <br />(1) SeptEMbEr (2) SEpTeMBEr (3) SeptembeR <br />(4) SepteMber (5) None of the above.<br /><br />30. The length of the side of a square is represented by x+2. The length of the side of an equilateral triangle is 2x. If the square and the equilateral triangle have equal perimeter, then the value of x is _______.<br /><br />31. It takes Mr. Karthik y hours to complete typing a manuscript. After 2 hours, he was called away. What fractional part of the assignment was left incomplete?<br /><br />32. Which of the following is larger than 3/5?<br />(1) ½ (2) 39/50 (3) 7/25 (4) 3/10 (5) 59/100<br /><br />33. The number that does not have a reciprocal is ____________.<br /><br />34. There are 3 persons Sudhir, Arvind, and Gauri. Sudhir lent cars to Arvind and Gauri as many as they had already. After some time Arvind gave as many cars to Sudhir and Gauri as many as they have. After sometime Gauri did the same thing. At the end of this transaction each one of them had 24. Find the cars each originally had.<br /><br />35. A man bought a horse and a cart. If he sold the horse at 10 % loss and the cart at 20 % gain, he would not lose anything; but if he sold the horse at 5% loss and the cart at 5% gain, he would lose Rs. 10 in the bargain. The amount paid by him was Rs._______ for the horse and Rs.________ for the cart.<br /><br />Answers:<br /><br />1. Answer: <br />30 days.<br />Explanation:<br />Before:<br />One day work = 1 / 20<br />One man’s one day work = 1 / ( 20 * 75)<br />Now:<br />No. Of workers = 50 <br />One day work = 50 * 1 / ( 20 * 75)<br /><br />The total no. of days required to complete the work = (75 * 20) / 50 = 30<br /><br />2. Answer:<br />0 %<br />Explanation:<br />Since 3x / 2 = x / (2 / 3)<br /><br />3. Answer: <br />5.3 %<br />Explanation:<br />He sells 950 grams of pulses and gains 50 grams.<br />If he sells 100 grams of pulses then he will gain (50 / 950) *100 = 5.26<br /><br />4. Answer: <br />250 lines of codes<br /><br />5. Answer: <br />7 days<br />Explanation:<br />The equation portraying the given problem is:<br />10 * x – 2 * (30 – x) = 216 where x is the number of working days.<br />Solving this we get x = 23<br />Number of days he was absent was 7 (30-23) days.<br /><br />6. Answer: <br />150 men.<br />Explanation:<br />One day’s work = 2 / (7 * 90)<br />One hour’s work = 2 / (7 * 90 * 8)<br />One man’s work = 2 / (7 * 90 * 8 * 75)<br /><br />The remaining work (5/7) has to be completed within 60 days, because the total number of days allotted for the project is 150 days.<br /><br />So we get the equation<br /><br />(2 * 10 * x * 60) / (7 * 90 * 8 * 75) = 5/7 where x is the number of men working after the 90th day.<br /><br />We get x = 225<br />Since we have 75 men already, it is enough to add only 150 men.<br /><br />7. Answer: <br />(c) 1<br />Explanation: <br />a percent of b : (a/100) * b<br />b percent of a : (b/100) * a<br />a percent of b divided by b percent of a : ((a / 100 )*b) / (b/100) * a )) = 1<br /><br />8. Answer:<br />Cost price of horse = Rs. 400 & the cost price of cart = 200.<br />Explanation:-<br />Let x be the cost price of the horse and y be the cost price of the cart.<br />In the first sale there is no loss or profit. (i.e.) The loss obtained is equal to the gain.<br /><br />Therefore (10/100) * x = (20/100) * y<br /><br />X = 2 * y -----------------(1)<br />In the second sale, he lost Rs. 10. (i.e.) The loss is greater than the profit by Rs. 10.<br /><br />Therefore (5 / 100) * x = (5 / 100) * y + 10 -------(2)<br />Substituting (1) in (2) we get<br />(10 / 100) * y = (5 / 100) * y + 10<br />(5 / 100) * y = 10<br />y = 200 <br />From (1) 2 * 200 = x = 400<br /><br />9. Answer:<br />3.<br />Explanation:<br />Since inclusion of any male player will reject a female from the team. Since there should be four member in the team and only three males are available, the girl, n should included in the team always irrespective of others selection. <br /><br />10. Answer: <br />5<br /><br />11. Answer: <br />1,2,3 & 4<br /><br />12. Answer: <br />B<br /><br />13. Answer:<br />11 & 9 apples per tree.<br />Explanation:<br />Let a, b, c, d & e be the total number of apples bored per year in A, B, C, D & E ‘s orchard. Given that a + 1 = b + 3 = c – 1 = d + 3 = e – 6 <br />But the question is to find the number of apples bored per tree in C and D ‘s orchard. If is enough to consider c – 1 = d + 3.<br />Since the number of trees in C’s orchard is 11 and that of D’s orchard is 13. Let x and y be the number of apples bored per tree in C & d ‘s orchard respectively.<br />Therefore 11 x – 1 = 13 y + 3<br />By trial and error method, we get the value for x and y as 11 and 9<br /><br />14. Answer: <br />G.<br />Explanation: <br />The order in which they are climbing is R – G – K – H – J <br /><br />15 – 18<br />Answer:<br />Novel Name Author Publisher<br />Spy thriller Rathko Heron<br />Murder mystery Gorky Piegon<br />Gothic romance Burchfield Blueja<br />Science fiction Hopper Sparrow<br /><br />Explanation: <br />Given<br />Novel Name Author Publisher<br />Spy thriller Rathko Heron<br />Murder mystery Gorky Piegon<br />Gothic romance Burchfield Blueja<br />Science fiction Hopper Sparrow <br /><br />Since Blueja doesn’t publish the novel by Burchfield and Heron publishes the novel spy thriller, Piegon publishes the novel by Burchfield.<br />Since Hopper writes Gothic romance and Heron publishes the novel spy thriller, Blueja publishes the novel by Hopper.<br />Since Heron publishes the novel spy thriller and Heron publishes the novel by Gorky, Gorky writes Spy thriller and Rathko writes Murder mystery. <br /><br />19. Answer: <br />451 times.<br />Explanation:<br />There are 60 minutes in an hour.<br />In ¾ of an hour there are (60 * ¾) minutes = 45 minutes.<br />In ¾ of an hour there are (60 * 45) seconds = 2700 seconds.<br />Light flashed for every 6 seconds.<br />In 2700 seconds 2700/6 = 450 times.<br />The count start after the first flash, the light will flashes 451 times in ¾ of an hour.<br /><br />20. Answer: <br />(4)<br />Explanation: <br />P <br />A B <br />Since p is a point on the line segment AB, AB > AP<br /><br />21. Answer: (c)<br /><br />22. Answer: (b) & (d).<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Ahmed<br />23 - 27.Answer: <br />Fakis Chandra<br />28. Answer: Fakis <br />Explanation: Harsha Geetha<br /><br />Eswar Balaji <br /><br /><br />Dhinesh<br /><br />29. Answer: <br />(5).<br />Explanation: <br />Since every alternative letter starting from B of the English alphabet is written in small letter, the letters written in small letter are b, d, f...<br />In the first two answers the letter E is written in both small & capital letters, so they are not the correct answers. But in third and fourth answers the letter is written in small letter instead capital letter, so they are not the answers.<br /><br />30. Answer: <br />x = 4<br />Explanation: <br />Since the side of the square is x + 2, its perimeter = 4 (x + 2) = 4x + 8<br />Since the side of the equilateral triangle is 2x, its perimeter = 3 * 2x = 6x<br />Also, the perimeters of both are equal.<br />(i.e.) 4x + 8 = 6x <br />(i.e.) 2x = 8 è x = 4.<br /><br />31. Answer:<br />(y – 2) / y.<br />Explanation: <br />To type a manuscript karthik took y hours.<br />Therefore his speed in typing = 1/y.<br />He was called away after 2 hours of typing.<br />Therefore the work completed = 1/y * 2.<br />Therefore the remaining work to be completed = 1 – 2/y. <br />(i.e.) work to be completed = (y-2)/y<br /><br />32. Answer:<br />(2)<br /><br />33. Answer: <br />1<br />Explanation: <br />One is the only number exists without reciprocal because the reciprocal of one is one itself.<br /><br />34. Answer: <br />Sudhir had 39 cars, Arvind had 21 cars and Gauri had 12 cars.<br />Explanation: <br />Sudhir Arvind Gauri<br /><br />Finally 24 24 24<br />Before Gauri’s transaction 12 12 48<br />Before Arvind’s transaction 6 42 24<br />Before Sudhir’ s transaction 39 21 12<br /><br />35. Answer: <br />Cost price of horse: Rs. 400 & <br />Cost price of cart: Rs. 200<br />Explanation: <br />Let x be the cost of horse & y be the cost of the cart.<br />10 % of loss in selling horse = 20 % of gain in selling the cart<br />Therefore (10 / 100) * x = (20 * 100) * y<br />è x = 2y -----------(1)<br />5 % of loss in selling the horse is 10 more than the 5 % gain in selling the cart.<br />Therefore (5 / 100) * x - 10 = (5 / 100) * y<br />è 5x - 1000 = 5y<br />Substituting (1)<br />10y - 1000 = 5y<br />5y = 1000<br />y = 200<br />x = 400 from (1) <br /><br />Exercise 2.1<br />For the following, find the next term in the series <br /><br />1. 6, 24, 60,120, 210<br /><br />a) 336 b) 366 c) 330 d) 660<br /><br />Answer : a) 336<br />Explanation : The series is 1.2.3, 2.3.4, 3.4.5, 4.5.6, 5.6.7, ..... ( '.' means product)<br /><br />2. 1, 5, 13, 25<br /><br />Answer : 41<br />Explanation : The series is of the form 0^2+1^2, 1^2+2^2,...<br /><br />3. 0, 5, 8, 17<br /><br />Answer : 24<br />Explanation : 1^2-1, 2^2+1, 3^2-1, 4^2+1, 5^2-1<br /><br />4. 1, 8, 9, 64, 25 (Hint : Every successive terms are related)<br /><br />Answer : 216<br />Explanation : 1^2, 2^3, 3^2, 4^3, 5^2, 6^3<br /><br />5. 8,24,12,36,18,54<br /><br />Answer : 27<br /><br />6. 71,76,69,74,67,72<br />Answer : 67 <br /><br />7. 5,9,16,29,54<br />Answer : 103<br />Explanation : 5*2-1=9; 9*2-2=16; 16*2-3=29; 29*2-4=54; 54*2-5=103<br /><br />8. 1,2,4,10,16,40,64 (Successive terms are related)<br />Answer : 200<br />Explanation : The series is powers of 2 (2^0,2^1,..).<br />All digits are less than 8. Every second number is in octal number system. <br />128 should follow 64. 128 base 10 = 200 base 8.<br /><br />Exercise 2.2<br /><br />Find the odd man out.<br /><br />1. 3,5,7,12,13,17,19<br />Answer : 12 <br />Explanation : All but 12 are odd numbers<br /><br />2. 2,5,10,17,26,37,50,64<br />Answer : 64<br />Explanation : 2+3=5; 5+5=10; 10+7=17; 17+9=26; 26+11=37; 37+13=50; 50+15=65;<br /><br />3. 105,85,60,30,0,-45,-90<br />Answer : 0<br />Explanation : 105-20=85; 85-25=60; 60-30=30; 30-35=-5; -5-40=-45; -45-45=-90;<br /><br /><br />Exercise 3<br />Solve the following.<br /><br />1. What is the number of zeros at the end of the product of the numbers from 1 to 100?<br />Answer : 127<br />2. A fast typist can type some matter in 2 hours and a slow typist can type the same in 3 hours. If both type combinely, in how much time will they finish?<br />Answer : 1 hr 12 min<br />Explanation : The fast typist's work done in 1 hr = 1/2<br />The slow typist's work done in 1 hr = 1/3<br />If they work combinely, work done in 1 hr = 1/2+1/3 = 5/6<br />So, the work will be completed in 6/5 hours. i.e., 1+1/5 hours = 1hr 12 min<br /><br />3. Gavaskar's average in his first 50 innings was 50. After the 51st innings, his average was 51. How many runs did he score in his 51st innings. (supposing that he lost his wicket in his 51st innings)<br />Answer : 101<br />Explanation : Total score after 50 innings = 50*50 = 2500<br />Total score after 51 innings = 51*51 = 2601<br />So, runs made in the 51st innings = 2601-2500 = 101 <br />If he had not lost his wicket in his 51st innings, he would have scored an unbeaten 50 in his 51st innings.<br /><br />4. Out of 80 coins, one is counterfeit. What is the minimum number of weighings needed to find out the counterfeit coin?<br />Answer : 4<br /><br />5. What can you conclude from the statement : All green are blue, all blue are red. ?<br />(i) some blue are green<br />(ii) some red are green <br />(iii) some green are not red <br />(iv) all red are blue<br />(a) i or ii but not both <br />(b) i & ii only <br />(c) iii or iv but not both <br />(d) iii & iv<br /><br />Answer : (b)<br /><br />6. A rectangular plate with length 8 inches, breadth 11 inches and thickness 2 inches is available. What is the length of the circular rod with diameter 8 inches and equal to the volume of the rectangular plate?<br />Answer : 3.5 inches<br />Explanation : Volume of the circular rod (cylinder) = Volume of the rectangular plate<br />(22/7)*4*4*h = 8*11*2<br />h = 7/2 = 3.5<br /><br />7. What is the sum of all numbers between 100 and 1000 which are divisible by 14 ?<br />Answer : 35392<br />Explanation : The number closest to 100 which is greater than 100 and divisible by 14 is 112, which is the first term of the series which has to be summed.<br />The number closest to 1000 which is less than 1000 and divisible by 14 is 994, which is the last term of the series.<br />112 + 126 + .... + 994 = 14(8+9+ ... + 71) = 35392<br /><br />8. If s(a) denotes square root of a, find the value of s(12+s(12+s(12+ ...... upto infinity.<br />Answer : 4<br />Explanation : Let x = s(12+s(12+s(12+.....<br />We can write x = s(12+x). i.e., x^2 = 12 + x. Solving this quadratic equation, we get x = -3 or x=4. Sum cannot be -ve and hence sum = 4.<br /><br />9. A cylindrical container has a radius of eight inches with a height of three inches. Compute how many inches should be added to either the radius or height to give the same increase in volume?<br />Answer : 16/3 inches<br />Explanation : Let x be the amount of increase. The volume will increase by the same amount if the radius increased or the height is increased.<br />So, the effect on increasing height is equal to the effect on increasing the radius.<br />i.e., (22/7)*8*8*(3+x) = (22/7)*(8+x)*(8+x)*3<br />Solving the quadratic equation we get the x = 0 or 16/3. The possible increase would be by 16/3 inches.<br /><br />10. With just six weights and a balance scale, you can weigh any unit number of kgs from 1 to 364. What could be the six weights?<br />Answer : 1, 3, 9, 27, 81, 243 (All powers of 3) <br /><br />11. Diophantus passed one sixth of his life in childhood, one twelfth in youth, and one seventh more as a bachelor; five years after his marriage a son was born who died four years before his father at half his final age. How old is Diophantus?<br />Answer : 84 years<br />Explanation : x/6 + x/12 + x/7 + 5 + x/2 + 4 = x<br /><br />12 . If time at this moment is 9 P.M., what will be the time 23999999992 hours later?<br />Answer : 1 P.M.<br />Explanation : 24 billion hours later, it would be 9 P.M. and 8 hours before that it would be 1 P.M.<br /><br />13. How big will an angle of one and a half degree look through a glass that magnifies things three times?<br />Answer : 1 1/2 degrees<br />Explanation : The magnifying glass cannot increase the magnitude of an angle.<br /><br />14. Divide 45 into four parts such that when 2 is added to the first part, 2 is subtracted from the second part, 2 is multiplied by the third part and the fourth part is divided by two, all result in the same number.<br />Answer: 8, 12, 5, 20<br />Explanation: a + b + c + d =45; a+2 = b-2 = 2c = d/2; a=b-4; c = (b-2)/2; d = 2(b-2); b-4 + b + (b-2)/2 + 2(b-2) = 45;<br /><br />15. I drove 60 km at 30 kmph and then an additional 60 km at 50 kmph. Compute my average speed over my 120 km.<br />Answer : 37 1/2<br />Explanation : Time reqd for the first 60 km = 120 min.; Time reqd for the second 60 km = 72 min.; Total time reqd = 192 min<br />Avg speed = (60*120)/192 = 37 1/2<br /><br /><br />Questions 16 and 17 are based on the following :<br />Five executives of European Corporation hold a Conference in Rome<br />Mr. A converses in Spanish & Italian<br />Mr. B, a spaniard, knows English also<br />Mr. C knows English and belongs to Italy<br />Mr. D converses in French and Spanish<br />Mr. E , a native of Italy knows French<br /><br />16. Which of the following can act as interpreter if Mr. C & Mr. D wish to converse<br />a) only Mr. A b) Only Mr. B c) Mr. A & Mr. B d) Any of the other three<br /><br />Answer : d) Any of the other three.<br />Explanation : From the data given, we can infer the following.<br />A knows Spanish, Italian<br />B knows Spanish, English<br />C knows Italian, English<br />D knows Spanish, French<br />E knows Italian, French<br />To act as an interpreter between C and D, a person has to know one of the combinations Italian&Spanish, Italian&French, English&Spanish, English&French<br />A, B, and E know atleast one of the combinations.<br /><br />17. If a 6th executive is brought in, to be understood by maximum number of original five he should be fluent in<br />a) English & French b) Italian & Spanish c) English & French d) French & Italian<br />Answer : b) Italian & Spanish<br />Explanation : No of executives who know<br />i) English is 2<br />ii) Spanish is 3<br />iii) Italian is 3<br />iv) French is 2<br />Italian & Spanish are spoken by the maximum no of executives. So, if the 6th executive is fluent in Italian & Spanish, he can communicate with all the original five because everybody knows either Spanish or Italian. <br /><br />18. What is the sum of the first 25 natural odd numbers?<br />Answer : 625<br />Explanation : The sum of the first n natural odd nos is square(n). <br />1+3 = 4 = square(2) 1+3+5 = 9 = square(3)<br /><br />19. The sum of any seven consecutive numbers is divisible by<br />a) 2 b) 7 c) 3 d) 11<br /><br /><br />Exercise 3<br />Try the following.<br /><br />1. There are seventy clerks working in a company, of which 30 are females. Also, 30 clerks are married; 24 clerks are above 25 years of age; 19 married clerks are above 25 years, of which 7 are males; 12 males are above 25 years of age; and 15 males are married. How many bachelor girls are there and how many of these are above 25?<br /><br />2. A man sailed off from the North Pole. After covering 2,000 miles in one direction he turned West, sailed 2,000 miles, turned North and sailed ahead another 2,000 miles till he met his friend. How far was he from the North Pole and in what direction?<br /><br />3. Here is a series of comments on the ages of three persons J, R, S by themselves.<br />S : The difference between R's age and mine is three years.<br />J : R is the youngest.<br />R : Either I am 24 years old or J 25 or S 26.<br />J : All are above 24 years of age.<br />S : I am the eldest if and only if R is not the youngest.<br />R : S is elder to me.<br />J : I am the eldest.<br />R : S is not 27 years old.<br />S : The sum of my age and J's is two more than twice R's age.<br />One of the three had been telling a lie throughout whereas others had spoken the truth. Determine the ages of S,J,R.<br /><br />4. In a group of five people, what is the probability of finding two persons with the same month of birth?<br /><br />5. A father and his son go out for a 'walk-and-run' every morning around a track formed by an equilateral triangle. The father's walking speed is 2 mph and his running speed is 5 mph. The son's walking and running speeds are twice that of his father. Both start together from one apex of the triangle, the son going clockwise and the father anti-clockwise. Initially the father runs and the son walks for a certain period of time. Thereafter, as soon as the father starts walking, the son starts running. Both complete the course in 45 minutes. For how long does the father run? Where do the two cross each other?<br /><br />6. The Director of Medical Services was on his annual visit to the ENT Hospital. While going through the out patients' records he came across the following data for a particular day : " Ear consultations 45; Nose 50; Throat 70; Ear and Nose 30; Nose and Throat 20; Ear and Throat 30; Ear, Nose and Throat 10; Total patients 100." Then he came to the conclusion that the records were bogus. Was he right?<br /><br />7. Amongst Ram, Sham and Gobind are a doctor, a lawyer and a police officer. They are married to Radha, Gita and Sita (not in order). Each of the wives have a profession. Gobind's wife is an artist. Ram is not married to Gita. The lawyer's wife is a teacher. Radha is married to the police officer. Sita is an expert cook. Who's who?<br /><br />8. What should come next?<br />1, 2, 4, 10, 16, 40, 64, <br /><br />Questions 9-12 are based on the following :<br />Three adults – Roberto, Sarah and Vicky – will be traveling in a van with five children – Freddy, Hillary, Jonathan, Lupe, and Marta. The van has a driver’s seat and one passenger seat in the front, and two benches behind the front seats, one beach behind the other. Each bench has room for exactly three people. Everyone must sit in a seat or on a bench, and seating is subject to the following restrictions: An adult must sit on each bench.<br />Either Roberto or Sarah must sit in the driver’s seat.<br />Jonathan must sit immediately beside Marta.<br /><br />9. Of the following, who can sit in the front passenger seat ?<br />(a) Jonathan (b) Lupe (c) Roberto (d) Sarah (e) Vicky<br /><br />10. Which of the following groups of three can sit together on a bench? <br />(a) Freddy, Jonathan and Marta (b) Freddy, Jonathan and Vicky<br />(c) Freddy, Sarah and Vicky (d) Hillary, Lupe and Sarah<br />(e) Lupe, Marta and Roberto<br /><br />11. If Freddy sits immediately beside Vicky, which of the following cannot be true ?<br />a. Jonathan sits immediately beside Sarah<br />b. Lupe sits immediately beside Vicky<br />c. Hillary sits in the front passenger seat<br />d. Freddy sits on the same bench as Hillary<br />e. Hillary sits on the same bench as Roberto<br /><br />12. If Sarah sits on a bench that is behind where Jonathan is sitting, which of the following must be true ?<br />a. Hillary sits in a seat or on a bench that is in front of where Marta is sitting<br />b. Lupe sits in a seat or on a bench that is in front of where Freddy is sitting<br />c. Freddy sits on the same bench as Hillary<br />d. Lupe sits on the same bench as Sarah<br />e. Marta sits on the same bench as Vicky<br /><br />13. Make six squares of the same size using twelve match-sticks. (Hint : You will need an adhesive to arrange the required figure)<br /><br />14. A farmer has two rectangular fields. The larger field has twice the length and 4 times the width of the smaller field. If the smaller field has area K, then the are of the larger field is greater than the area of the smaller field by what amount?<br />(a) 6K (b) 8K (c) 12K (d) 7K<br /><br />15. Nine equal circles are enclosed in a square whose area is 36sq units. Find the area of each circle.<br /><br />16. There are 9 cards. Arrange them in a 3*3 matrix. Cards are of 4 colors. They are red, yellow, blue, green. Conditions for arrangement: one red card must be in first row or second row. 2 green cards should be in 3rd column. Yellow cards must be in the 3 corners only. Two blue cards must be in the 2nd row. At least one green card in each row. <br /><br />17. Is z less than w? z and w are real numbers.<br />(I) z2 = 25 <br />(II) w = 9<br />To answer the question,<br />a) Either I or II is sufficient<br />b) Both I and II are sufficient but neither of them is alone sufficient<br />c) I & II are sufficient<br />d) Both are not sufficient<br /><br />18. A speaks truth 70% of the time; B speaks truth 80% of the time. What is the probability that both are contradicting each other?<br /><br />19. In a family 7 children don't eat spinach, 6 don't eat carrot, 5 don't eat beans, 4 don't eat spinach & carrots, 3 don't eat carrot & beans, 2 don't eat beans & spinach. One doesn't eat all 3. Find the no. of children.<br /><br />20. Anna, Bena, Catherina and Diana are at their monthly business meeting. Their occupations are author, biologist, chemist and doctor, but not necessarily in that order. Diana just told the neighbour, who is a biologist that Catherina was on her way with doughnuts. Anna is sitting across from the doctor and next to the chemist. The doctor was thinking that Bena was a good name for parent's to choose, but didn't say anything. What is each person's occupation?<br /><br />Posted by FRESHER at 2:22 AM <br /><br /><br /><br />0 comments:FRESHERhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/03154154368670178574noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-2158258402527566027.post-860738642968103322007-08-18T09:13:00.000-07:002007-08-18T09:18:58.811-07:00C/C++ FAQSNote : All the programs are tested under Turbo C/C++ compilers. <br />It is assumed that,<br />Ø Programs run under DOS environment,<br />Ø The underlying machine is an x86 system,<br />Ø Program is compiled using Turbo C/C++ compiler.<br />The program output may depend on the information based on this assumptions (for example sizeof(int) == 2 may be assumed). <br /><br />Predict the output or error(s) for the following:<br /><br />1. void main()<br />{<br />int const * p=5;<br />printf("%d",++(*p));<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler error: Cannot modify a constant value. <br />Explanation: <br />p is a pointer to a "constant integer". But we tried to change the value of the "constant integer".<br /><br />2. main()<br />{<br />char s[ ]="man";<br />int i;<br />for(i=0;s[ i ];i++)<br />printf("\n%c%c%c%c",s[ i ],*(s+i),*(i+s),i[s]);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />mmmm<br />aaaa<br />nnnn<br />Explanation:<br />s[i], *(i+s), *(s+i), i[s] are all different ways of expressing the same idea. Generally array name is the base address for that array. Here s is the base address. i is the index number/displacement from the base address. So, indirecting it with * is same as s[i]. i[s] may be surprising. But in the case of C it is same as s[i].<br /><br />3. main()<br />{<br />float me = 1.1;<br />double you = 1.1;<br />if(me==you)<br />printf("I love U");<br />else<br />printf("I hate U");<br />}<br />Answer: <br />I hate U<br />Explanation:<br />For floating point numbers (float, double, long double) the values cannot be predicted exactly. Depending on the number of bytes, the precession with of the value represented varies. Float takes 4 bytes and long double takes 10 bytes. So float stores 0.9 with less precision than long double.<br />Rule of Thumb: <br />Never compare or at-least be cautious when using floating point numbers with relational operators (== , >, <, <=, >=,!= ) . <br /><br />4. main()<br />{<br />static int var = 5;<br />printf("%d ",var--);<br />if(var)<br />main();<br />}<br />Answer:<br />5 4 3 2 1<br />Explanation:<br />When static storage class is given, it is initialized once. The change in the value of a static variable is retained even between the function calls. Main is also treated like any other ordinary function, which can be called recursively. <br /><br />5. main()<br />{<br />int c[ ]={2.8,3.4,4,6.7,5};<br />int j,*p=c,*q=c;<br />for(j=0;j<5;j++) {<br />printf(" %d ",*c);<br />++q; }<br />for(j=0;j<5;j++){<br />printf(" %d ",*p);<br />++p; }<br />}<br /><br />Answer:<br />2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 6 5<br />Explanation: <br />Initially pointer c is assigned to both p and q. In the first loop, since only q is incremented and not c , the value 2 will be printed 5 times. In second loop p itself is incremented. So the values 2 3 4 6 5 will be printed. <br /><br />6. main()<br />{<br />extern int i;<br />i=20;<br />printf("%d",i);<br />}<br /><br />Answer: <br />Linker Error : Undefined symbol '_i'<br />Explanation: <br />extern storage class in the following declaration,<br />extern int i;<br />specifies to the compiler that the memory for i is allocated in some other program and that address will be given to the current program at the time of linking. But linker finds that no other variable of name i is available in any other program with memory space allocated for it. Hence a linker error has occurred .<br /><br />7. main()<br />{<br />int i=-1,j=-1,k=0,l=2,m;<br />m=i++&&j++&&k++||l++;<br />printf("%d %d %d %d %d",i,j,k,l,m);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />0 0 1 3 1<br />Explanation :<br />Logical operations always give a result of 1 or 0 . And also the logical AND (&&) operator has higher priority over the logical OR (||) operator. So the expression ‘i++ && j++ && k++’ is executed first. The result of this expression is 0 (-1 && -1 && 0 = 0). Now the expression is 0 || 2 which evaluates to 1 (because OR operator always gives 1 except for ‘0 || 0’ combination- for which it gives 0). So the value of m is 1. The values of other variables are also incremented by 1.<br /><br />8. main()<br />{<br />char *p;<br />printf("%d %d ",sizeof(*p),sizeof(p));<br />}<br /><br />Answer: <br />1 2<br />Explanation:<br />The sizeof() operator gives the number of bytes taken by its operand. P is a character pointer, which needs one byte for storing its value (a character). Hence sizeof(*p) gives a value of 1. Since it needs two bytes to store the address of the character pointer sizeof(p) gives 2.<br /><br />9. main()<br />{<br />int i=3;<br />switch(i)<br />{<br />default:printf("zero");<br />case 1: printf("one");<br />break;<br />case 2:printf("two");<br />break;<br />case 3: printf("three");<br />break;<br />} <br />}<br />Answer :<br />three<br />Explanation :<br />The default case can be placed anywhere inside the loop. It is executed only when all other cases doesn't match.<br /><br />10. main()<br />{<br />printf("%x",-1<<4);<br />}<br />Answer: <br />fff0<br />Explanation :<br />-1 is internally represented as all 1's. When left shifted four times the least significant 4 bits are filled with 0's.The %x format specifier specifies that the integer value be printed as a hexadecimal value.<br /><br />11. main()<br />{<br />char string[]="Hello World";<br />display(string);<br />}<br />void display(char *string)<br />{<br />printf("%s",string);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler Error : Type mismatch in redeclaration of function display <br />Explanation :<br />In third line, when the function display is encountered, the compiler doesn't know anything about the function display. It assumes the arguments and return types to be integers, (which is the default type). When it sees the actual function display, the arguments and type contradicts with what it has assumed previously. Hence a compile time error occurs.<br /><br />12. main()<br />{<br />int c=- -2;<br />printf("c=%d",c);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />c=2;<br />Explanation:<br />Here unary minus (or negation) operator is used twice. Same maths rules applies, ie. minus * minus= plus.<br />Note: <br />However you cannot give like --2. Because -- operator can only be applied to variables as a decrement operator (eg., i--). 2 is a constant and not a variable.<br /><br />13. #define int char<br />main()<br />{<br />int i=65;<br />printf("sizeof(i)=%d",sizeof(i));<br />}<br />Answer:<br />sizeof(i)=1<br />Explanation:<br />Since the #define replaces the string int by the macro char <br /><br />14. main()<br />{<br />int i=10;<br />i=!i>14;<br />Printf ("i=%d",i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />i=0<br /><br /><br />Explanation:<br />In the expression !i>14 , NOT (!) operator has more precedence than ‘ >’ symbol. ! is a unary logical operator. !i (!10) is 0 (not of true is false). 0>14 is false (zero). <br /><br />15. #include<br />main()<br />{<br />char s[]={'a','b','c','\n','c','\0'};<br />char *p,*str,*str1;<br />p=&s[3];<br />str=p;<br />str1=s;<br />printf("%d",++*p + ++*str1-32);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />77 <br />Explanation:<br />p is pointing to character '\n'. str1 is pointing to character 'a' ++*p. "p is pointing to '\n' and that is incremented by one." the ASCII value of '\n' is 10, which is then incremented to 11. The value of ++*p is 11. ++*str1, str1 is pointing to 'a' that is incremented by 1 and it becomes 'b'. ASCII value of 'b' is 98.<br />Now performing (11 + 98 – 32), we get 77("M");<br />So we get the output 77 :: "M" (Ascii is 77).<br /><br />16. #include<br />main()<br />{<br />int a[2][2][2] = { {10,2,3,4}, {5,6,7,8} };<br />int *p,*q;<br />p=&a[2][2][2];<br />*q=***a;<br />printf("%d----%d",*p,*q);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />SomeGarbageValue---1<br />Explanation:<br />p=&a[2][2][2] you declare only two 2D arrays, but you are trying to access the third 2D(which you are not declared) it will print garbage values. *q=***a starting address of a is assigned integer pointer. Now q is pointing to starting address of a. If you print *q, it will print first element of 3D array.<br /><br />17. #include<br />main()<br />{<br />struct xx<br />{<br />int x=3;<br />char name[]="hello";<br />};<br />struct xx *s;<br />printf("%d",s->x);<br />printf("%s",s->name);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler Error<br />Explanation:<br />You should not initialize variables in declaration<br /><br />18. #include<br />main()<br />{<br />struct xx<br />{<br />int x;<br />struct yy<br />{<br />char s;<br />struct xx *p;<br />};<br />struct yy *q;<br />};<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler Error<br />Explanation:<br />The structure yy is nested within structure xx. Hence, the elements are of yy are to be accessed through the instance of structure xx, which needs an instance of yy to be known. If the instance is created after defining the structure the compiler will not know about the instance relative to xx. Hence for nested structure yy you have to declare member.<br /><br />19. main()<br />{<br />printf("\nab");<br />printf("\bsi");<br />printf("\rha");<br />}<br />Answer:<br />hai<br />Explanation:<br />\n - newline<br />\b - backspace<br />\r - linefeed<br /><br />20. main()<br />{<br />int i=5;<br />printf("%d%d%d%d%d%d",i++,i--,++i,--i,i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />45545<br />Explanation:<br />The arguments in a function call are pushed into the stack from left to right. The evaluation is by popping out from the stack. and the evaluation is from right to left, hence the result.<br /><br />21. #define square(x) x*x<br />main()<br />{<br />int i;<br />i = 64/square(4);<br />printf("%d",i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />64<br />Explanation:<br />the macro call square(4) will substituted by 4*4 so the expression becomes i = 64/4*4 . Since / and * has equal priority the expression will be evaluated as (64/4)*4 i.e. 16*4 = 64<br /><br />22. main()<br />{<br />char *p="hai friends",*p1;<br />p1=p;<br />while(*p!='\0') ++*p++;<br />printf("%s %s",p,p1);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />ibj!gsjfoet<br />Explanation:<br />++*p++ will be parse in the given order<br />Ø *p that is value at the location currently pointed by p will be taken<br />Ø ++*p the retrieved value will be incremented <br />Ø when ; is encountered the location will be incremented that is p++ will be executed<br />Hence, in the while loop initial value pointed by p is ‘h’, which is changed to ‘i’ by executing ++*p and pointer moves to point, ‘a’ which is similarly changed to ‘b’ and so on. Similarly blank space is converted to ‘!’. Thus, we obtain value in p becomes “ibj!gsjfoet” and since p reaches ‘\0’ and p1 points to p thus p1doesnot print anything. <br /><br />23. #include <br />#define a 10<br />main()<br />{<br />#define a 50<br />printf("%d",a);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />50<br />Explanation:<br />The preprocessor directives can be redefined anywhere in the program. So the most recently assigned value will be taken.<br /><br />24. #define clrscr() 100<br />main()<br />{<br />clrscr();<br />printf("%d\n",clrscr());<br />}<br />Answer:<br />100<br />Explanation:<br />Preprocessor executes as a seperate pass before the execution of the compiler. So textual replacement of clrscr() to 100 occurs.The input program to compiler looks like this :<br />main()<br />{<br />100;<br />printf("%d\n",100);<br />}<br />Note: <br />100; is an executable statement but with no action. So it doesn't give any problem<br /><br />25. main()<br />{<br />printf("%p",main);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Some address will be printed.<br />Explanation:<br />Function names are just addresses (just like array names are addresses).<br />main() is also a function. So the address of function main will be printed. %p in printf specifies that the argument is an address. They are printed as hexadecimal numbers.<br /><br />27) main()<br />{<br />clrscr();<br />}<br />clrscr();<br /><br />Answer:<br />No output/error<br />Explanation:<br />The first clrscr() occurs inside a function. So it becomes a function call. In the second clrscr(); is a function declaration (because it is not inside any function).<br /><br />28) enum colors {BLACK,BLUE,GREEN}<br />main()<br />{<br /><br />printf("%d..%d..%d",BLACK,BLUE,GREEN);<br /><br />return(1);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />0..1..2<br />Explanation:<br />enum assigns numbers starting from 0, if not explicitly defined.<br /><br />29) void main()<br />{<br />char far *farther,*farthest;<br /><br />printf("%d..%d",sizeof(farther),sizeof(farthest));<br /><br />}<br />Answer:<br />4..2 <br />Explanation:<br />the second pointer is of char type and not a far pointer<br /><br />30) main()<br />{<br />int i=400,j=300;<br />printf("%d..%d");<br />}<br />Answer:<br />400..300<br />Explanation:<br />printf takes the values of the first two assignments of the program. Any number of printf's may be given. All of them take only the first two values. If more number of assignments given in the program,then printf will take garbage values.<br /><br />31) main()<br />{<br />char *p;<br />p="Hello";<br />printf("%c\n",*&*p);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />H <br />Explanation:<br />* is a dereference operator & is a reference operator. They can be applied any number of times provided it is meaningful. Here p points to the first character in the string "Hello". *p dereferences it and so its value is H. Again & references it to an address and * dereferences it to the value H.<br /><br />32) main()<br />{<br />int i=1;<br />while (i<=5)<br />{<br />printf("%d",i);<br />if (i>2)<br />goto here;<br />i++;<br />}<br />}<br />fun()<br />{<br />here:<br />printf("PP");<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler error: Undefined label 'here' in function main<br />Explanation:<br />Labels have functions scope, in other words The scope of the labels is limited to functions . The label 'here' is available in function fun() Hence it is not visible in function main.<br /><br />33) main()<br />{<br />static char names[5][20]={"pascal","ada","cobol","fortran","perl"};<br />int i;<br />char *t;<br />t=names[3];<br />names[3]=names[4];<br />names[4]=t; <br />for (i=0;i<=4;i++)<br />printf("%s",names[i]);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler error: Lvalue required in function main<br />Explanation:<br />Array names are pointer constants. So it cannot be modified.<br /><br />34) void main()<br />{<br />int i=5;<br />printf("%d",i++ + ++i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Output Cannot be predicted exactly.<br />Explanation:<br />Side effects are involved in the evaluation of i<br /><br />35) void main()<br />{<br />int i=5;<br />printf("%d",i+++++i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler Error <br />Explanation:<br />The expression i+++++i is parsed as i ++ ++ + i which is an illegal combination of operators. <br /><br />36) #include<br />main()<br />{<br />int i=1,j=2;<br />switch(i)<br />{<br />case 1: printf("GOOD");<br />break;<br />case j: printf("BAD");<br />break;<br />}<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler Error: Constant expression required in function main.<br />Explanation:<br />The case statement can have only constant expressions (this implies that we cannot use variable names directly so an error).<br />Note:<br />Enumerated types can be used in case statements. <br /><br />37) main()<br />{<br />int i;<br />printf("%d",scanf("%d",&i)); // value 10 is given as input here<br />}<br />Answer:<br />1<br />Explanation:<br />Scanf returns number of items successfully read and not 1/0. Here 10 is given as input which should have been scanned successfully. So number of items read is 1. <br /><br />38) #define f(g,g2) g##g2<br />main()<br />{<br />int var12=100;<br />printf("%d",f(var,12));<br />}<br />Answer:<br />100 <br /><br />39) main()<br />{<br />int i=0;<br /><br />for(;i++;printf("%d",i)) ;<br />printf("%d",i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />1<br />Explanation:<br />before entering into the for loop the checking condition is "evaluated". Here it evaluates to 0 (false) and comes out of the loop, and i is incremented (note the semicolon after the for loop).<br /><br />40) #include<br />main()<br />{<br />char s[]={'a','b','c','\n','c','\0'};<br />char *p,*str,*str1;<br />p=&s[3];<br />str=p;<br />str1=s;<br />printf("%d",++*p + ++*str1-32);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />M<br />Explanation:<br />p is pointing to character '\n'.str1 is pointing to character 'a' ++*p meAnswer:"p is pointing to '\n' and that is incremented by one." the ASCII value of '\n' is 10. then it is incremented to 11. the value of ++*p is 11. ++*str1 meAnswer:"str1 is pointing to 'a' that is incremented by 1 and it becomes 'b'. ASCII value of 'b' is 98. both 11 and 98 is added and result is subtracted from 32. <br />i.e. (11+98-32)=77("M");<br /><br />41) #include<br />main()<br />{<br />struct xx<br />{<br />int x=3;<br />char name[]="hello";<br />};<br />struct xx *s=malloc(sizeof(struct xx));<br />printf("%d",s->x);<br />printf("%s",s->name);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler Error<br />Explanation:<br />Initialization should not be done for structure members inside the structure declaration<br /><br />42) #include<br />main()<br />{<br />struct xx<br />{<br />int x;<br />struct yy<br />{<br />char s;<br />struct xx *p;<br />};<br />struct yy *q;<br />};<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler Error<br />Explanation:<br />in the end of nested structure yy a member have to be declared.<br /><br />43) main()<br />{<br />extern int i;<br />i=20;<br />printf("%d",sizeof(i));<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Linker error: undefined symbol '_i'.<br />Explanation:<br />extern declaration specifies that the variable i is defined somewhere else. The compiler passes the external variable to be resolved by the linker. So compiler doesn't find an error. During linking the linker searches for the definition of i. Since it is not found the linker flags an error.<br /><br />44) main()<br />{<br />printf("%d", out);<br />}<br />int out=100;<br />Answer:<br />Compiler error: undefined symbol out in function main.<br />Explanation:<br />The rule is that a variable is available for use from the point of declaration. Even though a is a global variable, it is not available for main. Hence an error.<br /><br />45) main()<br />{<br />extern out;<br />printf("%d", out);<br />}<br />int out=100;<br />Answer:<br />100 <br />Explanation: <br />This is the correct way of writing the previous program.<br /><br />46) main()<br />{<br />show();<br />}<br />void show()<br />{<br />printf("I'm the greatest");<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compier error: Type mismatch in redeclaration of show.<br />Explanation:<br />When the compiler sees the function show it doesn't know anything about it. So the default return type (ie, int) is assumed. But when compiler sees the actual definition of show mismatch occurs since it is declared as void. Hence the error.<br />The solutions are as follows:<br />1. declare void show() in main() .<br />2. define show() before main().<br />3. declare extern void show() before the use of show().<br /><br />47) main( )<br />{<br />int a[2][3][2] = {{{2,4},{7,8},{3,4}},{{2,2},{2,3},{3,4}}};<br />printf(“%u %u %u %d \n”,a,*a,**a,***a);<br />printf(“%u %u %u %d \n”,a+1,*a+1,**a+1,***a+1);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />100, 100, 100, 2<br />114, 104, 102, 3<br />Explanation:<br />The given array is a 3-D one. It can also be viewed as a 1-D array. <br /><br />2 4 7 8 3 4 2 2 2 3 3 4<br />100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122<br /><br />thus, for the first printf statement a, *a, **a give address of first element . since the indirection ***a gives the value. Hence, the first line of the output.<br />for the second printf a+1 increases in the third dimension thus points to value at 114, *a+1 increments in second dimension thus points to 104, **a +1 increments the first dimension thus points to 102 and ***a+1 first gets the value at first location and then increments it by 1. Hence, the output.<br /><br />48) main( )<br />{<br />int a[ ] = {10,20,30,40,50},j,*p;<br />for(j=0; j<5; j++)<br />{<br />printf(“%d” ,*a); <br />a++;<br />}<br />p = a;<br />for(j=0; j<5; j++) <br />{<br />printf(“%d ” ,*p); <br />p++;<br />}<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler error: lvalue required.<br /><br />Explanation:<br />Error is in line with statement a++. The operand must be an lvalue and may be of any of scalar type for the any operator, array name only when subscripted is an lvalue. Simply array name is a non-modifiable lvalue.<br /><br />49) main( )<br />{<br />static int a[ ] = {0,1,2,3,4};<br />int *p[ ] = {a,a+1,a+2,a+3,a+4};<br />int **ptr = p;<br />ptr++;<br />printf(“\n %d %d %d”, ptr-p, *ptr-a, **ptr); <br />*ptr++;<br />printf(“\n %d %d %d”, ptr-p, *ptr-a, **ptr); <br />*++ptr;<br />printf(“\n %d %d %d”, ptr-p, *ptr-a, **ptr); <br />++*ptr;<br />printf(“\n %d %d %d”, ptr-p, *ptr-a, **ptr); <br />}<br />Answer:<br />111<br />222<br />333<br />344<br />Explanation:<br />Let us consider the array and the two pointers with some address<br />a <br />0 1 2 3 4<br />100 102 104 106 108<br />p<br />100 102 104 106 108<br />1000 1002 1004 1006 1008<br />ptr <br />1000<br />2000<br />After execution of the instruction ptr++ value in ptr becomes 1002, if scaling factor for integer is 2 bytes. Now ptr – p is value in ptr – starting location of array p, (1002 – 1000) / (scaling factor) = 1, *ptr – a = value at address pointed by ptr – starting value of array a, 1002 has a value 102 so the value is (102 – 100)/(scaling factor) = 1, **ptr is the value stored in the location pointed by the pointer of ptr = value pointed by value pointed by 1002 = value pointed by 102 = 1. Hence the output of the firs printf is 1, 1, 1.<br />After execution of *ptr++ increments value of the value in ptr by scaling factor, so it becomes1004. Hence, the outputs for the second printf are ptr – p = 2, *ptr – a = 2, **ptr = 2. <br />After execution of *++ptr increments value of the value in ptr by scaling factor, so it becomes1004. Hence, the outputs for the third printf are ptr – p = 3, *ptr – a = 3, **ptr = 3. <br />After execution of ++*ptr value in ptr remains the same, the value pointed by the value is incremented by the scaling factor. So the value in array p at location 1006 changes from 106 10 108,. Hence, the outputs for the fourth printf are ptr – p = 1006 – 1000 = 3, *ptr – a = 108 – 100 = 4, **ptr = 4. <br /><br />50) main( )<br />{<br />char *q;<br />int j;<br />for (j=0; j<3; j++) scanf(“%s” ,(q+j));<br />for (j=0; j<3; j++) printf(“%c” ,*(q+j));<br />for (j=0; j<3; j++) printf(“%s” ,(q+j));<br />}<br />Explanation:<br />Here we have only one pointer to type char and since we take input in the same pointer thus we keep writing over in the same location, each time shifting the pointer value by 1. Suppose the inputs are MOUSE, TRACK and VIRTUAL. Then for the first input suppose the pointer starts at location 100 then the input one is stored as<br />M O U S E \0<br />When the second input is given the pointer is incremented as j value becomes 1, so the input is filled in memory starting from 101.<br />M T R A C K \0<br />The third input starts filling from the location 102<br />M T V I R T U A L \0<br />This is the final value stored .<br />The first printf prints the values at the position q, q+1 and q+2 = M T V<br />The second printf prints three strings starting from locations q, q+1, q+2<br />i.e MTVIRTUAL, TVIRTUAL and VIRTUAL.<br /><br />51) main( )<br />{<br />void *vp;<br />char ch = ‘g’, *cp = “goofy”;<br />int j = 20;<br />vp = &ch;<br />printf(“%c”, *(char *)vp);<br />vp = &j;<br />printf(“%d”,*(int *)vp);<br />vp = cp;<br />printf(“%s”,(char *)vp + 3);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />g20fy<br />Explanation:<br />Since a void pointer is used it can be type casted to any other type pointer. vp = &ch stores address of char ch and the next statement prints the value stored in vp after type casting it to the proper data type pointer. the output is ‘g’. Similarly the output from second printf is ‘20’. The third printf statement type casts it to print the string from the 4th value hence the output is ‘fy’.<br /><br />52) main ( )<br />{<br />static char *s[ ] = {“black”, “white”, “yellow”, “violet”};<br />char **ptr[ ] = {s+3, s+2, s+1, s}, ***p;<br />p = ptr;<br />**++p;<br />printf(“%s”,*--*++p + 3);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />ck<br />Explanation:<br />In this problem we have an array of char pointers pointing to start of 4 strings. Then we have ptr which is a pointer to a pointer of type char and a variable p which is a pointer to a pointer to a pointer of type char. p hold the initial value of ptr, i.e. p = s+3. The next statement increment value in p by 1 , thus now value of p = s+2. In the printf statement the expression is evaluated *++p causes gets value s+1 then the pre decrement is executed and we get s+1 – 1 = s . the indirection operator now gets the value from the array of s and adds 3 to the starting address. The string is printed starting from this position. Thus, the output is ‘ck’.<br /><br />53) main()<br />{<br />int i, n;<br />char *x = “girl”;<br />n = strlen(x);<br />*x = x[n];<br />for(i=0; i {<br />printf(“%s\n”,x);<br />x++;<br />}<br />}<br />Answer:<br />(blank space)<br />irl<br />rl<br />l<br /><br />Explanation:<br />Here a string (a pointer to char) is initialized with a value “girl”. The strlen function returns the length of the string, thus n has a value 4. The next statement assigns value at the nth location (‘\0’) to the first location. Now the string becomes “\0irl” . Now the printf statement prints the string after each iteration it increments it starting position. Loop starts from 0 to 4. The first time x[0] = ‘\0’ hence it prints nothing and pointer value is incremented. The second time it prints from x[1] i.e “irl” and the third time it prints “rl” and the last time it prints “l” and the loop terminates.<br />54) int i,j;<br />for(i=0;i<=10;i++)<br />{<br />j+=5;<br />assert(i<5);<br />}<br />Answer: <br />Runtime error: Abnormal program termination. <br />assert failed (i<5), , <br />Explanation:<br />asserts are used during debugging to make sure that certain conditions are satisfied. If assertion fails, the program will terminate reporting the same. After debugging use,<br />#undef NDEBUG<br />and this will disable all the assertions from the source code. Assertion<br />is a good debugging tool to make use of. <br /><br />55) main()<br />{<br />int i=-1;<br />+i;<br />printf("i = %d, +i = %d \n",i,+i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />i = -1, +i = -1<br />Explanation:<br />Unary + is the only dummy operator in C. Where-ever it comes you can just ignore it just because it has no effect in the expressions (hence the name dummy operator).<br /><br />56) What are the files which are automatically opened when a C file is executed?<br />Answer:<br />stdin, stdout, stderr (standard input,standard output,standard error).<br /><br />57) what will be the position of the file marker?<br />a: fseek(ptr,0,SEEK_SET);<br />b: fseek(ptr,0,SEEK_CUR);<br /><br />Answer :<br />a: The SEEK_SET sets the file position marker to the starting of the file.<br />b: The SEEK_CUR sets the file position marker to the current position<br />of the file.<br /><br />58) main()<br />{<br />char name[10],s[12];<br />scanf(" \"%[^\"]\"",s);<br />}<br />How scanf will execute? <br />Answer:<br />First it checks for the leading white space and discards it.Then it matches with a quotation mark and then it reads all character upto another quotation mark.<br /><br />59) What is the problem with the following code segment?<br />while ((fgets(receiving array,50,file_ptr)) != EOF)<br />;<br />Answer & Explanation:<br />fgets returns a pointer. So the correct end of file check is checking for != NULL.<br /><br />60) main()<br />{<br />main();<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Runtime error : Stack overflow.<br />Explanation:<br />main function calls itself again and again. Each time the function is called its return address is stored in the call stack. Since there is no condition to terminate the function call, the call stack overflows at runtime. So it terminates the program and results in an error.<br /><br />61) main()<br />{<br />char *cptr,c;<br />void *vptr,v;<br />c=10; v=0;<br />cptr=&c; vptr=&v;<br />printf("%c%v",c,v);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler error (at line number 4): size of v is Unknown.<br />Explanation:<br />You can create a variable of type void * but not of type void, since void is an empty type. In the second line you are creating variable vptr of type void * and v of type void hence an error.<br /><br />62) main()<br />{<br />char *str1="abcd";<br />char str2[]="abcd";<br />printf("%d %d %d",sizeof(str1),sizeof(str2),sizeof("abcd"));<br />}<br />Answer:<br />2 5 5<br />Explanation:<br />In first sizeof, str1 is a character pointer so it gives you the size of the pointer variable. In second sizeof the name str2 indicates the name of the array whose size is 5 (including the '\0' termination character). The third sizeof is similar to the second one.<br /><br />63) main()<br />{<br />char not;<br />not=!2;<br />printf("%d",not);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />0<br />Explanation:<br />! is a logical operator. In C the value 0 is considered to be the boolean value FALSE, and any non-zero value is considered to be the boolean value TRUE. Here 2 is a non-zero value so TRUE. !TRUE is FALSE (0) so it prints 0.<br /><br />64) #define FALSE -1<br />#define TRUE 1<br />#define NULL 0<br />main() {<br />if(NULL)<br />puts("NULL");<br />else if(FALSE)<br />puts("TRUE");<br />else<br />puts("FALSE");<br />}<br />Answer:<br />TRUE<br />Explanation:<br />The input program to the compiler after processing by the preprocessor is,<br />main(){<br />if(0)<br />puts("NULL");<br />else if(-1)<br />puts("TRUE");<br />else<br />puts("FALSE");<br />}<br />Preprocessor doesn't replace the values given inside the double quotes. The check by if condition is boolean value false so it goes to else. In second if -1 is boolean value true hence "TRUE" is printed.<br /><br />65) main()<br />{<br />int k=1;<br />printf("%d==1 is ""%s",k,k==1?"TRUE":"FALSE");<br />}<br />Answer:<br />1==1 is TRUE<br />Explanation:<br />When two strings are placed together (or separated by white-space) they are concatenated (this is called as "stringization" operation). So the string is as if it is given as "%d==1 is %s". The conditional operator( ?: ) evaluates to "TRUE".<br /><br />66) main()<br />{<br />int y;<br />scanf("%d",&y); // input given is 2000<br />if( (y%4==0 && y%100 != 0) || y%100 == 0 )<br />printf("%d is a leap year");<br />else<br />printf("%d is not a leap year");<br />}<br />Answer:<br />2000 is a leap year<br />Explanation:<br />An ordinary program to check if leap year or not.<br /><br />67) #define max 5<br />#define int arr1[max]<br />main()<br />{<br />typedef char arr2[max];<br />arr1 list={0,1,2,3,4};<br />arr2 name="name";<br />printf("%d %s",list[0],name);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler error (in the line arr1 list = {0,1,2,3,4})<br />Explanation:<br />arr2 is declared of type array of size 5 of characters. So it can be used to declare the variable name of the type arr2. But it is not the case of arr1. Hence an error.<br />Rule of Thumb: <br />#defines are used for textual replacement whereas typedefs are used for declaring new types.<br /><br />68) int i=10;<br />main()<br />{<br />extern int i;<br />{<br />int i=20;<br />{<br />const volatile unsigned i=30;<br />printf("%d",i);<br />}<br />printf("%d",i);<br />}<br />printf("%d",i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />30,20,10<br />Explanation:<br />'{' introduces new block and thus new scope. In the innermost block i is declared as, <br />const volatile unsigned<br />which is a valid declaration. i is assumed of type int. So printf prints 30. In the next block, i has value 20 and so printf prints 20. In the outermost block, i is declared as extern, so no storage space is allocated for it. After compilation is over the linker resolves it to global variable i (since it is the only variable visible there). So it prints i's value as 10.<br /><br />69) main()<br />{<br />int *j;<br />{<br />int i=10;<br />j=&i;<br />}<br />printf("%d",*j);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />10<br />Explanation:<br />The variable i is a block level variable and the visibility is inside that block only. But the lifetime of i is lifetime of the function so it lives upto the exit of main function. Since the i is still allocated space, *j prints the value stored in i since j points i.<br /><br />70) main()<br />{<br />int i=-1;<br />-i;<br />printf("i = %d, -i = %d \n",i,-i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />i = -1, -i = 1<br />Explanation:<br />-i is executed and this execution doesn't affect the value of i. In printf first you just print the value of i. After that the value of the expression -i = -(-1) is printed.<br /><br />71) #include<br />main()<br />{<br />const int i=4;<br />float j;<br />j = ++i;<br />printf("%d %f", i,++j);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler error <br />Explanation:<br />i is a constant. you cannot change the value of constant <br /><br />72) #include<br />main()<br />{<br />int a[2][2][2] = { {10,2,3,4}, {5,6,7,8} };<br />int *p,*q;<br />p=&a[2][2][2];<br />*q=***a;<br />printf("%d..%d",*p,*q);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />garbagevalue..1<br />Explanation:<br />p=&a[2][2][2] you declare only two 2D arrays. but you are trying to access the third 2D(which you are not declared) it will print garbage values. *q=***a starting address of a is assigned integer pointer. now q is pointing to starting address of a.if you print *q meAnswer:it will print first element of 3D array.<br /><br />73) #include<br />main()<br />{<br />register i=5;<br />char j[]= "hello"; <br />printf("%s %d",j,i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />hello 5<br />Explanation:<br />if you declare i as register compiler will treat it as ordinary integer and it will take integer value. i value may be stored either in register or in memory.<br /><br />74) main()<br />{<br />int i=5,j=6,z;<br />printf("%d",i+++j);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />11<br />Explanation:<br />the expression i+++j is treated as (i++ + j) <br /><br />76) struct aaa{<br />struct aaa *prev;<br />int i;<br />struct aaa *next;<br />};<br />main()<br />{<br />struct aaa abc,def,ghi,jkl;<br />int x=100;<br />abc.i=0;abc.prev=&jkl;<br />abc.next=&def;<br />def.i=1;def.prev=&abc;def.next=&ghi;<br />ghi.i=2;ghi.prev=&def;<br />ghi.next=&jkl;<br />jkl.i=3;jkl.prev=&ghi;jkl.next=&abc;<br />x=abc.next->next->prev->next->i;<br />printf("%d",x);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />2<br />Explanation:<br />above all statements form a double circular linked list;<br />abc.next->next->prev->next->i <br />this one points to "ghi" node the value of at particular node is 2.<br /><br />77) struct point<br />{<br />int x;<br />int y;<br />};<br />struct point origin,*pp;<br />main()<br />{<br />pp=&origin;<br />printf("origin is(%d%d)\n",(*pp).x,(*pp).y);<br />printf("origin is (%d%d)\n",pp->x,pp->y);<br />} <br /><br />Answer:<br />origin is(0,0)<br />origin is(0,0) <br />Explanation:<br />pp is a pointer to structure. we can access the elements of the structure either with arrow mark or with indirection operator. <br />Note: <br />Since structure point is globally declared x & y are initialized as zeroes <br /><br />78) main()<br />{<br />int i=_l_abc(10);<br />printf("%d\n",--i);<br />}<br />int _l_abc(int i)<br />{<br />return(i++);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />9<br />Explanation: <br />return(i++) it will first return i and then increments. i.e. 10 will be returned.<br /><br />79) main()<br />{<br />char *p;<br />int *q;<br />long *r;<br />p=q=r=0;<br />p++;<br />q++;<br />r++;<br />printf("%p...%p...%p",p,q,r);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />0001...0002...0004<br />Explanation:<br />++ operator when applied to pointers increments address according to their corresponding data-types.<br /><br />80) main()<br />{<br />char c=' ',x,convert(z);<br />getc(c);<br />if((c>='a') && (c<='z'))<br />x=convert(c);<br />printf("%c",x);<br />}<br />convert(z)<br />{<br />return z-32;<br />}<br />Answer: <br />Compiler error<br />Explanation:<br />declaration of convert and format of getc() are wrong. <br /><br />81) main(int argc, char **argv)<br />{<br />printf("enter the character");<br />getchar();<br />sum(argv[1],argv[2]);<br />}<br />sum(num1,num2)<br />int num1,num2;<br />{<br />return num1+num2;<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler error.<br />Explanation:<br />argv[1] & argv[2] are strings. They are passed to the function sum without converting it to integer values. <br /><br />82) # include <br />int one_d[]={1,2,3};<br />main()<br />{<br />int *ptr; <br />ptr=one_d;<br />ptr+=3;<br />printf("%d",*ptr);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />garbage value<br />Explanation:<br />ptr pointer is pointing to out of the array range of one_d.<br /><br />83) # include<br />aaa() {<br />printf("hi");<br />}<br />bbb(){<br />printf("hello");<br />}<br />ccc(){<br />printf("bye");<br />}<br />main()<br />{<br />int (*ptr[3])();<br />ptr[0]=aaa;<br />ptr[1]=bbb;<br />ptr[2]=ccc;<br />ptr[2]();<br />}<br />Answer:<br />bye <br />Explanation:<br />ptr is array of pointers to functions of return type int.ptr[0] is assigned to address of the function aaa. Similarly ptr[1] and ptr[2] for bbb and ccc respectively. ptr[2]() is in effect of writing ccc(), since ptr[2] points to ccc.<br /><br />85) #include<br />main()<br />{<br />FILE *ptr;<br />char i;<br />ptr=fopen("zzz.c","r");<br />while((i=fgetch(ptr))!=EOF)<br />printf("%c",i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />contents of zzz.c followed by an infinite loop <br />Explanation:<br />The condition is checked against EOF, it should be checked against NULL.<br /><br />86) main()<br />{<br />int i =0;j=0;<br />if(i && j++)<br />printf("%d..%d",i++,j);<br />printf("%d..%d,i,j);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />0..0 <br />Explanation:<br />The value of i is 0. Since this information is enough to determine the truth value of the boolean expression. So the statement following the if statement is not executed. The values of i and j remain unchanged and get printed.<br /><br />87) main()<br />{<br />int i;<br />i = abc();<br />printf("%d",i);<br />}<br />abc()<br />{<br />_AX = 1000;<br />}<br />Answer:<br />1000<br />Explanation:<br />Normally the return value from the function is through the information from the accumulator. Here _AH is the pseudo global variable denoting the accumulator. Hence, the value of the accumulator is set 1000 so the function returns value 1000. <br /><br />88) int i;<br />main(){<br />int t;<br />for ( t=4;scanf("%d",&i)-t;printf("%d\n",i))<br />printf("%d--",t--);<br />}<br />// If the inputs are 0,1,2,3 find the o/p<br />Answer:<br />4--0<br />3--1<br />2--2 <br />Explanation:<br />Let us assume some x= scanf("%d",&i)-t the values during execution <br />will be,<br />t i x<br />4 0 -4<br />3 1 -2<br />2 2 0<br /><br />89) main(){<br />int a= 0;int b = 20;char x =1;char y =10;<br />if(a,b,x,y)<br />printf("hello");<br />}<br />Answer:<br />hello <br />Explanation:<br />The comma operator has associativity from left to right. Only the rightmost value is returned and the other values are evaluated and ignored. Thus the value of last variable y is returned to check in if. Since it is a non zero value if becomes true so, "hello" will be printed.<br /><br />90) main(){<br />unsigned int i;<br />for(i=1;i>-2;i--)<br />printf("c aptitude");<br />}<br />Explanation:<br />i is an unsigned integer. It is compared with a signed value. Since the both types doesn't match, signed is promoted to unsigned value. The unsigned equivalent of -2 is a huge value so condition becomes false and control comes out of the loop. <br /><br />91) In the following pgm add a stmt in the function fun such that the address of <br />'a' gets stored in 'j'.<br />main(){<br />int * j;<br />void fun(int **);<br />fun(&j);<br />}<br />void fun(int **k) {<br />int a =0;<br />/* add a stmt here*/<br />}<br />Answer:<br />*k = &a<br />Explanation:<br />The argument of the function is a pointer to a pointer.<br /><br />92) What are the following notations of defining functions known as?<br />i. int abc(int a,float b)<br />{<br />/* some code */<br />}<br />ii. int abc(a,b)<br />int a; float b;<br />{<br />/* some code*/<br />}<br />Answer:<br />i. ANSI C notation<br />ii. Kernighan & Ritche notation <br /><br />93) main()<br />{<br />char *p;<br />p="%d\n";<br />p++;<br />p++;<br />printf(p-2,300);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />300<br />Explanation:<br />The pointer points to % since it is incremented twice and again decremented by 2, it points to '%d\n' and 300 is printed.<br /><br />94) main(){<br />char a[100];<br />a[0]='a';a[1]]='b';a[2]='c';a[4]='d';<br />abc(a);<br />}<br />abc(char a[]){<br />a++; <br />printf("%c",*a);<br />a++;<br />printf("%c",*a);<br />}<br />Explanation:<br />The base address is modified only in function and as a result a points to 'b' then after incrementing to 'c' so bc will be printed.<br /><br />95) func(a,b)<br />int a,b;<br />{<br />return( a= (a==b) );<br />}<br />main()<br />{<br />int process(),func();<br />printf("The value of process is %d !\n ",process(func,3,6));<br />}<br />process(pf,val1,val2)<br />int (*pf) ();<br />int val1,val2;<br />{<br />return((*pf) (val1,val2));<br />}<br />Answer:<br />The value if process is 0 !<br />Explanation:<br />The function 'process' has 3 parameters - 1, a pointer to another function 2 and 3, integers. When this function is invoked from main, the following substitutions for formal parameters take place: func for pf, 3 for val1 and 6 for val2. This function returns the result of the operation performed by the function 'func'. The function func has two integer parameters. The formal parameters are substituted as 3 for a and 6 for b. since 3 is not equal to 6, a==b returns 0. therefore the function returns 0 which in turn is returned by the function 'process'.<br /><br />96) void main()<br />{<br />static int i=5;<br />if(--i){<br />main();<br />printf("%d ",i);<br />}<br />}<br />Answer:<br />0 0 0 0<br />Explanation:<br />The variable "I" is declared as static, hence memory for I will be allocated for only once, as it encounters the statement. The function main() will be called recursively unless I becomes equal to 0, and since main() is recursively called, so the value of static I ie., 0 will be printed every time the control is returned.<br /><br />97) void main()<br />{<br />int k=ret(sizeof(float));<br />printf("\n here value is %d",++k);<br />}<br />int ret(int ret)<br />{<br />ret += 2.5;<br />return(ret);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Here value is 7<br />Explanation:<br />The int ret(int ret), ie., the function name and the argument name can be the same.<br />Firstly, the function ret() is called in which the sizeof(float) ie., 4 is passed, after the first expression the value in ret will be 6, as ret is integer hence the value stored in ret will have implicit type conversion from float to int. The ret is returned in main() it is printed after and preincrement.<br /><br />98) void main()<br />{<br />char a[]="12345\0";<br />int i=strlen(a);<br />printf("here in 3 %d\n",++i);<br />}<br />Answer: <br />here in 3 6<br />Explanation:<br />The char array 'a' will hold the initialized string, whose length will be counted from 0 till the null character. Hence the 'I' will hold the value equal to 5, after the pre-increment in the printf statement, the 6 will be printed.<br /><br />99) void main()<br />{<br />unsigned giveit=-1;<br />int gotit;<br />printf("%u ",++giveit);<br />printf("%u \n",gotit=--giveit);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />0 65535<br />Explanation:<br /><br />100) void main()<br />{<br />int i;<br />char a[]="\0";<br />if(printf("%s\n",a))<br />printf("Ok here \n");<br />else<br />printf("Forget it\n");<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Ok here <br />Explanation:<br />Printf will return how many characters does it print. Hence printing a null character returns 1 which makes the if statement true, thus "Ok here" is printed.<br /><br />101) void main()<br />{<br />void *v;<br />int integer=2;<br />int *i=&integer;<br />v=i;<br />printf("%d",(int*)*v);<br />}<br />Answer: <br />Compiler Error. We cannot apply indirection on type void*.<br />Explanation:<br />Void pointer is a generic pointer type. No pointer arithmetic can be done on it. Void pointers are normally used for, <br />1. Passing generic pointers to functions and returning such pointers.<br />2. As a intermediate pointer type.<br />3. Used when the exact pointer type will be known at a later point of time.<br /><br />102) void main()<br />{<br />int i=i++,j=j++,k=k++;<br />printf(“%d%d%d”,i,j,k);<br />}<br />Answer: <br />Garbage values.<br />Explanation:<br />An identifier is available to use in program code from the point of its declaration. <br />So expressions such as i = i++ are valid statements. The i, j and k are automatic variables and so they contain some garbage value. Garbage in is garbage out (GIGO). <br /><br /><br />103) void main()<br />{<br />static int i=i++, j=j++, k=k++;<br />printf(“i = %d j = %d k = %d”, i, j, k);<br />}<br />Answer: <br />i = 1 j = 1 k = 1<br />Explanation:<br />Since static variables are initialized to zero by default.<br /><br />104) void main()<br />{<br />while(1){<br />if(printf("%d",printf("%d")))<br />break;<br />else<br />continue;<br />}<br />}<br />Answer: <br />Garbage values<br />Explanation:<br />The inner printf executes first to print some garbage value. The printf returns no of characters printed and this value also cannot be predicted. Still the outer printf prints something and so returns a non-zero value. So it encounters the break statement and comes out of the while statement.<br /><br />104) main()<br />{<br />unsigned int i=10;<br />while(i-->=0)<br />printf("%u ",i);<br /><br />}<br />Answer:<br />10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 65535 65534…..<br />Explanation:<br />Since i is an unsigned integer it can never become negative. So the expression i-- >=0 will always be true, leading to an infinite loop. <br /><br />105) #include<br />main()<br />{<br />int x,y=2,z,a;<br />if(x=y%2) z=2;<br />a=2;<br />printf("%d %d ",z,x);<br />}<br />Answer: <br />Garbage-value 0<br />Explanation:<br />The value of y%2 is 0. This value is assigned to x. The condition reduces to if (x) or in other words if(0) and so z goes uninitialized.<br />Thumb Rule: Check all control paths to write bug free code.<br /><br />106) main()<br />{<br />int a[10];<br />printf("%d",*a+1-*a+3);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />4 <br />Explanation:<br />*a and -*a cancels out. The result is as simple as 1 + 3 = 4 ! <br /><br />107) #define prod(a,b) a*b<br />main() <br />{<br />int x=3,y=4;<br />printf("%d",prod(x+2,y-1));<br />}<br />Answer:<br />10<br />Explanation:<br />The macro expands and evaluates to as:<br />x+2*y-1 => x+(2*y)-1 => 10<br /><br />108) main()<br />{<br />unsigned int i=65000;<br />while(i++!=0);<br />printf("%d",i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />1<br />Explanation:<br />Note the semicolon after the while statement. When the value of i becomes 0 it comes out of while loop. Due to post-increment on i the value of i while printing is 1.<br /><br />109) main()<br />{<br />int i=0;<br />while(+(+i--)!=0)<br />i-=i++;<br />printf("%d",i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />-1<br />Explanation:<br />Unary + is the only dummy operator in C. So it has no effect on the expression and now the while loop is, while(i--!=0) which is false and so breaks out of while loop. The value –1 is printed due to the post-decrement operator.<br /><br />113) main()<br />{<br />float f=5,g=10;<br />enum{i=10,j=20,k=50};<br />printf("%d\n",++k);<br />printf("%f\n",f<<2);<br />printf("%lf\n",f%g);<br />printf("%lf\n",fmod(f,g)); <br />}<br />Answer:<br />Line no 5: Error: Lvalue required<br />Line no 6: Cannot apply leftshift to float<br />Line no 7: Cannot apply mod to float<br />Explanation:<br />Enumeration constants cannot be modified, so you cannot apply ++.<br />Bit-wise operators and % operators cannot be applied on float values.<br />fmod() is to find the modulus values for floats as % operator is for ints. <br /><br />110) main()<br />{<br />int i=10;<br />void pascal f(int,int,int);<br />f(i++,i++,i++);<br />printf(" %d",i);<br />}<br />void pascal f(integer :i,integer:j,integer :k)<br />{ <br />write(i,j,k); <br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler error: unknown type integer<br />Compiler error: undeclared function write<br />Explanation:<br />Pascal keyword doesn’t mean that pascal code can be used. It means that the function follows Pascal argument passing mechanism in calling the functions. <br /><br />111) void pascal f(int i,int j,int k)<br />{ <br />printf(“%d %d %d”,i, j, k); <br />}<br />void cdecl f(int i,int j,int k)<br />{ <br />printf(“%d %d %d”,i, j, k); <br />}<br />main()<br />{<br />int i=10;<br />f(i++,i++,i++);<br />printf(" %d\n",i);<br />i=10;<br />f(i++,i++,i++);<br />printf(" %d",i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />10 11 12 13<br />12 11 10 13<br />Explanation:<br />Pascal argument passing mechanism forces the arguments to be called from left to right. cdecl is the normal C argument passing mechanism where the arguments are passed from right to left.<br /><br />112). What is the output of the program given below<br /><br />main()<br />{<br />signed char i=0;<br />for(;i>=0;i++) ;<br />printf("%d\n",i);<br />}<br />Answer<br />-128<br />Explanation<br />Notice the semicolon at the end of the for loop. THe initial value of the i is set to 0. The inner loop executes to increment the value from 0 to 127 (the positive range of char) and then it rotates to the negative value of -128. The condition in the for loop fails and so comes out of the for loop. It prints the current value of i that is -128.<br /><br />113) main()<br />{<br />unsigned char i=0;<br />for(;i>=0;i++) ;<br />printf("%d\n",i);<br />}<br />Answer<br />infinite loop<br />Explanation<br />The difference between the previous question and this one is that the char is declared to be unsigned. So the i++ can never yield negative value and i>=0 never becomes false so that it can come out of the for loop.<br /><br />114) main()<br />{<br />char i=0;<br />for(;i>=0;i++) ;<br />printf("%d\n",i);<br /><br />}<br />Answer:<br />Behavior is implementation dependent.<br />Explanation:<br />The detail if the char is signed/unsigned by default is implementation dependent. If the implementation treats the char to be signed by default the program will print –128 and terminate. On the other hand if it considers char to be unsigned by default, it goes to infinite loop.<br />Rule:<br />You can write programs that have implementation dependent behavior. But dont write programs that depend on such behavior.<br /><br />115) Is the following statement a declaration/definition. Find what does it mean?<br />int (*x)[10];<br />Answer<br />Definition.<br />x is a pointer to array of(size 10) integers.<br /><br />Apply clock-wise rule to find the meaning of this definition.<br /><br /><br />116). What is the output for the program given below <br /><br />typedef enum errorType{warning, error, exception,}error;<br />main()<br />{<br />error g1;<br />g1=1; <br />printf("%d",g1);<br />}<br />Answer<br />Compiler error: Multiple declaration for error<br />Explanation<br />The name error is used in the two meanings. One means that it is a enumerator constant with value 1. The another use is that it is a type name (due to typedef) for enum errorType. Given a situation the compiler cannot distinguish the meaning of error to know in what sense the error is used: <br />error g1;<br />g1=error; <br />// which error it refers in each case?<br />When the compiler can distinguish between usages then it will not issue error (in pure technical terms, names can only be overloaded in different namespaces).<br />Note: the extra comma in the declaration,<br />enum errorType{warning, error, exception,}<br />is not an error. An extra comma is valid and is provided just for programmer’s convenience.<br /><br /><br />117) typedef struct error{int warning, error, exception;}error;<br />main()<br />{<br />error g1;<br />g1.error =1; <br />printf("%d",g1.error);<br />}<br /><br />Answer<br />1<br />Explanation<br />The three usages of name errors can be distinguishable by the compiler at any instance, so valid (they are in different namespaces).<br />Typedef struct error{int warning, error, exception;}error;<br />This error can be used only by preceding the error by struct kayword as in:<br />struct error someError;<br />typedef struct error{int warning, error, exception;}error;<br />This can be used only after . (dot) or -> (arrow) operator preceded by the variable name as in :<br />g1.error =1; <br />printf("%d",g1.error);<br />typedef struct error{int warning, error, exception;}error;<br />This can be used to define variables without using the preceding struct keyword as in:<br />error g1;<br />Since the compiler can perfectly distinguish between these three usages, it is perfectly legal and valid.<br /><br />Note<br />This code is given here to just explain the concept behind. In real programming don’t use such overloading of names. It reduces the readability of the code. Possible doesn’t mean that we should use it!<br /><br />118) #ifdef something<br />int some=0;<br />#endif<br /><br />main()<br />{<br />int thing = 0;<br />printf("%d %d\n", some ,thing);<br />}<br /><br />Answer:<br />Compiler error : undefined symbol some<br />Explanation:<br />This is a very simple example for conditional compilation. The name something is not already known to the compiler making the declaration <br />int some = 0;<br />effectively removed from the source code.<br /><br />119) #if something == 0<br />int some=0;<br />#endif<br /><br />main()<br />{<br />int thing = 0;<br />printf("%d %d\n", some ,thing);<br />}<br /><br />Answer<br />0 0 <br />Explanation<br />This code is to show that preprocessor expressions are not the same as the ordinary expressions. If a name is not known the preprocessor treats it to be equal to zero. <br /><br />120). What is the output for the following program<br /><br />main()<br />{<br />int arr2D[3][3];<br />printf("%d\n", ((arr2D==* arr2D)&&(* arr2D == arr2D[0])) );<br />}<br />Answer<br />1<br />Explanation<br />This is due to the close relation between the arrays and pointers. N dimensional arrays are made up of (N-1) dimensional arrays. <br />arr2D is made up of a 3 single arrays that contains 3 integers each . <br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />The name arr2D refers to the beginning of all the 3 arrays. *arr2D refers to the start of the first 1D array (of 3 integers) that is the same address as arr2D. So the expression (arr2D == *arr2D) is true (1). <br />Similarly, *arr2D is nothing but *(arr2D + 0), adding a zero doesn’t change the value/meaning. Again arr2D[0] is the another way of telling *(arr2D + 0). So the expression (*(arr2D + 0) == arr2D[0]) is true (1). <br />Since both parts of the expression evaluates to true the result is true(1) and the same is printed. <br /><br />121) void main()<br />{<br />if(~0 == (unsigned int)-1)<br />printf(“You can answer this if you know how values are represented in memory”);<br />} <br />Answer<br />You can answer this if you know how values are represented in memory<br />Explanation<br />~ (tilde operator or bit-wise negation operator) operates on 0 to produce all ones to fill the space for an integer. –1 is represented in unsigned value as all 1’s and so both are equal.<br /><br />122) int swap(int *a,int *b)<br />{<br />*a=*a+*b;*b=*a-*b;*a=*a-*b;<br />}<br />main()<br />{<br />int x=10,y=20;<br />swap(&x,&y);<br />printf("x= %d y = %d\n",x,y);<br />}<br />Answer<br />x = 20 y = 10<br />Explanation<br />This is one way of swapping two values. Simple checking will help understand this.<br /><br />123) main()<br />{ <br />char *p = “ayqm”;<br />printf(“%c”,++*(p++));<br />}<br />Answer:<br />b <br /><br />124) main()<br />{<br />int i=5;<br />printf("%d",++i++);<br />} <br />Answer:<br />Compiler error: Lvalue required in function main<br />Explanation:<br />++i yields an rvalue. For postfix ++ to operate an lvalue is required.<br /><br />125) main()<br />{<br />char *p = “ayqm”;<br />char c;<br />c = ++*p++;<br />printf(“%c”,c);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />b<br />Explanation:<br />There is no difference between the expression ++*(p++) and ++*p++. Parenthesis just works as a visual clue for the reader to see which expression is first evaluated. <br /><br />126)<br />int aaa() {printf(“Hi”);}<br />int bbb(){printf(“hello”);}<br />iny ccc(){printf(“bye”);}<br /><br />main()<br />{<br />int ( * ptr[3]) ();<br />ptr[0] = aaa;<br />ptr[1] = bbb;<br />ptr[2] =ccc;<br />ptr[2]();<br />}<br />Answer:<br />bye<br />Explanation: <br />int (* ptr[3])() says that ptr is an array of pointers to functions that takes no arguments and returns the type int. By the assignment ptr[0] = aaa; it means that the first function pointer in the array is initialized with the address of the function aaa. Similarly, the other two array elements also get initialized with the addresses of the functions bbb and ccc. Since ptr[2] contains the address of the function ccc, the call to the function ptr[2]() is same as calling ccc(). So it results in printing "bye".<br /><br />127)<br />main()<br />{<br />int i=5;<br />printf(“%d”,i=++i ==6);<br />}<br /><br />Answer:<br />1<br />Explanation:<br />The expression can be treated as i = (++i==6), because == is of higher precedence than = operator. In the inner expression, ++i is equal to 6 yielding true(1). Hence the result.<br /><br />128) main()<br />{<br />char p[ ]="%d\n";<br />p[1] = 'c';<br />printf(p,65);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />A<br />Explanation:<br />Due to the assignment p[1] = ‘c’ the string becomes, “%c\n”. Since this string becomes the format string for printf and ASCII value of 65 is ‘A’, the same gets printed.<br /><br />129) void ( * abc( int, void ( *def) () ) ) ();<br /><br />Answer::<br />abc is a ptr to a function which takes 2 parameters .(a). an integer variable.(b). a ptrto a funtion which returns void. the return type of the function is void.<br />Explanation:<br />Apply the clock-wise rule to find the result.<br /><br /><br />130) main()<br />{<br />while (strcmp(“some”,”some\0”)) <br />printf(“Strings are not equal\n”);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />No output<br />Explanation:<br />Ending the string constant with \0 explicitly makes no difference. So “some” and “some\0” are equivalent. So, strcmp returns 0 (false) hence breaking out of the while loop. <br /><br />131) main()<br />{<br />char str1[] = {‘s’,’o’,’m’,’e’};<br />char str2[] = {‘s’,’o’,’m’,’e’,’\0’};<br />while (strcmp(str1,str2)) <br />printf(“Strings are not equal\n”);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />“Strings are not equal”<br />“Strings are not equal”<br />….<br />Explanation:<br />If a string constant is initialized explicitly with characters, ‘\0’ is not appended automatically to the string. Since str1 doesn’t have null termination, it treats whatever the values that are in the following positions as part of the string until it randomly reaches a ‘\0’. So str1 and str2 are not the same, hence the result.<br /><br />132) main()<br />{<br />int i = 3;<br />for (;i++=0;) printf(“%d”,i);<br />}<br /><br />Answer:<br />Compiler Error: Lvalue required.<br />Explanation:<br />As we know that increment operators return rvalues and hence it cannot appear on the left hand side of an assignment operation.<br /><br />133) void main()<br />{<br />int *mptr, *cptr;<br />mptr = (int*)malloc(sizeof(int));<br />printf(“%d”,*mptr);<br />int *cptr = (int*)calloc(sizeof(int),1);<br />printf(“%d”,*cptr);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />garbage-value 0<br />Explanation:<br />The memory space allocated by malloc is uninitialized, whereas calloc returns the allocated memory space initialized to zeros.<br /><br />134) void main()<br />{<br />static int i;<br />while(i<=10)<br />(i>2)?i++:i--;<br />printf(“%d”, i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />32767<br />Explanation:<br />Since i is static it is initialized to 0. Inside the while loop the conditional operator evaluates to false, executing i--. This continues till the integer value rotates to positive value (32767). The while condition becomes false and hence, comes out of the while loop, printing the i value.<br /><br />135) main()<br />{<br />int i=10,j=20;<br />j = i, j?(i,j)?i:j:j;<br />printf("%d %d",i,j);<br />}<br /><br />Answer:<br />10 10<br />Explanation:<br />The Ternary operator ( ? : ) is equivalent for if-then-else statement. So the question can be written as:<br />if(i,j)<br />{<br />if(i,j)<br />j = i;<br />else<br />j = j; <br />}<br />else<br />j = j; <br /><br /><br />136) 1. const char *a;<br />2. char* const a; <br />3. char const *a;<br />-Differentiate the above declarations.<br /><br />Answer:<br />1. 'const' applies to char * rather than 'a' ( pointer to a constant char )<br />*a='F' : illegal<br />a="Hi" : legal<br /><br />2. 'const' applies to 'a' rather than to the value of a (constant pointer to char )<br />*a='F' : legal<br />a="Hi" : illegal<br /><br />3. Same as 1.<br /><br />137) main()<br />{<br />int i=5,j=10;<br />i=i&=j&&10;<br />printf("%d %d",i,j);<br />}<br /><br />Answer:<br />1 10<br />Explanation:<br />The expression can be written as i=(i&=(j&&10)); The inner expression (j&&10) evaluates to 1 because j==10. i is 5. i = 5&1 is 1. Hence the result. <br /><br />138) main()<br />{<br />int i=4,j=7;<br />j = j || i++ && printf("YOU CAN");<br />printf("%d %d", i, j);<br />}<br /><br />Answer:<br />4 1 <br />Explanation:<br />The boolean expression needs to be evaluated only till the truth value of the expression is not known. j is not equal to zero itself means that the expression’s truth value is 1. Because it is followed by || and true || (anything) => true where (anything) will not be evaluated. So the remaining expression is not evaluated and so the value of i remains the same.<br />Similarly when && operator is involved in an expression, when any of the operands become false, the whole expression’s truth value becomes false and hence the remaining expression will not be evaluated. <br />false && (anything) => false where (anything) will not be evaluated.<br /><br />139) main()<br />{<br />register int a=2;<br />printf("Address of a = %d",&a);<br />printf("Value of a = %d",a);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compier Error: '&' on register variable<br />Rule to Remember:<br />& (address of ) operator cannot be applied on register variables.<br /><br />140) main()<br />{<br />float i=1.5;<br />switch(i)<br />{<br />case 1: printf("1");<br />case 2: printf("2");<br />default : printf("0");<br />}<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler Error: switch expression not integral<br />Explanation:<br />Switch statements can be applied only to integral types.<br /><br />141) main()<br />{ <br />extern i;<br />printf("%d\n",i);<br />{<br />int i=20;<br />printf("%d\n",i);<br />}<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Linker Error : Unresolved external symbol i<br />Explanation:<br />The identifier i is available in the inner block and so using extern has no use in resolving it. <br /><br />142) main()<br />{<br />int a=2,*f1,*f2;<br />f1=f2=&a;<br />*f2+=*f2+=a+=2.5;<br />printf("\n%d %d %d",a,*f1,*f2);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />16 16 16<br />Explanation:<br />f1 and f2 both refer to the same memory location a. So changes through f1 and f2 ultimately affects only the value of a. <br /><br />143) main()<br />{<br />char *p="GOOD";<br />char a[ ]="GOOD";<br />printf("\n sizeof(p) = %d, sizeof(*p) = %d, strlen(p) = %d", sizeof(p), sizeof(*p), strlen(p));<br />printf("\n sizeof(a) = %d, strlen(a) = %d", sizeof(a), strlen(a));<br />}<br />Answer:<br />sizeof(p) = 2, sizeof(*p) = 1, strlen(p) = 4<br />sizeof(a) = 5, strlen(a) = 4<br />Explanation:<br />sizeof(p) => sizeof(char*) => 2<br />sizeof(*p) => sizeof(char) => 1<br />Similarly,<br />sizeof(a) => size of the character array => 5<br />When sizeof operator is applied to an array it returns the sizeof the array and it is not the same as the sizeof the pointer variable. Here the sizeof(a) where a is the character array and the size of the array is 5 because the space necessary for the terminating NULL character should also be taken into account.<br /><br />144) #define DIM( array, type) sizeof(array)/sizeof(type)<br />main()<br />{<br />int arr[10];<br />printf(“The dimension of the array is %d”, DIM(arr, int)); <br />}<br />Answer:<br />10 <br />Explanation:<br />The size of integer array of 10 elements is 10 * sizeof(int). The macro expands to sizeof(arr)/sizeof(int) => 10 * sizeof(int) / sizeof(int) => 10. <br /><br />145) int DIM(int array[]) <br />{<br />return sizeof(array)/sizeof(int );<br />}<br />main()<br />{<br />int arr[10];<br />printf(“The dimension of the array is %d”, DIM(arr)); <br />}<br />Answer:<br />1 <br />Explanation:<br />Arrays cannot be passed to functions as arguments and only the pointers can be passed. So the argument is equivalent to int * array (this is one of the very few places where [] and * usage are equivalent). The return statement becomes, sizeof(int *)/ sizeof(int) that happens to be equal in this case. <br /><br />146) main()<br />{<br />static int a[3][3]={1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};<br />int i,j;<br />static *p[]={a,a+1,a+2};<br />for(i=0;i<3;i++)<br />{<br />for(j=0;j<3;j++)<br />printf("%d\t%d\t%d\t%d\n",*(*(p+i)+j),<br />*(*(j+p)+i),*(*(i+p)+j),*(*(p+j)+i));<br />}<br />}<br />Answer:<br />1 1 1 1<br />2 4 2 4<br />3 7 3 7<br />4 2 4 2<br />5 5 5 5<br />6 8 6 8<br />7 3 7 3<br />8 6 8 6<br />9 9 9 9<br />Explanation:<br />*(*(p+i)+j) is equivalent to p[i][j].<br /><br />147) main()<br />{<br />void swap();<br />int x=10,y=8; <br />swap(&x,&y);<br />printf("x=%d y=%d",x,y);<br />}<br />void swap(int *a, int *b)<br />{<br />*a ^= *b, *b ^= *a, *a ^= *b; <br />} <br />Answer:<br />x=10 y=8<br />Explanation:<br />Using ^ like this is a way to swap two variables without using a temporary variable and that too in a single statement.<br />Inside main(), void swap(); means that swap is a function that may take any number of arguments (not no arguments) and returns nothing. So this doesn’t issue a compiler error by the call swap(&x,&y); that has two arguments. <br />This convention is historically due to pre-ANSI style (referred to as Kernighan and Ritchie style) style of function declaration. In that style, the swap function will be defined as follows,<br />void swap()<br />int *a, int *b<br />{<br />*a ^= *b, *b ^= *a, *a ^= *b; <br />}<br />where the arguments follow the (). So naturally the declaration for swap will look like, void swap() which means the swap can take any number of arguments.<br /><br />148) main()<br />{<br />int i = 257;<br />int *iPtr = &i;<br />printf("%d %d", *((char*)iPtr), *((char*)iPtr+1) );<br />}<br />Answer:<br />1 1 <br />Explanation:<br />The integer value 257 is stored in the memory as, 00000001 00000001, so the individual bytes are taken by casting it to char * and get printed.<br /><br />149) main()<br />{<br />int i = 258;<br />int *iPtr = &i;<br />printf("%d %d", *((char*)iPtr), *((char*)iPtr+1) );<br />} <br />Answer:<br />2 1 <br />Explanation:<br />The integer value 257 can be represented in binary as, 00000001 00000001. Remember that the INTEL machines are ‘small-endian’ machines. Small-endian means that the lower order bytes are stored in the higher memory addresses and the higher order bytes are stored in lower addresses. The integer value 258 is stored in memory as: 00000001 00000010. <br /><br />150) main()<br />{<br />int i=300;<br />char *ptr = &i;<br />*++ptr=2;<br />printf("%d",i);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />556<br />Explanation:<br />The integer value 300 in binary notation is: 00000001 00101100. It is stored in memory (small-endian) as: 00101100 00000001. Result of the expression *++ptr = 2 makes the memory representation as: 00101100 00000010. So the integer corresponding to it is 00000010 00101100 => 556.<br /><br />151) #include <br />main()<br />{<br />char * str = "hello";<br />char * ptr = str;<br />char least = 127;<br />while (*ptr++)<br />least = (*ptrprintf("%d",least);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />0<br />Explanation: <br />After ‘ptr’ reaches the end of the string the value pointed by ‘str’ is ‘\0’. So the value of ‘str’ is less than that of ‘least’. So the value of ‘least’ finally is 0.<br /><br />152) Declare an array of N pointers to functions returning pointers to functions returning pointers to characters?<br />Answer:<br />(char*(*)( )) (*ptr[N])( );<br /><br />153) main()<br />{<br />struct student <br />{<br />char name[30];<br />struct date dob;<br />}stud;<br />struct date<br />{ <br />int day,month,year;<br />};<br />scanf("%s%d%d%d", stud.rollno, &student.dob.day, &student.dob.month, &student.dob.year);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler Error: Undefined structure date<br />Explanation:<br />Inside the struct definition of ‘student’ the member of type struct date is given. The compiler doesn’t have the definition of date structure (forward reference is not allowed in C in this case) so it issues an error.<br /><br />154) main()<br />{<br />struct date;<br />struct student<br />{<br />char name[30];<br />struct date dob;<br />}stud;<br />struct date<br />{<br />int day,month,year;<br />};<br />scanf("%s%d%d%d", stud.rollno, &student.dob.day, &student.dob.month, &student.dob.year);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Compiler Error: Undefined structure date<br />Explanation:<br />Only declaration of struct date is available inside the structure definition of ‘student’ but to have a variable of type struct date the definition of the structure is required. <br /><br />155) There were 10 records stored in “somefile.dat” but the following program printed 11 names. What went wrong?<br />void main()<br />{<br />struct student<br />{ <br />char name[30], rollno[6];<br />}stud;<br />FILE *fp = fopen(“somefile.dat”,”r”);<br />while(!feof(fp))<br />{<br />fread(&stud, sizeof(stud), 1 , fp);<br />puts(stud.name);<br />}<br />}<br />Explanation:<br />fread reads 10 records and prints the names successfully. It will return EOF only when fread tries to read another record and fails reading EOF (and returning EOF). So it prints the last record again. After this only the condition feof(fp) becomes false, hence comes out of the while loop. <br /><br />156) Is there any difference between the two declarations, <br />1. int foo(int *arr[]) and<br />2. int foo(int *arr[2])<br />Answer:<br />No <br />Explanation:<br />Functions can only pass pointers and not arrays. The numbers that are allowed inside the [] is just for more readability. So there is no difference between the two declarations.<br /><br /><br />157) What is the subtle error in the following code segment?<br />void fun(int n, int arr[])<br />{<br />int *p=0;<br />int i=0;<br />while(i++ p = &arr[i];<br />*p = 0;<br />}<br />Answer & Explanation:<br />If the body of the loop never executes p is assigned no address. So p remains NULL where *p =0 may result in problem (may rise to runtime error “NULL pointer assignment” and terminate the program). <br /><br />158) What is wrong with the following code? <br />int *foo()<br />{<br />int *s = malloc(sizeof(int)100);<br />assert(s != NULL);<br />return s;<br />}<br />Answer & Explanation:<br />assert macro should be used for debugging and finding out bugs. The check s != NULL is for error/exception handling and for that assert shouldn’t be used. A plain if and the corresponding remedy statement has to be given.<br /><br />159) What is the hidden bug with the following statement?<br />assert(val++ != 0);<br />Answer & Explanation:<br />Assert macro is used for debugging and removed in release version. In assert, the experssion involves side-effects. So the behavior of the code becomes different in case of debug version and the release version thus leading to a subtle bug. <br />Rule to Remember:<br />Don’t use expressions that have side-effects in assert statements. <br /><br />160) void main()<br />{<br />int *i = 0x400; // i points to the address 400<br />*i = 0; // set the value of memory location pointed by i;<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Undefined behavior <br />Explanation:<br />The second statement results in undefined behavior because it points to some location whose value may not be available for modification. This type of pointer in which the non-availability of the implementation of the referenced location is known as 'incomplete type'.<br /><br />161) #define assert(cond) if(!(cond)) \<br />(fprintf(stderr, "assertion failed: %s, file %s, line %d \n",#cond,\<br />__FILE__,__LINE__), abort())<br /><br />void main()<br />{<br />int i = 10;<br />if(i==0) <br />assert(i < 100); <br />else<br />printf("This statement becomes else for if in assert macro");<br />}<br />Answer:<br />No output<br />Explanation:<br />The else part in which the printf is there becomes the else for if in the assert macro. Hence nothing is printed. <br />The solution is to use conditional operator instead of if statement,<br />#define assert(cond) ((cond)?(0): (fprintf (stderr, "assertion failed: \ %s, file %s, line %d \n",#cond, __FILE__,__LINE__), abort()))<br /><br />Note:<br />However this problem of “matching with nearest else” cannot be solved by the usual method of placing the if statement inside a block like this,<br />#define assert(cond) { \<br />if(!(cond)) \<br />(fprintf(stderr, "assertion failed: %s, file %s, line %d \n",#cond,\<br />__FILE__,__LINE__), abort()) \<br />}<br /><br />162) Is the following code legal?<br />struct a<br />{ <br />int x;<br />struct a b;<br />}<br />Answer:<br />No<br />Explanation:<br />Is it not legal for a structure to contain a member that is of the same<br />type as in this case. Because this will cause the structure declaration to be recursive without end.<br /><br />163) Is the following code legal?<br />struct a<br />{ <br />int x;<br />struct a *b;<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Yes.<br />Explanation:<br />*b is a pointer to type struct a and so is legal. The compiler knows, the size of the pointer to a structure even before the size of the structure<br />is determined(as you know the pointer to any type is of same size). This type of structures is known as ‘self-referencing’ structure.<br /><br />164) Is the following code legal?<br />typedef struct a<br />{ <br />int x;<br />aType *b;<br />}aType<br />Answer:<br />No<br />Explanation:<br />The typename aType is not known at the point of declaring the structure (forward references are not made for typedefs).<br /><br />165) Is the following code legal?<br />typedef struct a aType;<br />struct a<br />{ <br />int x;<br />aType *b;<br />};<br />Answer:<br />Yes<br />Explanation:<br />The typename aType is known at the point of declaring the structure, because it is already typedefined.<br /><br />166) Is the following code legal?<br />void main()<br />{<br />typedef struct a aType;<br />aType someVariable;<br />struct a<br />{ <br />int x;<br />aType *b;<br />};<br />}<br />Answer:<br />No<br />Explanation:<br />When the declaration,<br />typedef struct a aType;<br />is encountered body of struct a is not known. This is known as ‘incomplete types’.<br /><br />167) void main()<br />{<br />printf(“sizeof (void *) = %d \n“, sizeof( void *));<br />printf(“sizeof (int *) = %d \n”, sizeof(int *));<br />printf(“sizeof (double *) = %d \n”, sizeof(double *));<br />printf(“sizeof(struct unknown *) = %d \n”, sizeof(struct unknown *));<br />}<br />Answer :<br />sizeof (void *) = 2<br />sizeof (int *) = 2<br />sizeof (double *) = 2<br />sizeof(struct unknown *) = 2<br />Explanation:<br />The pointer to any type is of same size.<br /><br />168) char inputString[100] = {0};<br />To get string input from the keyboard which one of the following is better?<br />1) gets(inputString)<br />2) fgets(inputString, sizeof(inputString), fp)<br />Answer & Explanation:<br />The second one is better because gets(inputString) doesn't know the size of the string passed and so, if a very big input (here, more than 100 chars) the charactes will be written past the input string. When fgets is used with stdin performs the same operation as gets but is safe.<br /><br />169) Which version do you prefer of the following two,<br />1) printf(“%s”,str); // or the more curt one<br />2) printf(str);<br />Answer & Explanation:<br />Prefer the first one. If the str contains any format characters like %d then it will result in a subtle bug. <br /><br />170) void main()<br />{<br />int i=10, j=2;<br />int *ip= &i, *jp = &j;<br />int k = *ip/*jp;<br />printf(“%d”,k);<br />} <br />Answer: <br />Compiler Error: “Unexpected end of file in comment started in line 5”.<br />Explanation:<br />The programmer intended to divide two integers, but by the “maximum munch” rule, the compiler treats the operator sequence / and * as /* which happens to be the starting of comment. To force what is intended by the programmer,<br />int k = *ip/ *jp; <br />// give space explicity separating / and * <br />//or<br />int k = *ip/(*jp);<br />// put braces to force the intention <br />will solve the problem. <br /><br />171) void main()<br />{<br />char ch;<br />for(ch=0;ch<=127;ch++)<br />printf(“%c %d \n“, ch, ch);<br />}<br />Answer: <br />Implementaion dependent<br />Explanation:<br />The char type may be signed or unsigned by default. If it is signed then ch++ is executed after ch reaches 127 and rotates back to -128. Thus ch is always smaller than 127.<br /><br />172) Is this code legal?<br />int *ptr; <br />ptr = (int *) 0x400;<br />Answer: <br />Yes<br />Explanation:<br />The pointer ptr will point at the integer in the memory location 0x400.<br /><br />173) main()<br />{<br />char a[4]="HELLO";<br />printf("%s",a);<br />} <br />Answer: <br />Compiler error: Too many initializers<br />Explanation:<br />The array a is of size 4 but the string constant requires 6 bytes to get stored.<br /><br />174) main()<br />{ <br />char a[4]="HELL";<br />printf("%s",a);<br />}<br />Answer: <br />HELL%@!~@!@???@~~!<br />Explanation:<br />The character array has the memory just enough to hold the string “HELL” and doesnt have enough space to store the terminating null character. So it prints the HELL correctly and continues to print garbage values till it accidentally comes across a NULL character.<br /><br />175) main()<br />{ <br />int a=10,*j;<br />void *k; <br />j=k=&a;<br />j++; <br />k++;<br />printf("\n %u %u ",j,k);<br />} <br />Answer: <br />Compiler error: Cannot increment a void pointer<br />Explanation:<br />Void pointers are generic pointers and they can be used only when the type is not known and as an intermediate address storage type. No pointer arithmetic can be done on it and you cannot apply indirection operator (*) on void pointers.<br /><br />176) main()<br />{<br />extern int i;<br />{ int i=20;<br />{ <br />const volatile unsigned i=30; printf("%d",i); <br />}<br />printf("%d",i);<br />}<br />printf("%d",i);<br />} <br />int i;<br /><br />177) Printf can be implemented by using __________ list.<br />Answer: <br />Variable length argument lists<br />178) char *someFun()<br />{<br />char *temp = “string constant";<br />return temp;<br />}<br />int main()<br />{<br />puts(someFun());<br />}<br />Answer:<br />string constant <br />Explanation:<br />The program suffers no problem and gives the output correctly because the character constants are stored in code/data area and not allocated in stack, so this doesn’t lead to dangling pointers. <br /><br />179) char *someFun1()<br />{<br />char temp[ ] = “string";<br />return temp;<br />}<br />char *someFun2()<br />{<br />char temp[ ] = {‘s’, ‘t’,’r’,’i’,’n’,’g’};<br />return temp;<br />}<br />int main()<br />{<br />puts(someFun1());<br />puts(someFun2());<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Garbage values.<br />Explanation:<br />Both the functions suffer from the problem of dangling pointers. In someFun1() temp is a character array and so the space for it is allocated in heap and is initialized with character string “string”. This is created dynamically as the function is called, so is also deleted dynamically on exiting the function so the string data is not available in the calling function main() leading to print some garbage values. The function someFun2() also suffers from the same problem but the problem can be easily identified in this case.<br /><br />C++ Questions<br /><br />Note : All the programs are tested under Turbo C++ 3.0, 4.5 and Microsoft VC++ 6.0 compilers. <br />It is assumed that,<br />Ø Programs run under Windows environment,<br />Ø The underlying machine is an x86 based system,<br />Ø Program is compiled using Turbo C/C++ compiler.<br />The program output may depend on the information based on this assumptions (for example sizeof(int) == 2 may be assumed). <br /><br />1) class Sample<br />{<br />public:<br />int *ptr;<br />Sample(int i)<br />{<br />ptr = new int(i);<br />}<br />~Sample()<br />{<br />delete ptr;<br />}<br />void PrintVal()<br />{<br />cout << "The value is " << *ptr;<br />}<br />};<br />void SomeFunc(Sample x)<br />{<br />cout << "Say i am in someFunc " << endl;<br />}<br />int main()<br />{<br />Sample s1= 10;<br />SomeFunc(s1);<br />s1.PrintVal();<br />}<br />Answer:<br />Say i am in someFunc <br />Null pointer assignment(Run-time error)<br />Explanation:<br />As the object is passed by value to SomeFunc the destructor of the object is called when the control returns from the function. So when PrintVal is called it meets up with ptr that has been freed.The solution is to pass the Sample object by reference to SomeFunc:<br /><br />void SomeFunc(Sample &x)<br />{<br />cout << "Say i am in someFunc " << endl;<br />}<br />because when we pass objects by refernece that object is not destroyed. while returning from the function.<br /><br />2) Which is the parameter that is added to every non-static member function when it is called?<br />Answer:<br />‘this’ pointer<br /><br />3) class base<br />{<br />public:<br />int bval;<br />base(){ bval=0;}<br />};<br /><br />class deri:public base<br />{<br />public:<br />int dval;<br />deri(){ dval=1;}<br />};<br />void SomeFunc(base *arr,int size)<br />{<br />for(int i=0; i cout<bval;<br />cout<}<br /><br />int main()<br />{<br />base BaseArr[5];<br />SomeFunc(BaseArr,5);<br />deri DeriArr[5];<br />SomeFunc(DeriArr,5);<br />}<br /><br />Answer:<br />00000<br />01010<br />Explanation: <br />The function SomeFunc expects two arguments.The first one is a pointer to an array of base class objects and the second one is the sizeof the array.The first call of someFunc calls it with an array of bae objects, so it works correctly and prints the bval of all the objects. When Somefunc is called the second time the argument passed is the pointeer to an array of derived class objects and not the array of base class objects. But that is what the function expects to be sent. So the derived class pointer is promoted to base class pointer and the address is sent to the function. SomeFunc() knows nothing about this and just treats the pointer as an array of base class objects. So when arr++ is met, the size of base class object is taken into consideration and is incremented by sizeof(int) bytes for bval (the deri class objects have bval and dval as members and so is of size >= sizeof(int)+sizeof(int) ). <br /><br />4) class base<br />{<br />public:<br />void baseFun(){ cout<<"from base"< };<br />class deri:public base<br />{<br />public:<br />void baseFun(){ cout<< "from derived"< };<br />void SomeFunc(base *baseObj)<br />{<br />baseObj->baseFun();<br />}<br />int main()<br />{<br />base baseObject;<br />SomeFunc(&baseObject);<br />deri deriObject;<br />SomeFunc(&deriObject);<br />}<br />Answer:<br />from base<br />from base<br />Explanation:<br />As we have seen in the previous case, SomeFunc expects a pointer to a base class. Since a pointer to a derived class object is passed, it treats the argument only as a base class pointer and the corresponding base function is called. <br /><br />5) class base<br />{<br />public:<br />virtual void baseFun(){ cout<<"from base"< };<br />class deri:public base<br />{<br />public:<br />void baseFun(){ cout<< "from derived"< };<br />void SomeFunc(base *baseObj)<br />{<br />baseObj->baseFun();<br />}<br />int main()<br />{<br />base baseObject;<br />SomeFunc(&baseObject);FRESHERhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/03154154368670178574noreply@blogger.com0